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An Annual Biographical Dictionary. Containing about 
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WHO WAS WHO, 1897-1916 

The biographies of those in " Who's Who " who have 
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Mention of the Saints of the Catholic Church very frequently occurs 
both in general reading and as having given their names to churches, 
towns, villages and topographical features. The object of this com- 
pilation is to enable the personage referred to readily to be identified. 
Nothing more is attempted in this volume. Of a certain number of the 
Saints detailed Lives have been published in English. Of many more 
full accounts in other languages, particularly in French and Italian, are 
easily accessible. Again, there are several good and reliable Series of 
Lives of the more prominent Saints. The best known of these to English- 
speaking people is Alban Butler's Lives of the Saints, an eighteenth century 
work which has been many times reprinted. In no language, however, 
does there exist any exhaustive work of the kind ; nor in the nature of 
things can there be. The nearest approach thereto we have is the Latin 
" Acta Sanctorum " of the Bollandists, a body of Jesuit Fathers gathered 
together in Belgium for the special purpose of carefully sifting and repro- 
ducing all documents bearing historically on the life and cultus after 
death of each individual Saint. Of their work, begun in the seventeenth 
century by a certain Father Bolland, nearly seventy huge folio volumes 
have appeared. It is still far from complete, and on account of the 
results of modern historical research in many places needs development 
and extensive revision. Moreover, of no small number of canonised 
Saints no record at all now remains. We have to be content with proof 
that in bygone times they were popularly honoured as Saints, and by the 
Church formally recognised as such. Nor is it even possible to estimate 
the number of God's servants whom the Church has at one place or 
another venerated as Saints. In the first Ages of Christianity canonisation 
was effected in each country by the joint act of one or more Bishops 
and their people. Of this act they left as a rule sufficient testimony by 
dedicating a church in honour of the new Saint, whose name it thenceforth 
bore, and by instituting an annual festival in his honour. From about 
the eleventh century the procedure began to be systemised and centralised, 
with the result that canonising is now reserved exclusively to the Holy 


See. The legislation of Pope Alexander III in the twelfth century and of 
Urban VIII in the seventeenth has firmly established this principle. 

The present process of Canonisation is exceedingly complex. It 
consists in the first place of a thorough investigation into all the particulars 
that can be ascertained of the life and death of the alleged Saint, all facts 
connected with whose career, both public and private, together with all 
his utterances and writings, are tested in every way. He must be shown 
to have been God-fearing, pious, just in his dealings, patient, self-denying, 
charitable, and so on, far above the average of ordinary good men. In 
this, as in all subsequent stages of the procedure, every witness is examined 
under oath and in the presence of a trained Church lawyer, who is obliged 
to urge all the objections he can think of, and who is at liberty not only 
to cross-examine the witnesses put forward but to call any number of 
others he pleases in order to rebut their testimony. Supposing the 
judgment of the Court of First Instance to be favourable, the case goes 
for retrial to a higher tribunal. In these proceedings not only are witnesses 
called to testify to individual facts, but particular stress is put upon 
the popular verdict concerning the alleged Saint, that is, upon the repute 
in which he was held by those who may have had dealings with him or 
had opportunities of forming an opinion about him. Depositions of all 
kinds must be gathered together with as little delay as possible, and duly 
sworn to ; but in order to guard against mere enthusiasm playing any 
part in the matter, at one stage of the proceedings a surcease of at least 
ten years is enjoined. 

The above official enquiry into the conduct in life and virtues of the 
deceased Christian for whom the supreme honour of canonisation is 
claimed is deemed unnecessary only in the case of a Martyr, that is, 
of one of the Faithful who has deliberately laid down his life rather than 
deny Christ. In his case it has to be fully proved that he was put to 
death on account of his religion, and not because he was guilty of some 
political or other crime, true or only alleged. 

Canonisation is the official recognition by the Church of the fact that 
one of her children has won his place in Heaven ; and since Almighty 
God alone can make known this fact to mankind every canonisation 
essentially depends on proof that miracles have been wrought in witness 
thereto. It must be shown that because of the alleged Saint the laws of 
Nature have by Almighty God in some particular instances been overruled. 
This, from the circumstances of the happening, may well bear testimony 
to the fact, otherwise unascertainable, that a servant of God deceased 
is already among those who in the glory of Heaven are yet mindful of 
their fellow-creatures on earth, and are interceding with God on their 
behalf. Among the miracles required for a canonisation are such wonders 
as the giving sight to the blind, hearing to the deaf, instantaneous healing 


of the sick, raising of the dead to life, the very wonders wrought by 
Christ and His disciples in proof of the truth of the revelation they an- 
nounced to mankind. Clear proof of at least four miracles is required 
as a condition of canonisation. It must be shown in each case that the 
fact alleged as miraculous has really taken place, that it cannot be ex- 
plained away or attributed to any natural cause, and that the miracle 
directly followed upon an appeal made to Almighty God through His 
servant departed this life. All possible objections are freely urged and 
have to be fully answered. In cases of alleged miraculous healing of the 
sick competent medical experts are called in and all theories advanced 
by them patiently discussed. It cannot be wondered at that a great 
number of alleged miracles, perhaps the major part, are rejected, the 
limits of the powers of Nature being so little known to us and so great 
allowance having to be made for the play of imagination, and for what 
there may be of truth in processes of purely natural " Faith -healing." 

Usually, the procedure in Causes of canonisation takes many years 
to complete ; for there are numerous hearings and rehearings to be 
allowed for. A first stage is that of " Beatification," which is reached 
on proof of extraordinary holiness of life and of two miracles. In modern 
procedure this is rarely reached within fifty years of the death of the 
Saint. At Beatification, permission is given for local veneration. For 
Canonisation proper, proof of two more miracles wrought since Beatifica- 
tion is demanded. The Servant of God is then enrolled in the Canon of 
Saints, his or her name being inserted in the Roman Martyrology or 
official catalogue of Saints proposed to the veneration of the Universal 

The Roman Martyrology contains about five thousand entries ; 
but in the case of the Martyrs of the first centuries of Christianity, they 
often appear in groups, the name of only the leaders of each band of 
heroes being registered. It is impossible to reckon up the number of 
holy men and women reputed and locally honoured as Saints in various 
places during the many ages which preceded the formulating the minute 
rules for the Process of Canonisation which have obtained for the last 
few centuries. In many instances the claims of those commonly and 
from early times styled Saints have in modern times been officially en- 
quired into with the result that their cultus has been sanctioned ; in others, 
as, for example, that of the famous Christian writer, Clement of Alexandria, 
who flourished and died about a.d. 216, the claim has been disallowed. 
This does not mean that the Church condemns or repudiates the indi- 
vidual ; but only that She has no proof that he was a Saint in the strict 
sense of the word. 

But there are many hundreds of " Saints " whose claims to that title 
rest on the traditional veneration accorded them from ancient times, and 


witnessed to in many cases by the Dedication of churches in their honour, 
but of the legitimacy of whose canonisation, from dearth of documents 
or for other reason, no proof is now extant. These remain with that 
recognition only which was given them by the ancient Bishops and 
peoples, their contemporaries, but with a strict prohibition of any extension 
of their cultus. 

Although the scope of this book of reference only admits of the cata- 
loguing of Saints of some prominence, an endeavour has been made to 
include, in addition to the Saints of the Roman Martyrology, all others 
generally known, at least by name, especially those who have given place- 
names to towns or villages in the British Isles. 

Liturgically, Saints are classified as Apostles, Martyrs, Bishops or 
Confessors (Saints who were neither Bishops nor Martyrs) ; similarly 
female Saints are Martyrs, Virgins, Widows, Penitents, etc. These 
designations have been added (as far as needful) in every instance. 

In regard to the more ancient Saints, considerable difficulty is often 
occasioned by the varying spelling of the Saint's name. Certain names 
indeed are at first sight all but unrecognisable. St. Olaus or Olave 
corrupted into Tooley, and St. Vedast written Foster, are examples. 

Again, the early converts to Christianity often changed their names 
on receiving Baptism. Saul of Tarsus, our St. Paul, at once occurs to 
the mind. The new names assumed were ordinarily Greek or Latin 
nouns significant of some virtue or quality. Hence, the countless SS. 
Eusebius, Victor, Justus, Probus, etc. Later too, when Christianity 
spread among the then Barbarians of Northern and Western Europe, 
for Teutonic and Celtic appellations Latin forms were frequently sub- 
stituted. Thus the Anglo-Saxon Winfried is the famous St. Boniface, 
Apostle of Germany. 

From confusion of names have arisen difficulties and uncertainties in 
distinguishing the early Saints, when more or less contemporaries, the 
one from the other, and frequent mistakes made by Mediaeval biographers. 
We find at times a single happening attributed by one writer to one 
Saint and by another writer to another Saint of the same or similar name ; 
and on the other hand a personage with two names is at times presented 
to us as two distinct individuals. But in the accounts we have of Saints 
who have lived within the last thousand years these errors scarcely occur, 
and the official or approved Lives of Saints of the Middle Ages and of 
modern times may be taken as substantially accurate. 

As the present compilation aims at no more than the stretching of 
the historical framework of a Saint's life, the sifting of the details elaborated 
by the chroniclers of the old legends does not occur. Similarly, it has 
not been deemed necessary specially to particularise the miracles which 
in every case have borne witness to the holy man or woman's right to 


a place in a catalogue of Saints. In the main (as stated above) these 
miracles are of the kind performed by our Blessed Lord and his Apostles. 
Their occurrence from time to time was foretold by Him : : ' They shall 
cast out devils. They shall speak with new tongues. They shall take 
up serpents ; and if they shall drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt 
them. They shall lay their hands on the sick and they shall recover " 
(Mark xvi. 17, 18). Or again, the supernatural power abides in their 
earthly remains : " They cast the body into the sepulchre of Eliseus. 
And when it had touched the bones of Eliseus, the man came to life and 
stood upon his feet " (4 Kings xiii. 21). Wonders like to this last take 
place in the twentieth century, even as they did in past ages ; and they 
justify the veneration which the Catholic Church teaches her children 
to be due to the relics of God's Saints. 

In the Lives of the Saints, fulfilments of Christ's prophecy are fre- 
quently recorded either as effected by the Saint himself in life or as 
occurring after his death in response to a call upon him for help. 

Lastly, in going over one by one the names of Saints specially and 
publicly venerated as such by the Church of God on earth, it must never 
be forgotten that they form but a small proportion of the " great multi- 
tude which no man can number of all nations and tribes and peoples and 
tongues, standing before the throne and in sight of the Lamb, clothed 
with white robes and palms in their hands " (Apoc. vii. 9). We rely on 
the intercession of all the Blessed in Heaven, for " the prayers of all 
are offered, upon the golden Altar which is before the throne of God " 
(Apoc. viii. 3). 


Bp. - Bishop. MM. = Martyrs. 

Bl. = Saint beatified, but V. = Virgin, 

not yet canonised. VV. = Virgins. 
M. = Martyr. 



Note. * To names of Saints not included up to the present date in the ROMAN 
MARTYROLOGY, the Official Church Register, an asterisk is prefixed. 


♦AARON (St.) Abbot. (June 21) 

(6th cent.) A Briton who crossing into 
Armorica (Bretagne) founded a monastery in 
an island called after him, until in the twelfth 
century it took the name of St. Malo, St. 
Aaron's most famous disciple. 

AARON (St.) M. (July 1) 


AARON (St.) High Priest of the Old Law. (July 1) 
(15th cent. B.C.) The great grandson of 
Levi, son of Jacob, and the first of the Jewish 
High Priests, to which office he was appointed 
by God Himself. He was the brother of 
Moses, the Hebrew Lawgiver, with whom he 
shared the leadership of the people of Israel. 
Like Moses, he never entered the land of 
Promise ; but died on Mount Hor, on the 
borders of Edom. He was succeeded by his 
son Eliezer (B.C. 1471) In art he is represented 
with a rod in flower, a censer and a Jewish 
mitre. The Book of Exodus contains all that 
we know concerning him. 

ABACHUM (St.) M. (Jan. 19) 


*ABB (St.) V. (Aug. 25) 

Otherwise St. EBB A, which see. 

*ABBAN of KILL-ABBAN (St.) Abbot. (Mch. 16) 

(5th cent.) An Irish Saint, contemporary 

of St. Patrick and nephew of St. Ibar. He 

was the Founder of Kill-Abban Abbey (Lein- 

♦ABBAN of MAGH-ARMUIDHE (St.) (Oct. 27) 


(6th cent.) A nephew of St. Kevin, and 
Founder of many monasteries, mostly in the 
South of Ireland. Butler and others con- 
fuse the two Saints Abban. Of neither have 
we reliable Lives. 
•ABBO (St.) M. (Nov. 13) 

(10th cent.) A French Benedictine monk 
of literary attainments rare in the age in which 
he lived, who was invited by St. Oswald of 
Worcester to preside over the community he 
had founded at Ramsey Abbey. After the 
death of St. Oswald St. Abbo returned to 
France and became Abbot of Fleury on the 
Loire. He afterwards conducted skilfully and 
successfully various negotiations between the 
Holy See and the King of France. He lost his 
life while endeavouring to stop a riot (a.d. 
1004), and by his people was at once honoured 
as a Martyr. 

ABDAS (St.) M. (May 16) 

Otherwise St. AUDAS, which see. 

ABDECALAS (St.) M. (April 21) 

(4th cent.) A Persian of advanced age who, 
together with another priest, St. Ananias, 
and about a hundred Christians, was a fellow- 
sufferer with St. Simeon, Archbishop of 
Seleucia and Ctesiphon, under the tyrant King 
Sapor II. They were put to death as Christians 
on Good Friday, A.d. 345. The Greek historian 
Sozomen reckons at sixteen thousand the 
number of the Faithful in Persia who laid 
down their lives for Christ during the forty 
years of the reign of Sapor. 

ABDIAS (OBADIAH) (St.) Prophet. (Nov. 19) 
(9th cent. B.C.) Abdis (Servant of the Lord) 
is the fourth of the twelve minor prophets, and 
is generally supposed to have been a contem- 
porary of Osee (Hosea), Joel and Amos. But 
some identify him with Achab's steward (3 
Kings, xviii. 3), making him much more 
ancient. His prophetic writings are short and 
are contained in a single chapter of twenty-five 
verses. He foretells the destruction of Edom 
on account of the pride of the Idumaeans and 
of the wrongs they had done to the Jews. 

ABDIESUS (HEBEDJESUS) (St.) M. (April 22) 
(4th cent.) Styled a deacon in the Roman 
Martyrology, he was one of the vast multitude 
of Persians (named and unnamed), who by the 
savage edict of their King Sapor were called to 
the crown of martyrdom. This persecution 
raged from A.D. 341 to a.d. 380, that is, at 
intervals during the last forty years of Sapor's 

ABDON and SENNEN (SS.) MM. (July 30) 

(3rd cent.) Two Persian nobles who, com- 
ing to Rome, or rather brought thither as 
captives by Decius, when returning from his 
first successful campaign against the Persians, 
under the Emperor Gordian, devoted them- 
selves to the service of the imprisoned Christians 
and to the reverent interring of the bodies of 
the Martyrs. They were themselves thrown 
to the wild beasts in the Amphitheatre in the 
persecution decreed by Decius when he became 
Emperor (a.d. 250). They were long grate- 
fully remembered by the Christians of Rome 
and are still annually commemorated in the 
Liturgy of the Church. The details given 
concerning them in the otherwise doubtful 
Acts of St. Laurence the Martyr, their con- 
temporary, seem fairly trustworthy. 

♦ABEL (Thomas) (St.) M. (July 30) 

A 1 



ABERCIUS (St.) Bp. (Oct. 22) 

(2nd cent.) Bishop of Hierapolis in Phrygia 
(Asia Minor) in which See he is reported to 
have succeeded the famous Papias. He was 
zealous against Paganism, and appears to have 
suffered imprisonment on that account under 
the philosophic Emperor Marcus Aurelius. 
But a miracle wrought by him in favour of her 
daughter secured him the protection of the 
Empress Faustina, and he returned to die in 
peace at Hierapolis (about a.d. 167), after 
following on his journeys one of the routes 
traced out by the Apostle St. Paul, everywhere 
preaching, baptising and healing the sick. 
His epitaph, composed by himself, discovered 
in 1882 and now in the Vatican Museum, is 
one of the most interesting Christian monu- 
ments of the second century. 

ABIBO (ABIBAS) (St.) Conf. (Aug. 3) 

(1st cent.) The second son of Gamaliel 
(Acts v. 24 ; xxii. 3), at whose feet St. Paul 
had sat. Following his father's example, he 
embraced the Christian Faith and lived an 
unsullied life to his eightieth year. His 
body was buried near that of St. Stephen, the 
First Martyr, at Capergamela, a town distant 
about twenty miles from Jerusalem. The 
Church commemorates annually the anni- 
versary (Aug. 3) of the Finding (A.D. 415) of 
the bodies of the four Saints, Stephen, Gamaliel, 
Nicodemus and Abibo, there interred. 

ABIBUS (St.) M. (Nov. 15) 

(4th cent.) A Martyr at Edessa in Syria 
under the Emperor Licinius (a.d. 316). He 
was burned to death at the stake. 

ABILIUS (St.) Bp. (Feb. 22) 

(First cent.) The third Bishop, in suc- 
cession to SS. Mark and Anianus, of Alex- 
andria in Egypt, to which See he was advanced 
A.D. 84, and over which he presided for thirteen 
years. The particulars of his life and Episco- 
pate have been lost. 

*ABRA (ABRE) (St.) V. (Dec. 13) 

(4th cent.) A daughter of St. Hilary of 
Poitiers, born before his father's conversion. 
Following her father's advice, she consecrated 
herself to God as a nun ; but died (a.d. 361) 
when only in her eighteenth year. 

♦ABRAHAM (ABRAAMIUS) (St.) Bp. M (Feb. 5) 
(4th cent.) Bishop of Abela in Assyria, 
a place famous for the victory there of Alex- 
ander the Great over the Persians. St. 
Abraham was put to death (a.d. 348) by the 
persecuting King Sapor II. 

♦ABRAHAM (ABRAAMES) (St.) Bp. (Feb. 14) 
(5th cent.) A famous Solitary of Mount 
Lebanon, who, as Bishop of Carrhes (Charan), 
showed himself a zealous pastor of souls and, 
later, did much work useful to the Church at 
the Court of the Emperor Theodosius the 
Younger. He died at Constantinople, a.d. 422. 

ABRAHAM (St.) Conf. (March 16) 

(4th cent.) A hermit of Edessa and native 
of Chidana in Mesopotamia, famous for his 
austerity of life, for his fruitful preaching and 
for the miraculous conversion of his niece, 
venerated with him as St. Mary. His life was 
written by St. Ephrem and he is honoured in 
all the Liturgies. He died about A.D. 360. . 

ABRAHAM (St.) Conf. (June 18) 

(5th cent.) A Syrian Saint who on a journey 
to Egypt to visit the Solitaries of the desert was 
seized by a band of robbers and remained five 
years in bonds. He succeeded in the end in 
escaping and making his way to the coast. 
There he boarded a ship bound for Gaul, where 
he settled near Clermont in Auvergne. Numer- 
ous disciples gathered round him for whom he 
built a monastery. He died, famous for 
miracles, a.d. 472. 

ABRAHAM (St.) Patriarch. (Oct. 9) 

(19th and 20th cent. B.C.) The Father of all 

believers, and the progenitor, according to the 

flesh, of the Hebrew nation. He is also the 

father of Ismael, from whom the Ismaelites or 

Arabs are descended. When seventy years of 
age, he went forth from Babylonia, his native 
land, at God's bidding, to dwell henceforth in 
Canaan, the land flowing with milk and honey 
promised to his seed. There, he led a pastoral 
and nomad life. Moreover, God made a 
covenant with him, changing his name from 
Abram to Abraham (Father of nations), promis- 
ing at the same time that his descendants 
should be more numerous than the stars of 
Heaven and that in his seed all peoples should 
be blessed. Of him Our Lord said : " Abraham 
rejoiced that he might see my day ; He saw it 
and was glad " (John viii. 56). All through 
their eventful history it was the glory of the 
Jewish people to claim descent from him and 
from his son and grandson, Isaac and Jacob. 
To them, in words spoken to Moses (Exod. iii. 
6), God was the God of Abraham, Isaac and 
Jacob. The Patriarch died in Palestine at the 
age of one hundred and seventy-five years 
(B.C. 1821). These and similar Old Testament 
dates are given according to the traditional 
Chronology ; but are still disputed. 

♦ABROSIMUS (St.) M. (April 22) 

(4th cent.) A Persian priest stoned to death, 
with many of his flock, under King Sapor II, 
A.D. 341. 

ABSALON (St.) M. (March 2) 


ABUDEMIUS (St.) M. (July 15) 

(4th cent.) A native of the Island of Tenedos 
in the Mge&n Sea who, after enduring frightful 
torture, was there put to death as a Christian 
in the persecution under the Emperor Diocletian 
and his colleagues in the first years of the 
fourth century. 

ABUNDANTIUS (St.) M. (March 1) 

See SS. LEO, DONATUS, &c. 

ABUNDANTIUS (St.) M. (Sept. 16) 


ABUNDIUS (St.) M. (Feb. 27) 


ABUNDIUS (St.) Bp. (April 2) 

(5th cent.) A celebrated Bishop of Como in 
North Italy, charged by Pope St. Leo the Great 
with the important mission to the Emperor 
Theodosius the Younger which resulted in the 
convocation of the great Council of Chalcedon 
(a.d. 451) and in the final condemnation of the 
heresiarch Eutyches, who denied the two-fold 
Nature of Christ God-Man (whence his followers 
have their name of Monophysites — assertors 
of One Nature only). St. Abundius died 
a.d. 469. He is often represented in art in the 
act of raising a dead man to life, one of the 
miracles he wrought and which led to his 
enrolment in the catalogue of Saints. 

ABUNDIUS (St.) Conf. (April 14) 

(6th cent.) A Sacristan of the Church of 
St. Peter in Borne St. Gregory the Great 
makes mention of his humble but Divinely 
favoured life. He is said to have passed away 
about the year 564. 

ABUNDIUS (St.) M. (July 11) 

(9th cent.) A Parish priest of a mountain 
village near Cordova in Spain during the 
Moorish domination. He entertained no thought 
of martyrdom, but found himself in the year 
854 suddenly drawn into the conflict, and, 
laying his head on the block, made a glorious 
sacrifice of his lfe for the Christian Faith. 

ABUNDIUS (St.) M. (Aug. 26) 


JOHN (SS.) MM. (Sept. 16) 

(3rd or 4th cent.) Abundius, a Roman 
Priest, and Abundantius, his deacon, had 
converted to Christianity Marcian, a citizen 
of distinction, by miraculously raising to life 
his son John. The Emperor Diocletian, in- 
formed of what had happened, ordered all four 
to be beheaded together, without the walls of 
the Imperial City. The precise date, between 
the years 274 and 308 is uncertain. 



ABUNDIUS (St.) M. (Dec. 10) 

ABUNDIUS (St.) M. (Dec. 14) 

ACACIUS (St.) M. (Nov. 27) 

ACACIUS (ACHATES) (St.) Bp. (March 31) 

(3rd cent.) Surnamed Agathangelus (Good 
Angel). A Bishop in Phrygia (Asia Minor) 
who in the Decian persecution (a.d. 250) became 
famous for having by his prudence and con- 
stancy so impressed the tyrant as to obtain 
his discharge from custody. It is not known 
how long he survived. He is held in great 
veneration in the East. 
ACATHIUS (St.) M (May 8) 

(4th cent ) A Christian centurion in the 
Roman army, tortured and beheaded at 
Constantinople under Diocletian (a.d. 303). 
Constantine the Great built a noble church 
in his honour. He is the St. Agazio venerated 
at Squillace in Calabria. 
ACATHIUS (ACACIUS) (St.) Bp. (April 9) 

(5th cent.) A Bishop of Amida in Meso- 
potamia, distinguished for his compassionate 
charity to the Persian prisoners taken in their 
successful invasion of Persia by the Romans of 
Constantinople in the reign of King Bahram 
(or Varannes) V, who is said chiefly on that 
account to have ceased for a time from perse- 
cuting the Christians. St. Acathius died some 
time after a.d. 421. Some of his letters are 
still extant. 


*ACCA (St.) Bp. (Oct. 20) 

(8th cent.) A disciple of Bosa of York and 

of St. Wilfrid, and successor of the latter Saint 

at Hexham. St. Acca was held in the highest 

veneration by Venerable Bede. He seems to 

have died (a.d. 740), perhaps in exile, or 

shortly after his return to Hexham. A solemn 

Translation of his relics took place three 

centuries later. St. Acca was certainly one of 

the most learned Anglo-Saxon prelates of his 


ACCURTIUS (St.) M. (Jan. 16) 

ACEPSIMAS (St.) Bp. M. (April 22) 

(4th cent.) A venerable old man, Bishop of 
Honita in Assyria, who was imprisoned, tortured 
and put to death by King Sapor II of Persia, 
between a.d. 341 and A.d. 380. 
ACESTES (St.) M. (July 2) 

(1st cent.) One of the three soldiers that 
tradition tells us were converted by St. Paul, 
while acting as guards at his execution. They 
sealed their Faith with their own blood, a few 
davs later (July 2, A..D. 67). 
ACHARD (St.) Abbot. (Sept. 15) 

Otherwise St. AICHARDUS, ivhkJi see. 
ACHE and ACHEUL (SS.) MM. (May 1) 

Otherwise SS. ACIUS and ACEOLUS, which 
ACHILLAS (St.) Bp. (Nov. 7) 

(4th cent.) The Patriarch of Alexandria who 
succeeded St. Peter the Martyr. Deceived by 
the hypocrisy of the afterwards notorious 
heretic Arius, he ordained him priest. Two 
years later (a.d. 313) St. Achillas passed away, 
reverenced by all for his many virtues, and 
had for his successor St. Alexander, who was 
followed by the great St. Athanasius. 
ACHILLES (St.) (May 15) 

(4th cent.) A Bishop of Larissa in Thessaly, 
who died a.d. 331 and is venerated in the East 
as a Saint. 
ACHILLEUS (St.) M. (April 23) 

ACHILLEUS (St.) M. (May 12) 


MM. (May 1) 

(3rd cent.) Martyrs near Amiens (France) 

early in the reign of Diocletian. Several 

churches have been built in their honour, and 
they are regarded as Patron Saints of more 
than one village. But trustworthy particulars 
of their career are lacking. 

ACINDYNUS (St.) M. (April 20) 




MM. (Nov. 2) 

(4th cent.) Persian Christians who suffered 

for the Faith under King Sapor II, about 

a.d. 345. From MSS. in the Vatican and 

Imperial (Vienna) Libraries, the Bollandists 

have published a Greek narrative of the Passion 

of St. Acindynus and his companions, from 

which it would appear that all or nearly all of 

them were priests or clerics. 


(4th cent.) A brother and sister who, arrested 
as Christians, underwent many cruel tortures 
before being beheaded, under Diocletian, at 
Cordova (a.d. 304). Their cultus is widespread 
in Spain. 

ACUTIUS (St.) M. (Sept. 19) 


ACYLLINUS (St.) M. (July 17) 


All these prefixes to names of Teutonic origin 
are more or less interchangeable. Thus, St. 
Etheldreda, St. Ediltrudis, St. Audrey, are one 
and the same personage. That which appears 
the more usual manner of spelling a Saint's name 
in English has, as a rule, been followed in these 
pages in each case. In Latinising Proper 
Names, mediaeval writers usually substitute D 
for TH, or simply omit the H. So, the letter T, 
especially in terminations, has a tendency to be 
replaced by C. Again, the terminations BERT 
and BRIGHT are mere variants. Thus, we 
talk of St. Cuthbert. but we write Kirkcudbright 
for the town that takes its appellation from him. 
FREDE, &c, are undistinguishable. 

Abbot. (Jan. 2) 

(9th cent.) An Abbot of Corbie (France), 
related to the Emperor Charlemagne and one 
of his chief ministers and advisers. At one 
time he lost the favour of that monarch's son 
and successor, Louis the Pious, and was ban- 
ished. On his return, he gave himself entirely 
to the discharge of his monastic duties, dying 
at Corbie, a.d. 827, at the age of seventy-three. 
During his tenure of office he founded the great 
Abbev of New Corbie in Saxony. 

*ADALBALD (St.) Conf. (Feb. 2) 

(7th cent.) A pious nobleman of the Court 
of King Clovis II of France. He was the 
husband of St. Rictrude, and, like their parents, 
their four children are publicly venerated as 
Saints. St. Adalbald was murdered while on 
a journey (A.D. 645), under circumstances which 
have led to his being honoured in many places 
as a Martyr. 

ADALBERT (St.) Bp., M. (April 23) 

(10th cent.) One of the Patron Saints of 
Bohemia and Poland. A Bohemian bv birth, 
consecrated in his infancy to Our "Blessed 
Lady, he was educated by Adalbert, Arch- 
bishop of Magdeburg and, on his return to 
Bohemia, was ordained priest by Diethmar, 
Archbishop of Prague, whom he succeeded 
shortly afterwards. Driven from Prague, he 
retired for a time to the Abbey of St. Boniface 
in Rome ; and after vain efforts to re-enter 
his own Diocese, directed his zeal to the conver- 
sion of Hungary, Poland and Prussia. His 
missionary success was great, and his labours 
only ceased on his receiving the crown of 
martyrdom at Dantzig (a.d. 997). 

♦ADALSINDIS (St.) V. " (Dec. 24) 

(8th cent.) One of the daughters of SS. 

Adalbald and Rictrudis, who sanctified herself 

in the monastery of Hamay, of which her own 



sister, St. Eusebia, was Abbess. A.D. 715 is 
given as the year of her death. 

♦ADAMNAN (St.) Conf. (Jan. 31) 

(7th cent.) A monk of Coklingham Abbey in 
the Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria. He 
expiated by a long life of austerities and prayer 
the sins of his youth, and deserved well of the 
Church by co-operating with St. Ebba in 
reforming the discipline of the convent which 
she had founded and over which she presided 
to the day of her death. St. Adamnan himself 
passed away about the vear 679. 
ADAMNAN (ADAM) (St.) Abbot. (Sept. 6) 

(8th cent.) An Irish Abbot of Iona in Scot- 
land — " a wise and good man, well versed in 
the Holy Scriptures " — best known by the 
Life of St. Columba he has left and by a descrip- 
tion of the Holy Places of Palestine which he 
compiled. He was remarkable for his success 
in procuring in Scotland and Ireland the 
adoption of the Roman practice as to the date 
of Easter. He died A.D. 704. Whether or 
not he is one and the same with St. Eunan 
the Patron Saint of the Diocese of Raphoe in 
Ireland, remains an open question. His name 
has been popularly abbreviated into Adam, 
and is still frequently given in Scotland at 

ADAUCUS (ADAUCTUS) (St.) M. (Feb. 7) 

(4th cent.) By birth an Italian, and an 
Imperial favourite at the Court of the pitiless 
Diocletian, who sacrificed him on discovering 
his religion. He was executed in Phrygia 
(A.D. 304), and had a number of companions 
in his Martyrdom, some of M'hom were of 
senatorial or other high rank. Among them 
there were also manv women and children. 
Historians attribute the special barbarity of 
the tortures he endured rather to the savageness 
of Galerius, Diocletian's colleague, than to the 
evil disposition of the old Emperor himself. 

ADAUCTUS (St.) M. (July 30) 


(4th cent.) Ephesians, one of whom, St. 
Adauctus, suffered under the tyrant Maximinus 
Daza, about the year 312. The Martyr's 
daughter, Callisthene, escaped and lived a 
saintly life, devoted to works of charity, till her 
death at Ephesus. 

*ADELA (St.) Widow. (Sept. 8) 

(11th cent.) The wife of Count Baldwin IV 
of Flanders who, after her husband's death, 
took the veil at the hands of Pope Alexander II 
(A.D. 1067) and retired to the Benedictine Abbey 
of Messines, near Ipres, where she died a.d. 

♦ADELA and IRMINA (SS.) VV. (Dec. 24) 

(7th and 8th cent.) Two sisters, daughters 
of Dagobert, King of the Franks, for whom he 
founded a monastery at Treves, where their 
devotedness to the service of the poor led to their 
being after their deaths honoured as Saints. 

♦ADELAIDE (ADELHEID) (St.) Empress. (Dec. 16) 
(10th cent.) A Burgundian princess, wife of 
Lothaire, King of Italy, and, after his death 
and much persecution patiently endured, 
married to Otho, Emperor of Germany. She 
was an able woman and, especially during her 
second widowhood and guardianship of her 
grandson, Otho III, rendered great services 
to Church and State, acting as the Peacemaker 
of Europe in that lawless age. It is said of 
St. Adelaide that " she never forgot a kindness, 
nor ever remembered an injury." In the end 
she retired to a monastery in Alsace, where she 
died A.D. 999. 

ADELBERT (St.) Conf. (June 25) 

(8th cent.) A Northumbrian by birth and 
said to have been of royal blood. He became 
a disciple of St. Egbert and afterwards joined 
St. Willebrord, in the latter's Apostolate of 
Holland. He was made Archdeacon of the 
recently founded See of Utrecht and died at 
Egmund about A.D. 740. 

*ADELELMUS (St.) Abbot. (Jan. 30) 

(11th cent.) A French monk, who, having 
given great proofs of skill and piety in the govern- 
ment of his Abbey was called to Spain by King 
Alphonsus V and there re-established good 
order and monastic discipline in the monasteries 
committed to his charge. The date of his 
death early in the twelfth century is uncertain. 

♦ADELHEID (St.) V. (Feb. 5) 

(11th cent.) An Abbess of Villich (Gueldres), 
a saintly nun, who passed away A.D. 1015. 

♦ADELHEID (St.) Empress. (Dec. 16) 

Otherwise St. ADELAIDE, ivhich see. 

♦ADELOGA (HADELOGA) (St.) V. (Feb. 2) 

(8th cent.) A Frankish Princess, daughter 

of the famous Charles Martel, and foundress 

of the great Abbey of Kitzingen, under the 

Rule of St. Benedict (A.D. 745). 

ADELPHIUS (St.) Bp. (Aug. 29) 

(5th cent.) The successor of St. Rufus in 
the See of Metz, which Diocese he governed for 
seventeen years, converting many pagans to 
Christianity. But nothing certain concerning 
him is known ; and it is only conjeeturally that 
he is dated in the fifth century. His cultus at 
Metz from early ages is, however, indisputable ; 
and the Solemn Translation of his relics to 
Neuweiler in Alsace in the ninth century was 
the occasion of great popular rejoicings. 


Saints of this name are better known as 


(2nd cent.) A Greek by birth and the first 
successor of St. Apollinaris (the missionary sent 
thither by the Apostle St. Peter) in the See of 
Ravenna, where he died early in the second 
century. No reliable account of his life now 
exists. His body, originally buried outside 
the walls of Ravenna, was in the Middle Ages 
enshrined in one of the chief churches of the 

ADILIA (St.) V. (Dec. 13) 

Otherwise St. OTHILIA or ODILIA, which 

♦ADJUTOR (AJUTRE). (April 30) 

(12th cent.) A Norman knight who took 
part in the Crusades, and, on his return from 
the Holy Land, led the life of a hermit at 
Vernon on the river Seine, where he died (A.D. 

ADJUTOR (St.) Conf. (Sept. 1) 


ADJUTOR (St.) M. (Dec. 18) 


ADJUTUS (St.) M. (Jan. 16) 


ADJUTUS (St.) Conf. (Dec. 19) 

(Date uncertain.) Described as Abbot of 
Orleans and often assigned to as early as the 
fifth century. He is inscribed as ADJUTUS 
in the Roman Martyrology ; but French authors 
mostly style him AVITUS or AVY. The 
learned Mabillon holds, in accordance with 
Baronius, that there were really two Abbots 
of this name in the Orleanais, the one of Perche, 
the other of Micy, both honoured as Saints. 
Neither of course must be confused with the 
much better known St Avitus, Bishop of 
Vienne, who flourished at about the same 
period. It is to be noted that St. Gregory of 
Tours, a thousand years before Mabillon. had 
distinguished one from the other, the two 
holy Abbots. Nevertheless, the modern com- 
pilers of the Analecta Bollandiana, adopting 
the seventeenth century criticisms of Ruinart, 
insist that the earlier MSS. know of only one 
Abbot Adjutus, or Avitus, recognised as a Saint 
in the fifth, sixth or seventh century. This 
would be the St. Avitus, Abbot, of June 17) 
Various developments of his legend have 
(they contend) led to the mistake. Krusch 
ventures the suggestion that two festivals were 
locally kept in his honour, one (Dec. 19) com- 
memorating his death, the other (June 17) 



the Translation at some later period of his 
ADO (St.) Bp. (Dec. 16) 

(9th cent.) Born in Burgundy of rich and 
noble parents (a.d. 799), St. Ado was educated 
in the Benedictine Abbey of Ferrieres in the 
Diocese of Sens. Ordained priest, he taught 
sacred and profane science in the Schools of 
the Abbey of Brum, near Treves. He next 
spent four years in Rome, engaged in literary 
researches, and returning to France, discovered 
at Ravenna much important material from 
which he published his famous Martyrology. 
He worked on this at Lyons as the guest of 
St. Remigius, Archbishop of that city. On the 
death of Agilmar, Archbishop of Vienne in 
Dauphine, St. Ado was consecrated his suc- 
cessor and received the Ballium from Fope 
Nicholas I. He died in the year 875. In art, 
he is usually represented studying the Scriptures 
in a library. Besides the Martyrology. we have 
several others of his writings. Ado's Martyrol- 
ogy has largely influenced the compilers of later 
revisions of the Roman Martyrology itself, and 
full account must therefore in the study of the 
latter be taken of the shortcomings of Ado's 
work. The valuable volume of the erudite 
Dom Quentin (issued in 1908) should be con- 
sulted for details. 
*ADOLPHUS (St.) Bp. (Feb. 11) 

(13th cent.) A Bishop of Osnabruck in 

Germany, remarkable for his saintliness of life 

and especially for his self-sacrificing care for 

the poor. He died A.D. 1222. 

ADRIA (St.) M. (Dec. 2) 


This proper name is also spelled in certain 
cases with an initial H (Hadrian). 
♦ADRIAN (St.) Abbot. (Jan. 9) 

(8th cent.) An African by birth who 
embraced the religious life as a Benedictine in 
Italy and was sent to England with the famous 
St. Theodore, by Pope St. Vitalian. St. Adrian 
succeeded St. Benet Biscop as Abbot of Canter- 
bury. He was a man not only of saintly life, 
but also of great learning and conspicuous 
ability. He founded in England several schools 
for the education of vouth. He died A.D. 710. 
♦ADRIAN FORTESCUE (Bl.) M. (July 10) 

(16th cent.) A brave knight, condemned to 

death for refusing to admit the supremacy in 

matters of religion of King Henry VIII. He 

was beheaded on Tower Hill A.D. 1539. 

♦ADRIAN and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (March 4) 

(9th cent.) A band of Martyrs (some say 
many thousands in number) massacred by the 
Heathen Danes (a.d. 874) in the Isle of May 
(Firth of Forth). St. Adrian, Bishop of St. 
Andrews, was leader of this glorious array of 
Christian victims. Their burial-place was a 
noted pilgrimage in Catholic Scotland. 

MM. (May 17) 

(4th cent.) Egyptian Martyrs at Alexandria. 
It seems certain that they suffered in one of 
the persecutions of the fourth century, but 
whether at the hands of the Pagans at its 
commencement, or later under the Allans, is 
not clear, all particulars being lost. 
♦ADULPHUS (St.) Bp. (June 17) 

(8th cent.) The brother of St. Botolph, who 
with that Saint journeyed in his youth from 
England to Saxony, where he remained for 
many years and was promoted to the Episcopal 
dignity. He seems, however, to have returned 
to England before his death, which happened 
about the year 700, and his relics were there 
mingled with those of his holy brother. 
♦ADRIAN (St.) M. (March 19) 

(7th cent.) A disciple of St. Landoald who 
was murdered by robbers wliile begging alms 
for his community near Maestricht (a.d. 668 
about) and afterwards locally venerated as a 

ADULPHUS and JOHN (SS.) MM. (Sept. 27) 

(9th cent.) Martyrs at Cordova in Spain 

(about a.d. 850) in the fierce persecution under 

which the Christians suffered under the Moorish 

Caliph Abderrahman. 

ADVENTOR (S.) M. (Nov. 20) 


fE. Names of Saints beginning with this diphthong 

are frequently spelled with A or E only as initial. 

Thus for JElphege, we have Alphage (Alphege) 

and Elphege. 

*AED (AOD, ^EDSIND) (St.) Bp. (Nov. 10) 

(7th cent.) Related to SS. Fursey and Foillan. 

A Bishop in Meath or perhaps somewhere in 


♦.ffiDAN (AIDAN, EDAN) Bp. (Jan. 31) 

(7th cent.) An Irish Bishop, disciple in his 

youth of St. David of Wales, who on his return 

to Ireland, laboured zealously in the interests 

of religion and died Bishop of Ferns (a.d. 632). 

He is also called MAIDHOC, MAODHOG and 

MOGUE. He is known in Brittany as St. DE. 

/EDESIUS (St.) M. (April 8) 

(4th cent.) The elder brother of St. Amphi- 

anus and a pupil of St. Pamphilius of Caesarea. 

After having in various ways suffered for the 

Faith, he passed into Egypt, where we read of 

his venturing to reproach Heraclius, the 

governor of the province, for the cruelties 

practised by him against the Christians. He 

was put to the torture for his boldness and 

eventually cast into the sea (a.d. 306). 

♦,ELRED (St.) Abbot. (March 2) 

(12th cent.) A holy man of Anglo-Saxon 

origin, who, abandoning a high post at the 

Court of David I., King of Scots, retired to the 

Cistercian Abbey of Bievaulx in Yorkshire, of 

which monastery he was in the end to become 

Abbot His repute as a Saint, great during his 

life, increased after hi3 holv death, Jan. 12, 


/ELPHLEAH (St.) Bp. (April 19) 

Otherwise St. ELPHEGE, which see. 
♦^ELGIFU (St.) V. (May 18) 

Otherwise St ELGIVA, which see. 

yEMILIAN (St.) bbot. (Nov. 12) 

(6th cent.) A poor shepherd in Angon 

(Spain), who, from the age of twenty lived for 

forty years as a hermit in the mountains near 

his birthplace, Vergaja, until his Bishop 

constrained him to take priests' orders and 

made him parish priest of his native village. 

But his zeal created him enemies, and he soon 

returned to his hermitage, where, celebrated 

for his miracles and virtues, he died (A.D. 574). 

His body, interred at first in his hermitage, 

was later transferred to a magnificent monastery 

built in memory of him. It is alleged that he 

had had many disciples living with him ; and 

on that account he has always been venerated 

as an Abbot and as the introducer of the 

Benedictine Rule into Spain. 

JEMILIAN (St.) Bp. M. (Feb. 8) 


Some writers, however, identify tills St. 

jEmilian with another Martyr of the same 

name, likewise an Armenian, venerated at 

Trebbia (Trevi) in Central Italy, as first Bishop 

of that citv (4th century). 

♦/EMILIAN (St.) Abbot. (March 10) 

(8th cent.) An Irish Saint, related to St. 

Rumold, who founded and presided over a 

Benedictine Abbey in Flanders. 

iEMILIAN (St.) M. (April 29) 

.ffiMILIAN (St.) M. (July 18) 

(4th cent.) A Christian of Dorostorium 
(Sillistria) on the Danube. He suffered under 
Julian the Apostate, being burned to death by 
order of the Prefect Capitolinus (a.d. 362). 
/EMILIAN (St.) Bp. (Aug. 8) 

(9th cent.) The Menology of Basil ascribes 
to this holy Bishop of Cyzicus all the qualities 
and virtues of a perfect pastor of souls, empha- 
sises his zeal for the Orthodox Faith and 




enlarges especially on his fearless denunciation 
of the Iconoclasts. He was brought before the 
Emperor Leo the Armenian, subjected to many 
indignities, and died in exile (a.d. 820). 

Cyzicus, standing on the island of the same 
name off the Southern shore of the Sea of 
Marmora, was one of the most important of 
the Greek cities in Asia Minor, a great Christian 
centre, and boasted of a succession of fifty-nine 
IEMILIAN (St.) Bp. (Sept. 11) 

(6th cent.) In the ancient records of the 
Church of Vercelli (Piedmont), St. iEmilian 
is said to have lived as a hermit for forty years 
before his elevation to the Bishopric of that 
city. He thrice visited Rome and attended 
the three Synods held by Pope St. Symmachus. 
He died, a centenarian in the year 520. Trans- 
lations of his relics took place in the year 1181 and 
again towards the end of the seventeenth century. 
*/EMILIAN (St.) Conf. (Oct 11) 

(Date uncertain.) The Roman Martyrology 
assigns this St. iEmilian to Rennes in Brittany ; 
but no trace of a Saint of this name can be 
found in the Breton records. The Bollandists 
conclude that iEmilian in this case is a corrup- 
tion of the name Melanius. A Saint Melanius, 
according to Albert Legrand and other local 
authorities, was Bishop of Rennes for sixty-two 
years and died on the Feast of the Epiphany, 
a.d. 567. In the year 878 the body of this 
Saint was rescued from the outrages of the 
Norman invasion, and, with the body of St. 
Clair, carried to Bourges. This Translation 
(ninth century) may have been commemorated 
on Oct. 11 with iEmilianus in error substi- 
tuted for Melanius in the official documents. 
/EMILIAN (St.) M. (Dec. 6) 

(5th cent.) An African physician, a Martyr 
of the Vandal persecution under the Arian 
King Hunneric (A. P. 484). The name of 
St. iEmilian appears in a curious old French 
litany of " Saints of the Medical Profession." 
jEMILIANA (St.) V. (Jan. 5) 

(6th cent.) A Roman lady, and the paternal 
aunt of St. Gregory the Great, who tells us, 
in his Life of St. Felix, that her dead sister 
Tarsilla appeared to St. iEmiliana and foretold 
to her that she would die and spend the Epi- 
phany with her in Paradise. An old English 
Martyrology thus relates the above incident. 
" Her sister's ghost appeared to her in a nightly 
vision, saying to her : ' Without thee, I cele- 
brated the Holiday of the Lord's Birth, but 
with thee, I shall keep the holiday of the 
Lord's manifestation, that is, the Twelfth 
holiday of the Lord, the day of His Baptism.' ' 
IEMILIANA (St.) V.M. (June 30) 

(Date unknown.) She is stated to have been 
a Christian maiden who lived in Rome and 
died a Martyr. But all particulars are lacking. 
A priest, Eutychius, mentioned as having 
assisted at the first Roman Synod of Pope 
St. Symmachus (a.d. 499), is described as being 
of the Church of St. iEmiliana. 
jEMILIUS (St.) M. (May 22) 



MM. (May 28) 

(Date uncertain.) Churches are dedicated in 

honour of these Saints in the Island of Sardinia ; 

but otherwise nothing is now known concerning 


JEMILIUS (St.) M. (Oct. 6) 

*^ENGUS (ANGUS) (St.) Bp. (March 11) 

(9th cent ) An Irish Saint, Abbot of Cluain- 
Edneach and consecrated a Bishop ; famous 
as a compiler of a valuable Irish Martyrology. 
He died at Desert-^Engus A.D. 824. 
♦.ffiSCHILUS (St.) Bp. M. (June 12) 

(12th cent.) An Englishman who followed 
St. Anschar as a missionary to Sweden, where 
be was raised to the Episcopal dignity. His 
zeal for the propagation of the Christian religion 

led at length to his being condemned to death 
by King Swerker I, surnamed the " Bloody." 
St. iEschilus laid down his life for Christ on 
Good Friday A.D. 1131 . 

*.ffiTHELHEARD (Bl.) Bp. (May 21) 

(9th cent.) The fourteenth Archbishop of 

Canterbury, who died A.D. 805, and after his 

death appears to have been locally venerated 

as a Saint. 

*>ETHELGIFU (St.) V. (Dec. 9) 

Otherwise St. ETHELGIVA or ELGIVA, 

'WTlhCfl S6C 

/ETHERIUS (St.) Bp. M. (March 4) 

^ETHERIUS (St.) Bp. (June 14) 

(7th cent.) A holy Bishop of Vienne (France), 
commemorated in all the Martyrologies as 
famous for his virtues, learning and miracles. He 
flourished in the first half of the seventh century. 
Nothing further is now known about him. 
^ITHERIUS (St.) M. (June 18) 

(4th cent.) One of the countless Christians 
who suffered torture and death under the 
Emperor Diocletian. His martyrdom took 
place probably at Nicomedia (Asia Minor), 
A.D. 304. 
dETHERIUS (St.) Bp. (July 27) 

(6th cent.) The eighteenth Bishop of 
Auxerre (France), which Diocese he governed 
till his holy death in the tenth year of his 
Episcopate (A.D. 573). 
*JETIUS (St.) M. (March 6) 

(9th cent.) A General in the Christian army 
and chief among the heroic band of forty-two 
soldiers who, taken prisoners by the Caliph 
Montassem (a.d. 836) at Amorium in Syria, 
resisted all threats and allurements to become 
Mohammedans, and, after nine years of prison 
and repeated tortures, were put to death by 
his orders. 
♦AFAN (St.) Conf. (Nov. 16) 

(6th cent.) A Welsh Saint of the Cunedda 
family, by some supposed to have been a 
Bishop. He has given its title to the Church of 
Llanafan (Brecknock). 
AFRIQUE (AFRICUS) Bp. (April 28) 

(7th cent.; A Bishop of Comminges in the 
South of France, celebrated for his zeal for 
Orthodoxy. His memory is still held in great 
veneration, though his shrine and relics were 
destroyed by the Calvinists in the sixteenth 
AFFROSA (St.) M. (Jan. 4) 

Otherwise St. DAFROSA or DAPHROSA, 
which see 
AFRA (St.) M. (May 24) 

(2nd cent.) A convert to Christianity, made 
by the Martyrs SS. Faustinus and Jovita, and 
baptised by the Bishop St. Apollonius. She 
was the wife of a nobleman of the city of 
Brescia in Lombardy, where in the end she 
suffered martyrdom about a.d. 133. It was in 
her church at Brescia that St. Angela Merici 
founded the Ursuline Order and was herself 
AFRA (St.) M. (Aug. 5) 

(4th cent.) Said to have been a courtesan 
in the city of Augsburg in Bavaria, but con- 
verted by a saintly Bishop, whom she sheltered 
in his flight from his persecutors. When the 
persecution reached Augsburg, Afra was seized 
and taken before the judge, who, failing to move 
her constancy, condemned her to be burned 
alive (A.D. 304). The same fate attended her 
mother, St Hilaria, and her maids, Digna, 
Eunomia and Eutropia. These pious women, 
whilst occupied in the interment of St. Afra, 
were imprisoned in the burial vault by soldiers, 
who filled it with burning logs and branches, 
and so roasted them to death. An Abbey 
Church was built over the vault and dedicated 
to St. Afra. 

The early Church of North Africa was one of 
the most flourishing and one of the most 



prolific of Saints in Christendom. African 
Saints, of whom St. Augustine and St. Cyprian 
are the best known, will be found in their order. 
Similarly, groups of Martyrs taking their names 
from the chief sufferers in each. Of those who 
are simply registered without mention of name 
in the old Martyrologies certain groups claim 
special notice. 

It may be remarked that African Martyrs 
can chronologically be distributed in three 
series : 1. Sufferers in the persecutions under 
the Roman Emperors. 2. Those of the perse- 
cution by the Arian Vandals. 3. Victims of 
the Mohammedan hatred of Christianity. 

The North African Church was a branch of 

the Latin Church. Egyptian Martyrs were 

under the Patriarchate of Alexandria, and 

therefore are treated apart. 


(3rd cent.) A number of Christian men and 

women, burned at the stake in Africa about 

a.d. 210, under the Emperor Septimius Severus. 


(4th cent.) Martyrs known as the " Guardians 
of the Holy Scriptures." They elected rather 
to die than to deliver up the Sacred Books to 
be burned as ordered in the great persecution 
under Diocletian. Those commemorated on 
Feb. 11 suffered in the Province of Numidia 
(A.D. 303). St. Augustine makes special 
mention of them. 

(5th cent.) A congregation of Catholic 
Christians massacred on Easter Sunday (a.d. 
459), by order of the Arian Genseric, King of 
the Vandals, while assisting at Mass. The 
lector, who was in the act of intoning the 
Alleluia from the lectern at the moment when 
the soldiers rushed into the church, had his 
throat pierced bv an arrow. 

(Date unknown.) A body of Christians done 
to death at Masyla, probably near Fez in 
Morocco, in one of the early persecutions. 
They were held in great veneration in the 
African Church. A panegyric preached by 
St. Augustine in their honour is extant. They 
are also commemorated in one of the Hymns 
of the Christian poet, Prudentius. 

(Date uncertain.) Two hundred and twenty 
Christians commemorated from ancient times 
as having suffered death for Christ on a six- 
teenth day of October. But neither the year, 
nor the precise place, nor any details of their 
martyrdom, have come down to us. 

(Date unknown.) A group of between one 
hundred and two hundred Christians, massacred 
in one of the earlier persecutions. The Martyro- 
logies, however, give no particulars as to date, 
place, or nature of their passion. It should 
always be remembered that one of the objects 
of the great persecution, for which the Emperor 
Diocletian is responsible at the close of the 
third century of the Christian Aera, was the 
destruction of the Sacred Books and records 
of the Cliristians. In this the Pagans were 
only too successful, and the loss to Ecclesiastical 
History has been irreparable. The Annals 
of the early Martyrs, in particular, have become 
very incomplete. In regard to the Churches 
of Africa and of the East, the laying waste 
by the Arabs of the countries involved the 
destruction of libraries and Archives, and has 
had a similar disastrous result. In Western 
Europe, thanks to the scholarly copyists main- 
tained in the monasteries, much has survived, 
not only of classical literature, but also of 
records of early Christianity dating at least 
from the fourth century. 
AFRICA (MARTYRS IN)'. (Dec. 16) 

(5th cent.) A number of holy women (prob- 
ably nuns), who laid down their lives (a.d. 482), 
in witness to the Catholic Faith, then proscribed 

by the Arian Vandal King of Africa, Hunneric. 
The bodies of some were crushed by heavy 
weights, and of others were scorched by red-hot 
metal plates. The lives of the rest were taken 
after slow tortures. 

AFRICANUS (St.) M. (April 10) 


AGABIUS (St.) Bp. (Aug. 4) 

(3rd cent.) An early Bishop of Verona 
(North Italy), " eminent (according to Cardinal 
Baronius) for his love of God, for his gentle 
manners and for his liberality towards the 
poor." The date of his death is uncertain. 

AGABUS (St.) Conf. (Feb. 13) 

(1st cent.) Said to have been one of the 
seventy-two disciples sent out to preach by 
Our Lord (Luke x.) and thus an eye-witness 
of His miracles. He is mentioned as a disciple 
and prophet in the Acts of the Apostles (xi. 28). 
The Greek Church commemorates the martyr- 
dom of St. Agabus at Antioch on March 8. 
From a tradition among the Carmelites, he is 
usually represented in art robed in the habit 
of that Order and holding the model of a 
church in his hand. 

♦AGAMUND (St.) M. (April 9) 

(9th cent.) One of the Croyland Abbey 
monks, who had attained his hundredth year 
when, in the irruption of the heathen Danes 
(about a.d. 870), he, with his Abbot St. Theo- 
dore and many of his brethren, was barbarously 
put to death. As in the case of many others 
of the ancient Saints, the circumstances of his 
death were thought sufficient to justify the 
giving to him the title of Martyr. 

AGAPE (St.) M. (Jan. 25) 


AGAPE and CHIONIA (SS.) VV.MM. (April 3) 
(4th cent.) Two sisters who, with a third 
sister, byname Irene, and some other Christians, 
were charged with concealing the Sacred Books 
of the Christians which had been ordered to be 
given up to be destroyed, and who were on that 
account burned at the stake at Thessalonica, 
under the Emperor Diocletian (a.d. 304). 

AGAPE (St.) V.M. (Aug. 1) 

Otherwise St. CHARITY, which see. 

AGAPE (St.) V.M. (Dec. 28) 


AGAPITUS (AGAPETUS) (St.) Bp. (March 16) 

(3rd cent.) A Bishop of Ravenna (Italy), 
said to have been chosen to that See, as had 
been his ten predecessors, in consequence of 
the alighting of a white dove on his shoulders 
at the moment of the election. Some authors 
confuse this St. Agapitus with another Bishop 
of Ravenna of the same name, but who does 
not seem to have been publicly venerated after 
his death (4th cent.) as a Saint. 

AGAPITUS (St.) Bp. (March 24) 

(3rd cent.) A Bishop of Synnada in Phrygia 
(Asia Minor), who flourished in the first half of 
the third century, and who seems to have 
undergone much suffering in one of the persecu- 
tions of the period. 

AGAPITUS (St.) (Aug. 6) 


AGAPITUS (St.) M. (Aug. 18) 

(3rd cent.) The Patron Saint of Palestrina 
(Praeneste), near Rome. He was a youth of 
noble birth who, at the age of fifteen was 
arrested as a Christian, and after being put to 
the torture was sentenced to death. The 
brave boy was thrown to the wild beasts in the 
Amphitheatre ; but, as not rarely happened 
in the case of Christian Martyrs, the fierce 
creatures refused to do him any harm. The 
sight of the miracle astounded the spectators, 
and was followed by the conversion to Christian- 
ity of not a few among them, of whom one was 
St. Anastasius, a tribune in the army. The 
judge cut matters short by ordering Agapitus 
to be forthwith beheaded. This passed during 
the so-called ninth persecution, that under the 
Emperor Aurelian (a.d. 274). The Cathedral 




of Palestrina now stands on the site of the 
martyrdom of St. Agapitus. In the year 974, 
his relics were enshrined in a natural cave or 
grotto in its crypt ; but five centuries later 
translated in great part to Corneto, near Civita 
Vecchia. A liturgical commemoration of St. 
Agapitus is made in the Universal Church 
annually on Aug. 18, the anniversary of his 

AGAPITUS (St.) M. (Sept. 20) 


AGAPIA (AGAPES) V.M. (Feb. 15) 

(3rd cent.) A Christian maiden instructed 
by St. Valentine, Bishop of Terni, by whom she 
was chosen to preside over a body of religious 
women. She suffered martyrdom about A.d. 

AGAPITUS (St.) Pope. (Sept. 20) 

(6th cent.) By birth a Roman, he, when 
only Archdeacon of the Roman Church, accord- 
ing to a custom prevalent in that age, was 
elected (a.d. 535) to succeed Pope John II. 
In the following year he repaired to Constanti- 
nople, partly to avert the war on Italy threat- 
ened by the Emperor Justinian, and partly 
to put order into the troubled Eastern Churches. 
He failed in his political mission, but succeeded 
in rescuing the Church of Constantinople from 
the Eutychian heretics. "With great courage 
he denounced and cancelled the election as 
Patriarch of the metropolis of the East, of 
Anthimus, a time server who refused to sub- 
scribe the Canons of the Council of Chalcedon, 
then the test of Orthodoxy. He then, as 
Supreme Pontiff, appointed to the vacant See, 
Mennas, an Ecclesiastic of undoubted virtue 
and of great learning. Whilst occupied in 
dealing with complaints of heterodoxy made 
against various Eastern Bishops, St. Agapitus 
died at Constantinople that same year. His 
body was taken to Rome and interred with 
those of his predecessors in the Basilica of 
St. Peter. The Greeks commemorate him as a 
Saint on April 17, the anniversary of his death. 
Several of his letters are still extant. 

AGAPITUS (St.) (Nov. 20) 


AGAPIUS (St.) M. (March 24) 


AGAPIUS (St.) M. (April 28) 


and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (April 29) 

(3rd cent.) The Spanish Saints, Agapius 
and Secundums (said to have been Bishops), 
were banished to Africa in the persecution under 
Valerian. There, at Cirrha (near Constantine), 
they were put to death ( 4..D. 259) together with 
Tertulla, iEmilian and other Christians, among 
whom was a mother with her twin children. 

AGAPIUS (St.) M. (Aug. 19) 


St. Agapius is also commemorated separately 
on Nov. 20, which see. 

AGAPIUS (St.; M. (Aug. 21) 


AGAPIUS (St.) Bp. (Sept. 10) 

(5th cent.) During twenty years, Bishop of 
Novara in Piedmont, where he died, A.D. 438. 
He is described as having in all things walked 
in the footsteps of his holy predecessor, St. 

AGAPIUS (St.) M. (Nov. 2) 


AGAPIUS (St.) M. (Nov. 20) 

(4th cent.) A Martyr of Caesarea in Pales- 
tine. During the first years of the persecution 
under Diocletian, he thrice suffered imprison- 
ment for the Faith. At last, again arrested 
by order of the Emperor Galerius and chained 
to a murderer, he was brought to the public 
amphitheatre to be cast to the wild beasts. 
His companion obtained the Emperor's pardon ; 
and to Agapius also liberty was offered, but on 
condition of his renouncing Christ. He refused, 


and a bear was let loose upon him ; but after 
having been terribly mauled by the animal, 
he was found to be still alive. Weighted with 
heavy stones, his body was then cast into the sea 
(a.d. 306). St. Agapius is also commemorated 
with SS. Timothy, Thecla and others on Aug. 19. 

AGATHA (St.) V.M. (Feb. 5) 

(3rd cent.) Palermo and Catania both claim 
the honour of being the birthplace of this 
famous Sicilian Saint, whose name, enshrined 
in the Litany of the Saints and in the Canon 
of the Mass, appears in the old Martyrology 
of Carthage and in all others, Greek and Latin. 
In the numerous frescoes and sculptures which 
have come down to us from antiquity, she is 
represented holding a pair of pincers or with 
other instruments of the tortures to which she 
was subjected. The traditional details of her 
bitter Passion are given in the Lections for her 
Feast in the Roman Breviary. After suffering 
exquisite tortures, she died of her wounds in 
prison at Catania, during the persecution under 
Decius (A.D. 250). The miracles by which her 
intercession has preserved Catania in successive 
eruptions of Mount Etna are well authenticated. 
Her Acts in Latin, alleged to be based on others 
from the pen of an eye-witness of her martyr- 
dom, are substantially reliable. < 

♦AGATHA (St.) Matron. (Feb. 5) 

(11th cent.) The wife of a Count of Carinthia, 
devoted to her domestic duties and a model of 
patience under the most grievous trials. She 
was ever occupied in good works and especially 
in the care of the poor and distressed. She 
died a.d. 1024, and many miracles since worked 
at her tomb bear witness to her sanctity. 

AGATHANGELUS (St.) M. (Jan. 23) 

(4th cent.) A deacon of Ancyra in Galatia, 
who suffered martyrdom with his Bishop, 
St. Clement, about the year 309. Their relics 
were brought to Paris by the Crusaders in the 
thirteenth century. The existence and cultus 
of these Martyrs is undoubted, though the 
learned Baronius, and, after him, modern 
historians in general, reject the legends concern- 
ing them current in the Middle Ages, as romances 
based on spurious documents which had been 
put forth as genuine Acts. The Greeks have a 
special commemoration of St. Agathangelus 
on Nov. 5, and they give him two other deacons, 
Pheugon and Chariton, and several Christian 
children as his companions in martyrdom. 

AGATHO (St.> Pope. (Jan. 10) 

(7th cent.) The Patron Saint of Palermo in 
Sicily, his birthplace. He embraced there the 
monastic life in the Benedictine monastery of 
St. Hermes, but was elected to the Papal 
throne on June 27 A.D. 678. The Sixth 
Ecumenical Council was held at Constantinople 
during his Pontificate (A.D. 680). He restored 
St. Wilfrid to the See of York and otherwise 
benefited the Church in England, whither he 
sent skilled masters to reintroduce the Roman 
Church-chant. The tradition is that he was 
already a centenarian on his elevation to the 
Papacy. He was endued in an extraordinary 
degree with the grace of working miracles, and 
hence surnamed Thaumaturgus " (the wonder 
worker). He died and was buried in St. Peter's, 
A.D. 682. 

AGATHO (St.) M. (Feb. 14) 


AGATHO and TRIPHINA (SS.) MM. (July 5) 
(4th cent, probably). Of the Sicilian Martyr 
St. Agatho little is known ; but his name has 
become prominent on account of the controversy 
among the learned concerning the St. Triphina 
bracketed with him in the Registers. Some 
authors go so far as to assert that this fellow- 
sufferer with St. Agatho was not a woman, but 
a Christian man, by name Triphonius or Try- 
phon. Others hold the view that the Saint 
Triphina of July 5 is identical with the St. 
Triphomena to whom the Cathedral of Minori 
near Salerno is dedicated. This latter Saint 



is admitted by all to have been a Sicilian ; and 
her martyrdom is assigned to the first years of 
the fourth century under Diocletian. But 
antiquaries cannot yet be said to have solved 
satisfactorily the problem of SS. Agatho and 

AGATHO (St.) (Dec. 7) 

(3rd cent.) A soldier, posted at Alexandria 
as guard over the bodies of certain Christian 
Martyrs, which he prevented a mob of Pagans 
from outraging. For this humane act, he was 
set upon and dragged before the magistrates 
as a suspected Christian. Whether he had been 
previously such or not is uncertain ; but in the 
Court of Justice he fearlessly confessed Christ, 
and on his own confession was sentenced to 
death and beheaded. He was one of the 
victims of the persecution under the Emperor 
Decius (a.D. 250). * 

AGATHOCLIA (St.) V. M. (Sept. 11) 

(3rd cent.) The Christian servant maid of 
a Pagan lady in Spain, and by her cruelly treated 
on account of her religion. In the end she was 
denounced to the authorities during one of the 
persecuting decades of the third century — one 
of the most troubled in the annals of the Church. 
The poor slave girl was savagely scourged ; 
and to prevent her repeating again and again, 
as was her wont, the comforting name of Jesus, 
her tongue was torn out. She was at last 
beheaded ; but neither the precise time nor the 
place are now known. 

AGATHODORUS (St.) Bp. M. (March 4) 


AGATHODORUS (St.) M. (April 13) 


MM. (Aug. 22) 

(3rd cent.) According to the Menology of 
Basil, St. Agathonicus was a Christian of 
patrician family put to death for the Faith in 
the neighbourhood of Constantinople, during 
the persecution under Diocletian and Maximian 
Herculeus, towards the close of the third 
century. With him suffered Zoticus, by 
profession a philosopher, and several of the 
pupils, or, as they were called, disciples of the 
latter. The Emperor Justinian, more than a 
hundred years later, built a magnificent church 
in their honour. They are mentioned in the 
Latin Martyrologies, and in the Imperial 
Library at Vienna there is preserved a valuable 
MS. record of their Passion. 


MM. (April 4) 

(4th cent.) A deacon with his lector, arrested 
at Thessalonica as Christians, and drowned in 
the sea by order of the President Faustinus, 
during the persecution of the savage Maximian 
Herculeus, colleague of Diocletian. This hap- 
pened in one of the first years of the fourth 

AGATHOPODES (St.) Conf. (April 25) 


AGATHOPUS (St.) M. (Dec. 23) 


AGATHIUS (St.) M. (Jan. 18) 

(Date unknown.) One of a band of thirty-six 
missionaries, who, in the first or second century, 
sought to propagate Christianity in Egypt, 
which country they for that purpose divided 
into four regions. To St. Agathius with eight 
others fell the eastern districts. The conver- 
sions they made were numerous and continual. 
Eventually arrested, they were condemned to 
death and were burned at the stake as " impious 
men, disturbers of public order." 

AGERICUS (AGUY, AIRY) (St.) Bp. (Dec. 1) 

(6th cent.) The successor of St. Desideratus 
(D6sire) in the See of Verdun (France). His 
charity and kindliness endeared him to princes 
and people alike ; and his prayers and counsel 
were sought by all. He worked many miracles, 
both in his life and after his holy death, which 
came to pass in the year 591. 

AGGAEUS (AGGEUS, HAGGAI) Prophet. (July 4) 
(6th cent. B.C.) The tenth among the Minor 
Prophets of the Old Testament. Very little is 
recorded or preserved by tradition concerning 
him. His prophecy is brief and contains his 
commission to deliver the Divine message to 
King Darius Hystaspes of Persia, to forward 
the rebuilding of the Temple of Jerusalem. 
He seems himself to have seen the former 
Temple, in which supposition he must have been 
a very aged man when he delivered his pro- 
phecy ; but a contrary belief among the Jews 
has it that he was born during the exile, and 
that he lived to see the second temple (B.C. 

AGGAEUS (St.) M. (Jan. 4) 


*AGIA (St.) Widow. (Sept. 1) 

(6th cent.) The mother of St. Lupus of Sens 
(France), a holy woman, after her death vener- 
ated as a Saint. 

AGILAEUS (AGLEUS) (St.) M. (Oct. 15) 

(4th cent.) An African who suffered at 
Carthage in the last great persecution, about 
A.D. 300. His relics were afterwards translated 
to Rome ; and hence he became well know in 
the Western Church. One of the Homilies of 
St. Augustine was preached on his Festival. 

*AGILULPH (St.) Bp. M. (July 9) 

(8th cent.) A monk, and later, Abbot of 
Stavelot, who became Bishop of Cologne, and, 
incurring in the zealous discharge of his ministry 
the enmity of the famous potentate Charles 
Martel, was put to death by his connivance 
(A.D. 770). 

*AGILUS (AISLE, AIL) Abbot. (Aug. 30) 

(7th cent.) A young nobleman of the 
Frankish Court who became a disciple of the 
Irish Saint Columbanus at Luxeuil in Eastern 
France. There he lived a holy life under 
St. Eustasius for many years. Later he went 
as a missionary into Bavaria, and finally became 
Abbot of Rebais, near Paris, where he died 
A.D. 650, at the age of sixty-six. 

AGLIBERT (St.) M. (June 24) 


AGNELLUS (St.) Conf. (Dec. 14) 

(7th cent.) Agnellus, otherwise Anellus, 
born at Naples of wealthy parents, at the age of 
fifteen, became a hermit. Later in his life 
some African monks, who had been driven into 
exile by the Arians and had settled at Naples, 
prevailed upon him to become their Abbot. 
He died A.D. 596. As to the Rule followed in 
his monastery, some think it to have been that 
of St. Basil, others that of St. Benedict. He is 
represented clothed with the religious habit 
and bearing a cross or standard, as in such guise 
he has often appeared at Naples and repidsed 
the enemies who were assailing the town. His 
relics were enshrined in an ancient church 
of Our Blessed Lady which later was named 
after him. Moroni relates that during his 
lifetime, when the Saracens (a.d. 674) besieged 
the city of Naples, St. Agnellus raised the stan- 
dard of the Cross, and, at the head of the 
Neapolitan troops, put the besiegers to flight. 

AGNES (AGNA) V.M. (Jan. 21) 

(4th cent.) A Virgin-Martyr, everywhere 
venerated and one of those daily commemorated 
in the Canon of the Mass. At the tender age 
of thirteen, she obtained the double crown of 
martyrdom and chastity. Failing to burn her 
at the stake, the Prefect of Rome under Maxi- 
mian Herculeus ordered her to be beheaded 
(a.d. 301), though this precise date is much 
contested. She was buried on the Via Nomen- 
tana, where a church was built by Constantia, 
daughter of the Emperor Constantine. St. 
Agnes is represented in various ways, but mostly 
with a lamb at her feet and a sword in her hand. 
Many details of the fifth century Acts of St. 
Agnes are open to criticism, though substanti- 
ally the circumstances of her martyrdom 
are autlientic. 




AGNES OF BOHEMIA (St.) V. (March 6) 

(13th cent.) A princess, daughter of the 
King of Bohemia and sister of the King of 
Hungary, who to a marriage with the Emperor 
Frederick II. preferred the life of a Poor Clare. 
By her gentle piety she gained the hearts of 
all with whom she had to deal. Pope Gregory 
IX., who greatly valued her, placed her at the 
head of all the convents of her Order. She 
passed away, a.d. 1282, at the age of seventy- 
seven years. 

(14th cent.) Born at Monte Pulciano in 
Tuscany, at an early age Agnes emhraced the 
religious life in the Dominican convent of 
Proceno, of which she became the Prioress, 
passing later to that founded by herself at her 
birthplace, where, famous for sanctity of life 
and for the supernatural graces bestowed upon 
her, she died in her forty-ninth year (A.D. 1317). 
She was canonised four hundred years later. 
* AGNES OF POITIERS (St.) V. (May 13) 

(6th cent.) Chosen by St. Radegund to be 
Abbess of the two hundred nuns of her monas- 
tery of Holy Cross at Poitiers, the two Saints 
journeyed together to Aries where from the 
hands of St. Caesarius they received the Rule 
of their community. St. Agnes died shortly 
after her holy mistress (a.d. 588). 
*AGNES (St.) V.M. (Aug. 28) 

(Date uncertain.) Reputed of British birth, 

and venerated at Cologne as a Martyr. She 

was possibly one of the sufferers with St. Ursula. 

*AGNES OF ASSISI (Bl.) V. (Nov. 16) 

(13th cent.) The sister of St. Clare and one 
of the first to embrace the religious life under 
the Rule of St. Francis, as a Poor Clare or 
Minoress. St. Francis placed her as Abbess 
over the convent of these nuns which he had 
founded at Florence. She returned to Assisi in 
1253 to assist at the death-bed of her holy 
sister, and three months later rejoined her in 
Heaven. On earth they shared the same 

MM. (June 24) 

(3rd cent.) A group of Martyrs described 
as having been so numerous as to defy counting. 
They appear to have been massacred in a popular 
outbreak against the Christians, at Creteil, 
near Paris. The tradition is that SS. Agoardus 
and Aglibert, their leaders, had come from the 
Rhine country, and that SS. Ewaldus, Altinus 
and Savinian had converted them to Christian- 
ity. The details concerning these Martyrs, 
now available, are very untrustworthy ; and 
the dates given still more so. But a.d. 273 
seems likely as the year of their triumph. 
*AGOFRIDUS (AGOFROI) (St.) Abbot. (Aug. 24) 

(8th cent.) The brother and successor of 
St. Leofridus as Abbot of Lacroix, a Bene- 
dictine monastery of the Diocese of Evreux in 
Normandy. He became Abbot A.D. 738. 
The date of his death is not given. 

Bp. (March 17) 

(6th cent.) A holy Bishop of Chalon-sur- 
Saone, zealous for the spiritual good of his flock 
and for the orderly performance of Divine 
service. He took part in several French Church 
Councils. St. Gregory of Tours enlarges upon 
the austerity of his private life. He died A.D. 
580, at the age of eighty-three. 

(7th cent.) The son of St. Magnus, a Frankish 
noble, who late in life took Holy Orders and 
eventually was promoted to the See of Avignon. 
St. Agricolus, his son, entered the monastery 
of Lerins as a Religious, and there acquired a 
great reputation for piety and learning. Sum- 
moned by his father to Avignon, he speedily 
made himself beloved and esteemed by clergy 
and laity alike, and was in due course called 
to occupy that Metropolitan See. He governed 
his Diocese for forty years to the great profit 


of his people, and died A.D. 700, in the sixty- 
fourth year of his age. 

AGRICOLA (St.) M. (Nov. 4) 


AGRICOLA (St.) M. (Dec. 3) 

(Date unknown.) A Martyr in Hungary 

whose " gesta " have not come down to us, 

but whose name appears in all the ancient 


AGRICOLA (St.) M. (Dec. 16) 


AGRIPPINA (St.) V.M. (June 23) 

(3rd cent.) According to the Greeks, she was 
a Roman maiden of tender years who courage- 
ously and joyfully endured cruel torture and 
death for the Faith in the reign of the Emperor 
Valerian (a.d. 256). Her relics were removed 
from Rome to Sicily by SS. Bassa and Paula. 

AGRIPPINUS (St.) Bp. (Nov. 9) 

(2nd cent.) A holy man who, in the second 
century of the Christian Aera made the See of 
Naples illustrious by his zeal for the Catholic 
Faith and by his working of miracles. His 
relics, originally interred in the old Cathedral 
Church called " Stephania," were subsequently 
enshrined under the High Altar of the actual 
Cathedral of Naples, with the bodies of SS. 
Eutychetes and Acutius, fellow-sufferers with 
St. Januarius. 

AGRITIUS (AGRICE, AGUY) (St.) Bp. (Jan. 13) 
(4th cent.) A Syrian, chosen at the instance 
of the Empress Helena from the ranks of the 
clergy of Antioch to become Bishop of Treves 
in Germany. He was consecrated to that See 
by Pope St. Sylvester. The Empress Helena 
further committed to his care the Seamless 
Tunic of Our Blessed Lord, thenceforth known 
as the Holy Coat of Treves and the object of a 
famous pilgrimage. The Imperial Palace at 
Treves was converted into a Cathedral, and the 
Emperor Constantine was lavish of favours to 
the missionary Bishop sent thither from the 
East. St. Agritius laboured zealously and 
successfully during twenty years at the conver- 
sion of Gaul and of Western Germany. After 
his death (a.d. 335) his remains were interred 
in the Basilica of St. John, now called St. 
Maximin's, after his famous successor in the 

AGUY (St.) 

An abbreviated popular form of the names 

*AIBERT (St.) Conf. (April 7) 

(12th cent.) A Benedictine monk in the 
north of France, who passed to the life of a 
hermit. His long life of eighty years was, 
almost from infancy, one of continuous prayer 
and penance. It is related of him that he 
never missed saying two Masses daily, one for 
the Dead and one for the Living. He died 
A.D 1140. 

*AIDAN (St.) Bp. (Oct. 20) 

(8th cent.) An Irish Bishop in Mayo. He 
died A.D. 768. 

Abbot. (Sept. 1) 

(7th cent.) The son of an officer at the Court 
of Clotaire II, born at Poitiers and destined by 
his father for a military career. But his own 
wish, which was also that of his mother, that 
he should consecrate himself to God, was 
eventually fulfilled, and he took the monastic 
habit in the Abbey of St. Jouin in Poitou. 
He became in succession Abbot of the mona- 
steries of Quinzay and Jumieges. Throughout 
his life, a model of prayer, austerity, and of 
observance of Religious Rule, he, at his own 
request, expired (a.d. 687) on a couch of sack- 
cloth and ashes. 

*AID (St.) Abbot. (April 11) 

(Date uncertain.) An Abbot of Achad- 
Finglas in County Carlow, possibly one and the 
same with St. Aed or Maedhogh of Clonmore. 

AIDAN (AEDAN) (St.) Bp. (Aug. 31) 

(7th cent.) In response to a request from 



St. Oswald, King of Northumbria, St. Aidan, 
a monk of the famous Abbey of Hy or Iona, 
was chosen by the Abbot Seghen for the special 
mission of rekindling the Faith in the Kingdom 
of Northumbria. He was forthwith consecrated 
Bishop and, on his arrival in the North of 
England, took for his See the Island of Lindis- 
farne (Holy Island), where he founded a famous 
Abbey. His Diocese reached from the Forth 
to the Humber. The account of the miracles 
he worked and other particulars of his saintly 
life are to be found in the writings of Venerable 
Bede. He founded many churches and schools 
for which he provided masters from among his 
fellow monks. He died at Bamborough in the 
eighteenth year of a fruitful Episcopate (a.d. 
G51). A graceful tradition is to the effect that 
the young shepherd boy Cuthbert, at the 
moment of the passing away of St. Aidan, saw 
in a vision the soul of the Saint carried up by 
angels into Heaven, and thereupon himself set 
about preparing by a life in the cloister for 
carrying on the work for God to which the 
Saint had been devoted. Nor did the fame of 
St. Cuthbert fall short of that of St. Aidan. 
St. Aidan is represented in art, sometimes with 
a torch in his hand, sometimes with a stag near 
him, suggested by a legend that once he by his 
prayer rendered invisible a deer pursued by 
AIGNAN (AGNAN) (St.) Bp. (Nov. 1) 

Otherwise St. ANIANUS, which see. 
AIGULPHUS and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Sept. 3) 
(7th cent.) Monks of Fleury, an Abbey on 
the Loire. St. Aigulphus was sent by his 
Abbot, St. Mommolus, to rescue the relics of 
St. Benedict from the ruins of Monte Cassino, 
where they were enshrined. He afterwards 
undertook a much needed reform of discipline 
in the Abbey of Lerins off the coast of Provence, 
but was resisted by a local chieftain or baron, 
who, in the end, caused him to be murdered with 
several of his fellow monks (a.d. 676). 
*AILBHE (ALBEUS) (St.) Bp. (Sept. 12) 

(5th cent.) An Irish Saint, concerning whose 
life and Apostolic labours there are few reliable 
particulars extant. He must have been con- 
temporary with St. Patrick in the fifth century, 
and have worked chiefly in the South of Ireland, 
where he is venerated as Patron Saint of Munster 
and as first Bishop of the See of Emly, later 
united to Cashel. 
AIME (AME) (St.) Bp. (Sept. 12) 

Otherwise St. AMATUS, which see. 
AIRY (St.) Bp. (Sept. 1) 

Otherwise St. AGERICUS, which see. 
AISLE (AILEU) (St.) Abbot. (Aug. 30) 

Otherwise St. AGILUS, which see. 
AITHELAS (St.) M. (April 22) 

(4th cent.) One of the band of Persian Mar- 
tyrs of which the leader was St. Abdiesus. 
*AIZAN and SAZAN (SS.) MM. Conf. (Oct. 1) 
(4th cent.) Two brothers, kings or chieftains 
in Abyssinia, distinguished for their attachment 
to the Catholic Faith and for their zeal in 
propagating Christianity in Africa. They were 
honoured with the friendship of the great 
St. Athanasius. One or other of them appears 
to have survived till nearly the year 400, and 
their cultus was at once, after their deaths, 
established among the Ethiopians. 
AJOU (AJON) Abbot, M. (Sept. 3) 

Otherwise St. AIGULPHUS, which see. 
AJUTRE (St ) Conf. (April 30) 

Otherwise St. ADJUTOR, which see. 

"ALANUS and ALORUS (SS.) Bps. (Oct. 26) 

(5th cent.) Two Bishops of Quimper in 

Brittany, who flourished in the fifth century, 

but concerning whom no reliable particulars 

have come down to us, except the fact of the 

popular and Liturgical veneration given to them 

from early ages. 

ALBAN (St.) M. (June 21) 

(4th cent.) A Greek priest of Naxos who, 

sent into exile by the Arians, preached the Gospel 

in parts of Germany about Mainz. Here he was 
again attacked by the Arians, and eventually 
put to death by them, towards a.d. 400. A 
celebrated Abbey at Mainz, dedicated in his 
honour, has preserved his memory. 

ALBAN (St.) M. (June 22) 

(4th cent.) The first Martyr of Britain. 
He suffered in the persecution under Diocletian 
(probably a.d. 303), though the Edicts of perse- 
cution were only rarely enforced in the provinces 
governed by Constantius Chlorus. St. Alban 
was converted to the Faith by a priest to whom 
he had given shelter and whose life he had thus 
saved. Several wonderful occurrences signal- 
ised his martyrdom, as related by Bede and 
others. It took place at Verulam, a town 
which received the name of St. Albans after 
the erection there of the famous Abbey of that 
name, the work of King Offa of Mercia in the 
eighth century. With St. Alban suffered one 
of the executioners, who, at sight of the Saint's 
courage and constancy, had declared himself 
also to be ready to embrace Christianity. The 
priest who was saved by St. Alban, who dis- 
guised him in his own cloak (styled a Caracalla), 
and who is commonly known as St. Amphibalus, 
is said to have fled into Wales, there to have 
effected many conversions, and ultimately to 
have sealed his Faith with his blood. In art, 
St. Alban is usually represented with a cross 
in one hand and a sword in the other, with a 
river or spring in the foreground. 

♦ALBERIC (Bl.) Abbot. (Jan. 26) 

(12th cent.) Abbot of Citeaux and one of 
the founders of the Cistercian Order of Monks 
under the Rule of St. Benedict, the character- 
istic feature of which order was insistence on 
the observance to the letter of that ancient 
Western Rule. St. Alban placed his reform 
under the special patronage of Our Blessed 
Lady, and in her honour gave his monks the 
white robe they still wear. He died a.d. 1109. 

♦ALBERT (St.) Bp. (Jan 8) 

(7th cent.) The Patron Saint of Cashel in 
Ireland. Unfortunately a reliable account of 
the life of St Albert does not exist. We know 
of him that with St. Erard, he took part in the 
evangelising of Bavaria, and that he died and 
was interred at Ratisbon. He flourished at 
the close of the seventh century. 

ALBERT (St.) Conf. (Aug. 7) 

(14th cent.) A Sicilian Friar of the Order 
of Mount Carmel, to which his mother, hitherto 
childless, had vowed him before his birth. 
When of sufficient age he willingly ratified his 
mother's vow and entered among the Carmelites 
of Mount Trapani. He lived a life of extreme 
austerity and, by his zeal in preaching, called 
many sinners back to the paths of virtue. He 
also converted numerous Jews to the true Faith. 
He died in a solitude, that is, in a lonely hermi- 
tage of his Order, in the year 1306, and was 
buried in the Carmelite Church at Messina, of 
which city he is recognised as one of the Patron 
Saints. He was canonised about the middle 
of the fifteenth century. 

•ALBERT (Bl.) Bp. M. (Sept. 14) 

(13th cent.) An Italian Bishop of the Order 
of Canons Regular who, after governing the 
Sees of Bobbio and Vercelli and labouring 
strenuously to reconcile the German Emperor 
with the Holy See, became, under Innocent III, 
Patriarch of Jerusalem. The Holy City having 
unhappily again fallen under the sway of the 
Infidels, Bl. Albert established his See at Acre, 
and for eight years until his death (a.d. 1214), 
distinguished himself for piety and pastoral 
zeal. At the request of St. Brocard, he com- 
posed a wise and accepted Rule for the Carmelite 
Order. He was assassinated by an evil-liver 
whom he had, as was his duty, sternly rebuked, 
and has since been venerated as a Martyr. 

♦ALBERT THE GREAT (Bl.) Bp. (Nov. 15) 

(13th cent.) The famous Dominican philo- 
sopher and theologian who had St. Thomas 




Aquinas for his pupil and whose own works 
place him in the first ranks of Mediaeval School- 
men. A German by birth, after refusing many 
Ecclesiastical dignities, content to serve in his 
own Order, he was constrained by the Pope to 
accept the Bishopric of Ratisbon ; but, after 
three years of able and successful pastoral 
work, was allowed to retire to his convent at 
Cologne, where he died a.d. 1280, being then 
in his eighty-eighth year. His works are 
published in twenty-six folio volumes. 

ALBERT (St.) Bp. M. (Nov. 21) 

(12th cent.) The son of Godfrey III and 
brother of Henry, Duke of Lorraine and Bra- 
bant. Choosing the clerical profession, he was 
appointed to the Cathedral Chapter of Li6ge, 
of which Diocese he became Archdeacon. His 
virtues were such as to recommend him as the 
successor of his Bishop, Radulphus, though his 
promotion was opposed both by Baldwin, 
Count of Hainault, and by Henry VI, Emperor 
of Germany. St. Albert appealed to Rome, 
whither he travelled in disguise Pope Celestine 
not only declared his election to the See of Liege 
perfectly legitimate, but further raised him to 
the dignity of Cardinal. Consecrated at Rheims 
by the Archbishop and awaiting there an oppor- 
tunity of returning to his Bishopric, he was 
lured outside the city walls by some creatures 
of the Emperor, who pretended to be, like him- 
self, victims of persecution, and murdered by 
them (a.d. 1192). Of his relics part are at 
Liege and part at Louvain. 

ALBERT (St.) Bp. (Dec. 13) 

Otherwise St. AUBERT or AUTHBERT, 
which ssc 

*ALBERTA (St.) V.M. (March 11) 

(3rd cent.) One of the earlier victims of the 
persecution under Diocletian (a.d. 286). She 
suffered at Agen in the South of France. 

*ALBEUS (St.) Bp. (Sept. 3) 

Otherwise St. AILBHE, which see. 

ALBINA (St.) V.M. (Dec. 16) 

(3rd cent.) A young Christian znaiden who 
suffered at Caesarea in Palestine, in the persecu- 
tion under Decius (A.D. 250). But the Roman 
Martyrology seems to imply that she was carried 
to Italy and there put to death. Her relics 
have certainly from time immemorial been 
enshrined in the Cathedral of Gaeta in the 
Neapolitan territory. The Greeks allow this, 
but explain it by urging a miraculous translation 
of her body after martyrdom. 

ALBINUS (St.) Bp. (Feb. 5) 


ALBINUS (AUBIN) (St.) Bp. (March 2) 

(6th cent.) A native of the Diocese of Vannes 
in Brittany, who, after spending a quarter of a 
century in the cloister, was elected Bishop of 
Angers (a.d. 529). He took a prominent part 
in the Third Council of Orleans (A.D. 538). 
A church and Abbey were erected to his memory 
at Angers. St. Aubin de Moeslain (Haute 
Marne) is a popular place of pilgrimage. 

ALBINUS (AUBIN, ALPIN) (St.) Bp. (Sept. 15) 
(4th cent.) The successor of St. Justus in 
the See of Lyons between A.D 380 and A.D. 390, 
but the length of his Episcopate is uncertain. 
He is said to have built the Church of St. 
Stephen and to have chosen it for his Cathedral. 
He was buried at Lyons, but it is uncertain in 
what church. 

♦ALBINUS (St.) Bp. (Oct. 26) 

(7th cent.) An Anglo-Saxon Saint, by name 
Witta, who took the name Albinus, a Latinised 
form, when setting out as a fellow-worker with 
St. Boniface in the conversion of Germany. 
One of the new Missionary Bishoprics in that 
country was allotted to him. 

♦ALBURGA (St.) Widow. (Dec. 25) 

(9th cent.) Sister to King Egbert of Wessex, 
and married to a noble of his Court, after whose 
death she retired to the monastery which she 
had founded at Wilton, near Salisbury, where 
she passed away sometime in the ninth century. 

*ALCHMUND (St.) M. (March 19) 

(8th cent.) A prince of the Royal House of 
Northumbria, who after many years of exile 
among the Picts in Scotland met his death in 
Shropshire (A.D 800) in circumstances which 
led to his end being regarded as a martyrdom. 
Many miracles were wrought at his tomb, and 
his relics were enshrined in a magnificent church 
erected in his honour at Derby. 

*ALCUIN (ALBINUS) (Bl.) Abbot. (May 19) 

(9th cent.) A native of York who has the 
reputation of having been the most learned 
man of his time. Well versed in Greek and 
Latin literature, he gave great impetus to the 
founding of schools, both in England, and later 
in France. A favourite of the Emperor Charle- 
magne (whose almoner he became), Alcuin used 
all his influence with that monarch to advance 
the kindred causes of Christianity and civilisa- 
tion. He reformed the discipline of various 
monasteries and died Abbot of St. Martin's at 
Tours (A.D. 804). We have from his pen 
Commentaries on Holy Scripture to the cor- 
recting of the Latin text of which Alcuin gave 
much time and labour ; likewise, volumes of 
letters and other works. 

♦ALDATE (ELDATE) (St.) (Feb. 4) 

(5th cent.) A Briton who lived in the western 
counties of England, and who in some legends 
is styled Bishop of Gloucester. Aldate's patriot- 
ism in stirring up his fellow-countrymen to 
resist the heathen invaders of the land, coupled 
with his pious and exemplary life, gained for 
him local repute as a Saint. Many churches 
bear his name as their Titular Saint ; but reli- 
able details of his life are lacking. His death 
may safely be assigned to the middle of the 
fifth century. There is some reason to believe 
that there were two Saints of this name in the 
England of the fifth and sixth centuries ; but it 
is impossible to disentangle their legends. 

ALDEGUNDA (ORGONNE) (St.) V. (Jan 30) 

(7th cent.) The Patron Saint of Maubeuge 
on the Sambre, in the North of France, and the 
foundress of its famous Abbey. She was of 
the Royal House of the Merovingians and 
trained to holiness by St. Amandus, Bishop of 
Maestricht, from whom she received the veil of 
religion. She died of cancer about a.d. 680, 
and was succeeded as Abbess by her niece, 
St. Adeltrude. 

Bps. (Sept. 7) 

(8th cent.) Two Bishops of Hexham in 
Northumbria, the one and the other locally 
venerated as a Saint. St. Alchmund died after 
thirteen years of Episcopate (a.d. 780), and his 
successor St. Gilbert, nine years later. 

Bp. (Jan. 7) 

(9th cent.) Bishop of Le Mans in the West 
of France, a learned and most pious prelate, 
devoted to the poor and to the religious interests 
of his Diocese. He was also in high repute for 
ability in the management of affairs ; and, by 
his holiness of life, impressed all at the Court of 
King Louis le Debonnaire. The works he wrote 
are unfortunately lost. He died A.D. 856. 

♦ALDETRUDE (St.) V. (Feb. 25) 

(7th cent.) A niece of SS. Aldegundis and 
Waldetrude, who embraced the religious life 
in the monastery founded by the former at 
Maubeuge in France. In due course she suc- 
ceeded her aunt as Abbess. She seems to have 
lived to extreme old age, as her death is placed 
in the last quarter of the seventh century. 

ALDHELM (ADHELM) (St.) Bp. (May 25) 

(8th cent.) The son of Kenter, a relative of 
Ina, King of Wessex, and a pupil at Canterbury 
of the Abbot St. Adrian. He further pursued 
his studies under St. Maidulf, an Irish scholar 
and the Founder of Malmesbury (Maidulfsbury). 
St. Aldhelm himself became Abbot later on in 
his life of this same Abbey of Malmesbury, and, 
while holding this charge, at the request of a 



Synod, wrote his well-known letter to Gerontius, 
King of the Daranonian Britons on the vexed 
question of the date of Easter. On the division 
of the Diocese of Wessex, St. Aldhelra was 
appointed Bishop of the Western half, with his 
See at Sherborne in Dorsetshire. Four years 
later (A.d. 709) he died at Dulting in Somerset- 
shire. He was undoubtedly a highly accom- 
plished prelate, and was the first among the 
Anglo-Saxons invaders of Britain to cultivate 
both Latin and vernacular poetry. 

*ALENA (St.) V.M. (June 24) 

(7th cent.) A young girl of noble birth in the 
country now called Belgium, who, having been 
converted to Christianity, while secretly jour- 
neying to hear Mass, was set upon and bar- 
barously put to death by the pagans of the 
neighbourhood, about a.d. 640. 

ALEXANDER (St.) Bp. M. (Jan. 11) 

(3rd cent.) A native of Fermo, near Ancona 
in Italy, who became Bishop of his native city 
wherein he laboured, " faithful unto death." 
He perished in the persecution under the 
Emperor Decius (a.d. 250). His relics are still 
enshrined in his Cathedral. 

ALEXANDER (St.) M. (Jan. 30) 

(3rd cent.) A venerable old man who, for 
repeatedly proclaiming his Christian belief, was 
tortured and put to death in the persecution 
under Decius (a.d. 251), at Edessa in Syria. 
Some historians think that this St. Alexander 
is identical with the Saint of the same name, 
Patriarch of Jerusalem, whose Feast is cele- 
brated on March 18. Nor does this seem 

ALEXANDER (St.) M. (Feb. 9) 

(Date uncertain.) On Feb. 9, the Roman 
Martyrology commemorates two Saints of the 
name Alexander. The one is represented as 
having suffered martyrdom in Rome with thirty- 
eight other Christians. The other is described 
as a Martyr in Cyprus, with a St. Ammonius 
as a fellow-sufferer. There is possibly some 
error here, due to the ancient copyists. The 
learned Bollandists distribute these Martyrs 
quite differently, add twenty to their number, 
and insist that they all perished in Africa or in 
the East, though of some the relics may have 
been translated to Rome. 

ALEXANDER (St.) M. (Feb. 18) 


ALEXANDER (St.) Bp. (Feb. 26) 

(4th cent.) The successor of St. Achillas in 
the Patriarchal See of Alexandria, and a 
champion of the Faith against the heretic Arius. 
To his influence over the Emperor Constantino 
are due in great part the facilities which that 
monarch afforded to the Bishops for their 
gathering at the memorable Council of Nicaea 
(A.D. 325). St. Achillas died in the following year. 

FORTUNATUS (SS.) MM. (Feb. 27) 

(Date uncertain.) Martyrs who have re- 
mained in popular memory but of whom we have 
no record. Some believe them to have suffered 
in Rome ; others in Thessaly. Their names, 
too, are variously spelled which adds new diffi- 
culties to the research. 

ALEXANDER (St.) M. (March 10) 



MM. (March 17) 

(Date uncertain.) These Saints, Cardinal 
Baronius describes as Roman Martyrs, whose 
names he found in the ancient MSS. he collated, 
together with a series of other names purporting 
to have been companions in martyrdom with 
Alexander and Theodore. St. Alexander is 
sometimes described as a Bishop, and St. Theo- 
dore as his deacon. Their names, too, are 
sometimes found written Nicander and Theo- 
dulus. There is no trace discoverable nowadays 
anywhere of their history. In the middle of 
the ninth century, Pope Sergius II solemnly 
translated and enshrined their relics. 


Bp. (March 18) 

(3rd cent.) A fellow-student with Origen 
at Alexandria in Egypt. He became Bishop of 
a See in Asia Minor, where he suffered for the 
Faith in the time of Septimus Severus (a.d. 
204). When on a visit to Jerusalem, he was 
chosen by the Patriarch, St. Narcissus, as his 
coadjutor. He lived to a very great age and 
was at length (a.d. 250) arrested in the persecu- 
tion under Decius. He died in prison at 
Caesarea in Palestine a few months afterwards. 

ALEXANDER (St.) M. (March 24) 

Two Martyrs of this name are included in the 
which see. 

ALEXANDER (St.) M. (March 27) 

(3rd cent.) A soldier, described in the Roman 
Martyrology as having suffered as a Christian 
in Hungary, under the Emperor Maximian 
Herculeus, colleague of Diocletian. There is 
great difficulty in distinguishing this St. Alexan- 
der from St. Alexander of Thrace (May 13). 

ALEXANDER (St.) M. (March 28) 


ALEXANDER and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (April 24) 
(2nd cent.) A Greek by birth, and the 
friend and companion of St. Epipodius of 
Lyons. He was arrested as a Christian, put to 
the torture and, in the end, crucified (A.d. 177). 
Thirty-four other Christians of Lyons perished 
at the same time. 

(SS.) MM. (May 3) 

(2nd cent.) Pope St. Alexander I, a Roman 
by birth, succeeded St. Evaristus, a.d. 108, 
or as others contend, a.d. 121, and reigned 
for about ten years. A constant tradition 
attributes to him the change in the Canon of 
the Mass of the words used by St. Paul : " Who 
in the night in which He was betrayed," into 
those now employed : " Who the day before 
He suffered." St. Alexander was put to 
death, together with his two priests, Eventius 
and Theodulus, under the Emperor Hadrian. 
Modern research and especially the discovery 
of the tomb of this early Pope has tended to 
confirm the account of St. Alexander handed 
down to us in Mediaeval Acts, hitherto regarded 
as unreliable. 

(4th cent.) St. Alexander, a Christian 
soldier, during the persecution under Diocletian 
and his colleagues, succeeded in rescuing a 
Christian maiden, St. Antonina, from a house 
of ill-fame, to which, as was not unusual in pagan 
times, she had been condemned. They were 
both arrested and, after preliminary torture, 
burned to death at Constantinople (a.d. 313), 
Maximin Daza then reigning in the East. 

ALEXANDER (St.) M. (May 20) 


ALEXANDER (St.) M. (May 29) 


ALEXANDER (St.) M. (June 2) 


ALEXANDER (St.) Bp. (June 4) 

(8th cent.) One of the many Saints who 
occupied the See of Verona. He appears to 
have been the twenty-first Bishop and to have 
flourished at the beginning of the eighth 

ALEXANDER (St.) M. (June 6) 


ALEXANDER (St.) Bp. M. (June 6) 

(6th cent.) A holy Bishop of Fiesole (Tus- 
cany), famous for his courageous defence of 
the rights and liberties of the Church, at the 
Court of the Kings of Lombardy. He, however, 
paid for his intrepidity with his life ; for on 
his return, after having won his cause, he was 
waylaid by his opponents and drowned in the 
river Arno (A.D. 590). 

ALEXANDER (St.) M. (July 9) 





ALEXANDER (St.) M. (July 10) 

MM., which see. 
ALEXANDER (St.) M. (July 21) 

ALEXANDER (St.) M. (Aug. 1) 

ALEXANDER (St.) Bp. M. (Aug. 11) 

(3rd cent.) This Saint Alexander has 
acquired the surname Carbonarius (the charcoal- 
burner), an occupation which he voluntarily 
took up in preference to the career which his 
wealth and noble birth had opened out before 
him. On the death of their Bishop, the clergy 
and laity of Comana, a suffragan See of Neo- 
Caesarea in Asia Minor, applied to St. Gregory 
Thaumaturgus for the choice of a successor. 
His rejecting certain candidates proposed 
because of their worldly position led to one of 
the clergy jestingly proposing Alexander the 
Charcoal-burner, who on being examined, was 
found in reality to have all the qualities requisite 
in a Bishop. St. Alexander was burned to death 
at the stake, as a Christian, a.d. 250. 
ALEXANDER (St.) M. (Aug. 26) 

(3rd cent.) A Tribune in the Theban Legion 
(See SS. Mauritius, etc.) who, being arrested 
and condemned to death, made his escape 
from the prison at Milan, but was retaken out- 
side the walls of Bergamo and there beheaded, 
it is said, in the presence of Maximin Herculeus 
himself (a.d. 297). The Acts of the Martyr 
are preserved at Bergamo, where his relics are 
enshrined in the Cathedral. 
ALEXANDER (St.) Bp. (Aug. 28) 

(4th cent.) The first Bishop to preside over 
the See of Constantinople, after its change of 
name from Byzantium. During the stormy 
period of the struggle of the Church against the 
Arian heresy, he, ably supported by his name- 
sake of Alexandria, was a resolute champion 
of the Catholic Faith. He assisted at the 
Council of H ice ; and, though threatened with 
banishment, persisted in his refusal to allow 
Arius to communicate with the Church of Con- 
stantinople. The awful death of Arius is 
regarded as a response to the Saint's prayer 
for deliverance from his machinations. St. 
Alexander is commemorated by the Greeks on 
August 30. He died at a ripe old age a.d. 340. 
ALEXANDER (St.) M. (Sept. 9) 

ALEXANDER (St.) Bp. M. (Sept. 21) 

(2nd cent.) A holy Bishop, whose See was 
in the neighbourhood of Rome. Having by 
his prayers recalled dead men to life, his fame 
spread about, and he was arrested and put to the 
torture. In the end he was beheaded on the 
Claudian Way, some twenty miles from Rome, 
in what precise year is unknown. Pope St. 
Damasus in the fourth century translated his 
relics and enshrined them in one of the Roman 
ALEXANDER (St.) M. (Sept. 28) 

ALEXANDER SAULI (St.) Bp. (Oct. 11) 

(16th cent.) One of God's instruments in 
the restoration of Church discipline in Italy 
in the sixteenth century. Of noble birth in 
Lombardy, he joined the recently founded 
Order of Barnabites, of which he became 
General. His chief sphere of work was in 
Corsica, where for twenty years he was Bishop 
of Aleria. Made in 1591, against his will, 
Bishop of Pavia, he died there (April 23) in 
the following year. He was beatified in 1741, 
and canonised by Pope Pius X A.D. 1904. 
ALEXANDER (St.) M. (Oct. 17) 


MM. (Oct. 22) 

(Date unknown.) St. Alexander, a Bishop, 
but whose See is not mentioned, is described in 
the Menology of Basil as having preached the 
Gospel with such success as to A have converted 


to the Faith of Christ a multitude of both Jews 
and Pagans. Arrested and brought before the 
Imperial authorities, no torture could induce 
him to consent to take part in heathen rites. 
One of his guards was so moved by the sight of 
the constancy of the Martyr that he too pro- 
claimed himself a Christian, and was in conse- 
quence beheaded. This is the St. Heraclius 
honoured with St. Alexander. Other converts 
followed. St. Alexander and his disciples were 
in the end all put to death. Unfortunately, 
neither the date nor the place of their martyr- 
dom have come down to us. 
ALEXANDER (St.) M. (Nov. 9) 

(4th cent.) A Confessor, who suffered at 
Salonica, under the Emperor Maximian Hercu- 
leus, Diocletian's savage colleague (A.d. 304). 
No particulars are discoverable. 
ALEXANDER (St.) M. (Nov. 24) 

(4th cent.) One of the sufferers in the 
persecution under Julian the Apostate. He 
died for the Faith at Corinth a.d. 361. 

(16th cent.) A holy priest, with a " sweet 
grace in preaching," who shortly before his 
martyrdom joined the Society of Jesus. While 
in prison for the Faith he was severely racked 
and otherwise put to many tortures. He 
suffered at Tyburn, with Blessed Edmund 
Campion and Blessed Ralph Sherwin, Dec. 1, 
A.D. 1581. 
ALEXANDER (St.) M. (Dec. 12) 




(SS.) MM. (March 20) 

(4th cent.) Christian women, natives of 
Amissus in Paphlagonia (Asia Minor), burned 
to death on account of their religion in that 
town, under the Emperors Diocletian and 
Maximinian (about A.D. 300). 
ALEXANDRA (St.) V.M. (May 18) 


Of the innumerable Christians who laid 
down their lives for Christ in Egypt, in the 
early persecutions under the heathen Roman 
Emperors, in the troubles with the Eutychian 
heretics, and in the massacres consequent on 
the over-running of the country by the Moham- 
medan Arabs, a large proportion suffered at 
Alexandria, the metropolis. Many of these 
Ma*"* are mentioned in this volume in 
connection with the Bishops or others who 
were their leaders, this being the method 
followed by the Martyrologies and other 
ancient catalogues of Saints. A few other 
important groups of Alexandrian Martyrs 
are the following. They were mostly victims 
of mob violence, in massacres of Christians 
tolerated by the authorities, rather than Chris- 
tians tried in regular form and condemned 
to death by magistrates. 

(4th cent.) An Arian officer, by name 
Syrianus, at the head of a troop of soldiers, 
entered the great church of Alexandria, insulted 
the Patriarch St. Athanasius, who was offering 
the Holy Sacrifice, and without formalities of 
any kind ordered those present to be put to 
death. St. Athanasius was among the few 
who escaped (a.d. 356). 

(3rd cent.) The Church recognises as 
Martyrs to charity a number of clerics and of 
laymen who sacrificed their lives (a.d. 261) 
in ministering to the plague-stricken in a 
terrible pestilence at that time raging in 

(4th cent.) A multitude of Christians 
massacred by the Pagan devotees of Serapis 
on their refusal to join in the idolatrous worship 
offered in his temple. This was the work of a 



riotous mob (A.D. 390) during the reign of the 
Christian Emperor Theodosius, who thereupon 
destroyed the temple and had a Christian 
church built upon its site. 


(4th cent.) Catholics of both sexes (number 
unrecorded) massacred in various churches of 
Alexandria (a.d. 342) by the Arians who had 
deposed and expelled the Patriarch, St. Athana- 
sius, their great opponent. 


(4th cent.) A great number of Catholics 
put to death or exiled from Alexandria (A.D. 
372) when, for the fifth time, St. Athanasius 
had been driven from his flock, under the 
Arian Emperor Valens. 


(3rd cent.) A multitude of Christians, victims 
at Alexandria of the persecutions under the 
Emperors Decius and Valerian. St. Denis of 
Alexandria gives a graphic account of their 
sufferings. They are in the Roman Martyrology 
commemorated together, though they were 
put to death in various years between A.D. 260 
and A.D. 267. 

*ALEXIS (ALEXIUS) of KIEFF (St.) Bp. (Feb. 12) 
(14th cent.) A Russian nobleman who 
embraced the religious life under the Rule of 
St. Basil, and who later became Archbishop of 
Kiew. Famous for the working of miracles 
and for wisdom and learning, he is said to 
have been appealed to for advice, even by the 
Sultan of the Turks in Asia Minor. He died 
A.D. 1364. 

ALEXIUS FALCONIERI (St.) Conf. (Feb. 17) 

THE SERVITE ORDER, which see. 

ALEXIS (ALEXIUS) (St.) Conf. (July 17) 

(5th cent.) The only son of a Roman 
Senator, whom desire to avoid the fascinations 
of the world, impelled to fly from his home and 
promised bride on his wedding day, and to set 
sail for Asia Minor. On his arrival there he 
made his way to Edessa, where for many years 
he lived in the greatest poverty and busied 
himself in prayer and good works. Dreading 
the veneration in which he began to be held 
on account of his holy life, he journeyed to the 
coast and embarked in a vessel bound for 
Tarsus. But, after many mishaps at sea, he 
was at length cast ashore on the coast of Italy, 
his native country, and so returned to Rome. 
Acting on a Divine impulse, he there sought 
shelter in his father's house, in a shed adjoining 
which he was suffered to live and die, disguised 
as a poor mendicant, without his identity being 
discovered. After his decease, a written 
paper was found in his possession, giving 
particulars of his life and of the motives which 
had induced him to act as he had done. Pope 
Innocent I and the Emperor Honorius are 
said to have been present at his obsequies 
and at his burial in the Church of St. Boniface, 
erected close to his father's mansion (a.d. 404). 
The many miracles wrought at his intercession 
led to his being honoured as a Saint. 


Abbot. (April 12) 

(11th cent.) The founder of the celebrated 
monastery of La Cava in the South of Italy. 
Among his disciples was the future Pope, 
Blessed Victor III. Blessed Alferius died at 
a great age A.D. 1050. 

•ALFRED (ALTFRIED) (Bl.) Bp. (Sept. 15) 

(9th cent.) A Bishop of Hildesheim in 

Germany, who died about A.D. 869, and is 

honoured as a Saint. But of his holy life no 

reliable particulars are extant. 


(St.) V. (May 20) 

Otheruise St. ALTHRYDA, which see. 

♦ALFRICK (St.) Bp. (Nov. 16) 

(10th cent.) An Abbot of Abingdon, after- 
wards Archbishop of Canterbury (A.D. 995- 
a.d. 1006), distinguished for the holiness of his 

life and for his able government of his Church in 
the critical times of the Danish invasion of Kent. 
♦ALFWOLD (St.) Bp. (March 26) 

(11th cent.) A Winchester monk, specially 
devout to SS. Swithun and Cuthbert, and 
remarkable for the austerity of his holy and 
singularly active life. He was made Bishop 
of Sherborne, which See he governed with zeal 
and prudence till his death (a.d. 1058). 
SCHAERBECK) V. (June 11) 

(13th cent.) A nun in a Cistercian monastery 
in the neighbourhood of Brussels. She passed 
away about A.D. 1300. 
ALGERIC (St.) Bp. (Dec. 1) 

Otherwise St. AGERICUS, AGUY, AIRY, 
which see. 
ALICE (St.) V. (Feb. 5) 

Otherwise St. ADELHEID or ADELAIDE, 
which see. 
ALIPIUS (ALYPIUS) Bp. (Aug. 15) 

(5th cent.) A fellow citizen and disciple of 
St. Augustine of Hippo, to whom he was 
greatly attached, and whom he followed from 
Carthage to Rome and Milan, where they were 
both baptised by St. Ambrose on Easter Eve, 
A.D. 387. Upon their return to Africa, they 
spent some time in solitude as Religious. 
Afterwards St. Alipius visited the Holy Land. 
Elected Bishop of Tagaste, he laboured strenu- 
ously in the defence of the Church against the 
Donatist and Pelagian heresies. He is said 
to have been present at the deathbed of St. 
Augustine (a.d. 430), and to have himself 
passed away shortly afterwards. 
♦ALKELD (St.) V. (March 27) 

(10th cent.) Two Yorkshire churches are 
dedicated to this Saint (sometimes called 
Athilda). Nothing whatever is known of her 
except that an ancient painting represents her 
being strangled by Danish pirates. Such an 
event may with some probability be assigned 
to the tenth century. But her name does not 
occur in any of the older Calendars or in any 
Liturgical record. 
♦ALKMUND (St.) M. (March 19) 

Otherwise St. ALCHMUND, which see. 
♦ALLAN (ALLEN) (St.) Conf. (Jan. 12) 

Otherwise St. ELIAN, which see. 
ALLOYNE (St.) Conf. (Oct. 1) 

Otherwise St. BAVO, which see. 
ALLYRE (St.) Bp. (July 7) 

Otherwise St. ILLIDIUS, which see. 
(5th cent.) A hermit who came to Rome 
from the East and publicly protested against 
the inhuman gladiatorial combats in the Roman 
Amphitheatre. He was seized and cut to pieces 
by order of the Prefect Alipius (a.d. 404). 
The Emperor Honorius, however, availed him- 
self of this happening to put an end to the 
practice of sacrificing human beings in the 
public sports. 
(6th cent.) A daughter or granddaughter 
of the famous King Brychan of Brecknock. 
The tradition is that she suffered martyrdom 
in a hill near Brecknock, at the hands of the 
heathen, sometime in the sixth century. 
*ALNOTH (St.) M. (Nov. 25) 

(7th cent.) A poor serving man in St. Wer- 
burgh's monastery at Chester, who embraced 
the life of an anchoret in Northamptonshire 
and was put to death by evil-doers towards the 
end of the seventh century. His sanctity was 
borne witness to bv many miracles. 
ALODIA (St.) V.M. (Oct. 22) 

ALONZO (St.) Bp. (Jan. 23) 

Otherwise St. ILDEPHONSUS, which see. 
ALORUS (St.) Bp. (Oct. 26) 


(16th cent.) A son of Ferdinand Gonzaga, 
Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, born 




March 9, 1568. Such was his piety that 
Cardinal Bellarmine helieved Aloysius to have 
passed his whole life without ever grievously 
offending Almighty God. After serving as a 
page at the Court of Spain, he in his eighteenth 
year entered the Society of Jesus, took the vows 
of religion and received minor Orders. He 
died of the plague, having contracted the 
infection while visiting and ministering to the 
sick (a.d. 1591) at the age of twenty-three. 
St. Aloysius is usually represented in art, 
clad in a surplice, and with a lily and crucifix 
in his hands or near him. He is Patron Saint 
of the young. Many churches are dedicated 
to him in all parts of the world. 
ALPHAEUS (St.) Conf. (May 26) 

(1st cent.) Commemorated hy the Greeks 
as the father of the Apostle St. James the Less, 
and mentioned as such in the Gospels (Matt. x. 
3). There are no trustworthy traditions con- 
cerning him. 

(4th cent.) Martyrs in Palestine during the 
persecution under Diocletian (about A.D. 302). 
They were prominent among the multitude of 
Christians in the Holy Land, who with St. 
Procopius laid down their lives for Christ. 
In the accounts we have of them, stress is 
particularly put upon their heroic endurance 
of the most appalling tortures, previous to 
their execution. 
ALPHAGE (ALPHEGE) Bp. M. (April 19) 

Otherwise St. ELPHEGE, which see. 

MM. (May 10) 

(3rd cent.) Sicilian Saints, said to have been 
brothers. Their Acts are unreliable owing to 
many interpolations ; but they appear to have 
suffered under Decius (a.d. 251). They are in 
great veneration in Sicily and also among the 
ALPHIUS (St.) M. (Sept. 28) 


(17th cent.) A Dominican missionary in 
Japan, where he converted many thousands to 
Christianity. He was beheaded (a.d. 1617), 
and two years later his body was discovered 
to be still incorrupt. 

of the Church. (Aug. 2) 

(18th cent.) Born at Naples of an ancient 
and noble family, he began his public life as a 
barrister, but soon renounced his prospects of 
a brilliant career to devote himself exclusively 
to the service of God. He joined a Society 
of priests formed for the purpose of giving 
missions and instruction to the people of the 
Kingdom of Naples, and became a true Apostle 
of Christ who crowned his preaching and 
labours with wonderful success and with the 
gift of working miracles. At Benevento he 
founded the Congregation of the Most Holy 
Redeemer to perpetuate this special work of 
mission-giving. After refusing many Bishop- 
rics, he was prevailed upon to accept that of 
S. Agata dei Goti, by Pope Clement XIII. 
As a bishop he showed himself a model of every 
pastoral virtue, but owing to failing health, 
finally obtained permission to resign his See. 
The remainder of his life he employed in the 
composition of theological and ascetical works, 
which display both deep learning and a won- 
derful spirit of fervent piety. He was also a 
poet and a musician. He died in his ninetieth 
year (A..D. 1787) in the odour of sanctity and 
was canonised by Pope Gregory XVI in the 
year 1839. In 1871, Pius IX proclaimed him 
a Doctor of the Church. Artists usually 
represent him in the attitude of prayer with a 
monstrance in his hand, or writing with pen 
and paper before a crucifix. 
ALPHONSUS RODRIGUEZ (St.) Conf. (Oct. 30) 

(17th cent.) A well-to-do Spanish merchant, 
who, on losing his wife and two children, joined 


the Society of Jesus as a lay-brother, and for 
thirty years served as porter in a Jesuit College 
in the Island of Majorca. He was enriched by 
God with many wonderful supernatural gifts, 
but was chiefly remarkable for his exceeding 
patience and humility. He died A.d. 1617 
at the age of eighty -six, and many miracles have 
been wrought in favour of those who have 
invoked him. 
ALPINIAN (St.) Conf. (June 30) 

♦ALRICK (St.) Conf. (June 30) 

(11th cent.) A holy hermit in the north of 
England, associated with St. Godric, who 
assisted him at his departure from this world. 
St. Alrick lived in the last half of the eleventh 

(St.) V. (May 20) 

(9th cent.) A daughter of King Offa of Mercia 
and the betrothed wife of the Martyr-king, 
St. iEthelbehrt, after whose death she retired 
to Croyland (a.d. 792) and thenceforth lived as 
a recluse. She passed away A.D. 834. 
•ALTHEUS (St.) Conf. (Dec. 26) 

Otherwise St. TATHAI, which see. 
ALTMANN (St.) Bp. (Aug. 8) 

(11th cent.) A native of Paderborn in 
Westphalia, first known as leader of seven 
thousand Christians in a pilgrimage to the 
Holy Land, where a third of their number were 
massacred by the infidels. On his return he 
was appointed Bishop of Passau, and distin- 
guished himself by his resolute support of Pope 
St. Gregory VII in that Pontiff's efforts to 
reform clerical discipline in Germany. He 
suffered in consequence exile and persecution, 
nor was freed from the latter save by his holy 
death (A.d. 1091). His shrine is in the Abbey 
of Gottweic, which he had founded. 
ALTO (St.) Abbot. (Sept. 5) 

(8th cent.) By birth a Scot, he crossed over 
into Germany and, favoured by King Pepin, 
founded the celebrated Bavarian Abbey of 
Alt-Munster, where he died about A.D. 760, 
having been the means of the conversion to 
Christianity of a multitude of Pagans. 
♦ALVAREZ of CORDOVA (Bl.) (Feb. 9) 

(15th cent.) A Saint of the Order of St. 
Dominic, who spent his life in preaching and 
converting sinners throughout Spain, and who 
laboured hard to extinguish the great Schism 
of the West, occasioned by the conflicting 
claims of two rival Popes. Blessed Alvarez 
died A.D. 1420. 
AMADEUS of SAVOY (Bl.) Conf. (March 31) 

(15th cent.) A Duke of Savoy who governed 
his states in such manner as not only to make 
himself beloved by his subjects, but also by 
his holy example to promote religion among 
them. He died at Vercelli in Piedmont, A.d. 
1472, when in the thirty-eighth year of his age. 
He is the Patron Saint of the Royal House of 
Piedmont, of the members of which he is an 

AMADOUR (St.) Conf. (Aug. 20) 

Otherwise St. AMATOR, which see. 

AMADOUR (St.) Bp. (May 1) 

Otherwise St. AMATOR, which see. 

*AMAETHLU (MAETHLU) (St.) Conf. (Dec. 22) 
(6th cent.) A Welsh Saint who has left his 
name to Llanfaethlu, a church founded by him 
in Anglesev. 

AMANDUS (St.) Bp. (Feb. 6) 

(7th cent.) Born near Nantes in the West 
of France, he embraced the monastic life in 
the Abbey of St. Martin at Tours and, at the 
request of King Clothaire II, undertook mis- 
sionary work in Flanders, Brabant and Holland. 
For this purpose he was consecrated a Mission- 
ary Bishop, and in the year 649 was called to 
govern the See of Maestricht. He founded a 
great number of churches and monasteries, 
besides effecting innumerable conversions to 
Christianity. In his declining years he retired 



to the Abbey of Elnon, where he passed away 
in his ninetieth year (a.d. 684). He is the 
Patron Saint of Flanders and is represented 
in art carrying a church in his hand. 
AMANDUS (St.) Bp. (June 18) 

(5th cent.) The successor of St. Delphinus 
as Bishop of Bordeaux, about A.d. 404, which 
See he resigned for a time, but returned to it 
at the death of St. Severinus, who had suc- 
ceeded him. He was contemporary with St. 
Paulinus of Nola, who attributes to St. Amandus 
his own conversion to Christianity and Baptism. 
They died about the same time (a.d. 431). 
AMANDUS (St.) M. (Feb. 10) 

AMANTIUS (St.) Conf. (March 19) 

AMANTIUS (St.) Bp. (April 8) 

(5th cent.) The successor of St. Provinus 
in the See of Como. St. Leo the Great presented 
him with precious relics of SS. Peter and Paul, 
to whom he dedicated his Cathedral at Como, 
wherein he himself was buried (a.d. 440). He 
is still held in great veneration by his flock, 
who, in the sixteenth century, enshrined his 
relics in a church dedicated in his honour. 

(SS.) MM. (June 6) 

(Date unknown.) Said to have been four 
brothers born at Cannes on the Mediterranean 
coast, and together converted to Christianity. 
Amantius became Bishop of Noyon (France), 
whither his brothers followed him. They appear 
to have perished together, probably in one of 
the local persecutions of the second century. 
AMANTIUS (St.) M. (June 10) 

AMANTIUS (St.) Conf. (Sept. 26) 

(6th cent.) A priest personally known to 
St. Gregory the Great, who compared him to 
the Apostles in regard to his power of working 
miracles. The date of his death is unknown, but 
he seems to have been called to his reward about 
a.d. 600 at Tiphernum (Citta di Castello), near 
Perugia, where he is honoured as a Patron Saint. 
AMANTIUS (St.) Bp. (Nov. 4) 

(5th cent.) A native and Bishop of Rhodez 
(South of France), and second Apostle of the 
district which had fallen away from Christian- 
ity. By his preaching and the miracles he 
wrought he won his people back to Christ. 
He died about a.d. 440. 
AMARANTHUS (St.) M. (Nov. 7) 

(3rd cent.) Said to have suffered martyrdom 
at Vieux, near Albi, in the south of France 
in the third century. Little or nothing is known 
about him, save what we can glean from St. 
Gregory of Tours, who says that he had read 
the account of his martyrdom. He appears, 
however, to have been widely venerated in 
ancient times. St. Eugene of Carthage, 
banished from Africa, came to die at the tomb 
of St. Amaranthus. The relics of both Saints 
are enshrined in the Cathedral of Albi. 
AMATOR, PETER and LOUIS (SS.) MM. (April 30) 
(9th cent.) A Spanish priest with his deacon 
and layman, put to death by the Moors at 
Cordova, where he had zealously laboured, 
encouraging his fellow-Christians to remain 
faithful to Christ, no matter how much perse- 
cuted because of Him. 

Bp. (May 1) 

(5th cent.) A disciple of St. Valerian, Bishop 
of Auxerre, and the husband of a holy woman 
venerated locally as St. Martha. By mutual 
agreement, St. Martha entered a convent and 
St. Amator received Holy Orders, and later 
succeeded Eladius as Bishop of Auxerre (A.D. 
306). In his turn he was succeeded by the 
famous St. Germanus, whom he had ordained. 
St. Amator was buried (a.d. 418) in the church 
which he had built in honour of the Martyr 
St. Symphorian, and which later bore his own 

AMATOR (AMADOUR) (St.) Conf. (Aug. 20) 

(1st cent.) Supposed to have been the first 
Christian to live the hermit's life in Gaul. 
His cell was at Quercy, near Cahors, and is 
still a much frequented place of pilgrimage. 
His body, in the year 1126, was found to be 
incorrupt and flexible as when first laid in the 
AMATOR (St.) Bp. (Nov. 26) 

(3rd cent.) A citizen of Autun (France), 
and afterwards Bishop of that city. He 
organised the Church of the Aedui (the Gallic 
tribes between the Saone and the Loire), and 
appears to have been Bishop among them in 
a.d. 270. His body was interred at Autun, 
near the shrine of the Martyr St. Symphorian, 
who had suffered there in the preceding century. 
AMATUS (St.) Bp. (Aug. 31) 

(12th cent.) The life of this Saint has been 
written by several authors, but they disagree 
considerably even as to the century in which 
he lived. The most likely account of him is 
that he was of noble birth, a native of the 
South of Italy, that he distributed all his 
worldly goods to the poor, became a priest, 
and afterwards a monk in the Abbey of Monte 
Vergine. There he worked miracles, and 
eventually (it would appear under the Pontifi- 
cate of Pope Adrian IV), was chosen Bishop of 
Nusco. The year of his death is given as 
a.d. 1193. But there are reputable authors 
who date his Episcopate a century earlier. 
AMATUS (AMAT, AME, AIME) Bp. (Sept. 12) 
(7th cent.) The son of noble and pious 
Frankish parents, he resolved to devote his 
life to the service of God in the priestly ministry. 
His ability and virtues so impressed the clergy 
of Sens that, against his will, he was appointed 
their Bishop. But he had enemies who made 
false accusations against him to King Thierry 
III. The latter banished him to the monastery 
of St. Fursey at Peronne, and afterwards to 
Breuil in Flanders, where he died a.d. 690. 
The church of St. Ame at Douai possesses a 
portion of his relics. It appears certain that 
St. Amatus died in exile in Flanders as above 
mentioned ; but there is considerable difficulty 
in reconciling the accounts given of his life. 
Thus, Alban Butler and others hold that he 
was Bishop not of Sens in France, but of Sion 
in the Valais, and that the monastery of his 
exile was Luxeuil and not Peronne. 
AMATUS (AIME, AME) (St.) Abbot. (Sept. 13) 
(7th cent.) Known as St. Amatus of Grenoble 
from the place of his birth. In his youth he 
entered the monastery of St. Maurice in Valais, 
and at the age of thirty retired into a hermitage, 
where his reputation for a life of penance and 
prayer, privileged with the grace of miracle- 
working, drew the attention of St. Eustathius, 
Abbot of Luxeuil, who persuaded him to join 
his community. During his ensuing Apostolic 
labours in Lorraine, he converted a rich and 
powerful baron, by name Rommaric, who 
became the founder of the famous Abbey of 
Rombers or Remiremont, and was afterwards 
himself venerated as a Saint. St. Amatus 
ruled this Abbey for many years, and established 
there the difficult pious practice of the " Laus 
perennis " or Perpetual Praise, which consisted 
in the maintaining in the Church an uninter- 
rupted service of Psalmody and Prayer, day 
and night. St. Amatus died in the year 627, 
and at his own request was buried just outside 
the church door. Later, his remains were 
suitably enshrined under one of the altars of 
the same church. 
(4th cent.) Christians who suffered death at 
Nicomedia, the Imperial residence of Dio- 
cletian, on account of their religion, probably 
in the first years of the fourth century. 
AMBROSE (St.) Conf. (March 20) 

(13th cent.) A Saint of Siena, one of the 
illustrious family of the Sansedoni, who at an 
B 17 



early age entered the Order of St. Dominic. 
By Order of Pope Gregory X, he preached the 
Crusade, in his age a thankless task. He met 
with better success in reconciling the Church 
and people of Siena with the Holy See. He 
died at the age of sixty-six, A.D. 1286. In art 
he is represented as holding in his hand a model 
of his native city. 

AMBROSE (St.) Bp., Doctor of the 

Church. (Dec. 7) 

(4th cent.) One of the four great Fathers 
and Doctors of the Western Church. Aries, 
Lyons and Treves dispute the honour of being 
his birthplace. On the death of his father, 
his mother with her family, consisting of her 
three children, St. Marcellina, her daughter, 
who devoted herself to the upbringing of her 
brothers, and the two boys, Ambrose and 
Satyrrus. The former, early distinguished by 
his talents, soon attracted the attention of the 
governing powers, and had scarcely reached 
man's estate when he was made Prefect of 
Liguria, that is, Governor of Northern Italy. 
The death soon after of the Archbishop of 
Milan, whose Diocese was torn in pieces by 
rival factions, necessitated the intervention 
of the Prefect to ensure an orderly election of 
a successor. It is said that in the midst of 
the tumult the voice of a child was heard 
crying out " Ambrose for Bishop," and the cry, 
at once taken up by the multitude, was later 
endorsed by the Emperor Valentinian III. 
Ambrose, however, was as yet only a catechu- 
men, preparing for Baptism. Nevertheless, all 
objections made by him were overruled. He 
was quickly baptised, confirmed, ordained 
priest, and consecrated Bishop (Dec. 7, A.D. 
374). Divesting himself of all his wealth 
in favour of the Church and of the poor, he 
applied himself assiduously to his pastoral 
duties and to the study of the Holy Scriptures. 
Arianism was rampant in his Diocese, and in 
his efforts to eradicate it he experienced many 
a fierce and bitter struggle. He was the 
champion of religious liberty in an age of 
usurpation of authority in spirituals by the 
secular powers. His courage in reproving and ex- 
cluding from the church services even the 
Emperor Theodosius the Great, guilty of the cruel 
massacre of Thessalonica, is one of the most 
remarkable examples of Christian heroism 
recorded in history. His writings are volu- 
minous, and in matters of religious doctrine 
still constantly appealed to. They bear eloquent 
testimony to his virtues and learning. He is 
a prominent figure in all histories of the fourth 
century. He died April 4, A.D. 397, and was 
buried by the side of the Martyrs SS. Gervase 
and Protase, whose relics he had enslirined 
at Milan. In St. Peter's in Rome, his statue 
is represented as holding up, together with 
those of SS. Augustine (whom he had converted 
and baptised), Athanasius and Chrysostom, 
the Chair of the Prince of the Apostles. 

AMBROSE (St.) M. (Aug. 16) 

(4th cent.) A centurion in the Roman army, 
who, on declaring his Faith in Christ, was 
arrested and put to various savage tortures. 
Thrown into a fiery furnace, as had happened 
to the three holy youths at Babylon, he re- 
mained unscathed. Whereupon he was made 
an end of by being drowned in a deep well at 
Ferentino in Central Italy (A.D. 303). He is 
represented in art as a soldier on horseback. 

AMBROSE (St.) Bp. (Oct. 16) 

(8th cent.) The successor of St. Capuan in 
the See of Cahors (South of France), a prelate 
~>f great learning, piety and zeal. However, 
i is Episcopate was troubled from beginning 
to end. He was forced several times to take 
relYge from his enemies in flight, and terminated 
his career as a hermit in a solitude near Bourges, 
towards the close of the eighth century. 

AMBROSE (St.) (Nov. 2) 

(6th /ent) The Abbot of a monastery near 


Lyons, afterwards promoted to the headship 
of the great Abbey of Agaune, or St. Moritz, 
in Switzerland. He was singularly zealous 
in regard to the due and complete celebration 
of the Church services, and especially for the 
continuous Psalmody, day and night, proper 
to certain exceptionally austere Religious 
Houses. He died about A.D. 516, and was 
buried in his Abbey Church. 

AME (AIME) (St.) Bp. (Sept. 12) 

Otherwise St. AMATOR., which see. 

AMELBERGA (AMELIA) (St.) V. (July 10) 

(8th cent.) A nun of Bilsea, near Liege, 
under the Abbess St. Landrada. She died in 
her monastery (A.D. 772), after a long life of 
prayer and penance ; but was buried at Tamise 
in the Ardennes, where she had built a church 
on her family estates. Her relics were trans- 
lated to an Abbey in the neighbourhood of 
Ghent, towards the end of the eleventh century. 

AMADEUS (St.) Conf. (April 18) 


AMMIA (St.) Matron. (Aug. 31) 


AMMIANUS (St.) M. (Sept. 4) 


AMMON and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Sept, 3) 

(4th cent.) Ammon, a deacon, was put to 
death under the Emperor Licinius (a.d. 313) 
at Heraclea in Thrace, together with forty 
young women whom he had converted to 
Christianity. The executioners did St. Ammon 
to death by placing a red-hot helmet on his 
head. These Martyrs are especially honoured 
in the Greek Church, but have had from ancient 
times a commemoration also in the West. 


and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Sept. 8) 

(Date uncertain.) Egyptian Christians, put 
to death at Alexandria ; but it is not clear 
whether they were previously tried and con- 
demned in virtue of the Imperial edicts against 
Christians, or suffered at the hands of the pagan 
mob. The names of the twenty-two Christians 
who shared the martyrdom of the three above- 
named are given by the Bollandists, but we 
have neither date nor particulars. Possibly 
they are the Martyrs mentioned by Eusebius 
(Bk. vi. ch. 34), quoting St. Dionysius of 

AMMON (St.) Abbot. (Oct. 4) 

(4th cent.) One of the most famous of the 
Egyptian Fathers of the Desert. His cell was 
on Mount Nitria, where Cassian reckons there 
were at the time fifty monasteries inhabited 
by five thousand monks or hermits. The 
working of many miracles is attributed to him. 
He died A.D. 348, at the ase of sixtv-two. 


and THEOPHILUS (SS.) MM. (Dec. 20) 

(Date uncertain.) St. Dionysius of Alexan- 
dria relates how a group of soldiers, named as 
above, Avere present when a Christian on his 
trial at Alexandria appeared to be on the point 
of denying his Faith. They publicly showed 
contempt of his cowardice, and on being arrested 
professed themselves Christians. They were 
put to death on that account. The date is 
unknown, and they may possibly be identical 
with the group of Martyrs in Egypt commemor- 
ated on Sept. 8, or rather have been included 
in their number. 


and another AMMONARIA (SS.) MM. (Dec. 12) 
(3rd cent.) A band of holy women of Alexan- 
dria, who suffered as Christians about the same 
time as SS. Alexander and Epimachus, during 
the Decian persecution (A.D. 250). Mercuria 
is described as an aged woman, Dionysia as 
the mother of many children, and the two 
Ammonarias as young girls. They were all 
beheaded ; but no mention is made of the 
previous torture so customary as to be almost 
general in such cases. 



AMMONIUS (St.) M. (Jan. 18) 


(SS.) MM. (Feb. 9) 

(Date uncertain.) A group of forty Christians 
registered in all the ancient Martyrologies, hut 
whether put to death in Rome itself, as stated 
in the Roman Martyrology, or in one of the 
provinces, it is now impossible to determine. 

AMMONIUS (St.) M. (Feb. 12) 


AMMONIUS (St.) M. (Feb. 14) 


AMMONIUS (St.) M. (March 26) 


AMMONIUS (St.) M. (Nov. 26) 


AMOS (St.) Prophet. (March 31) 

(8th cent. B.C.) One of the Minor Prophets, 
a shepherd of Koa, near Bethlehem. His 
prophecy is one long denunciation of evildoers. 
It was he who wrote : "I am not a prophet, 
nor the son of a prophet ; but I am a herdsman 
plucking wild figs " (Amos vii. 13). The 
Eastern tradition concerning him is that he 
was scourged, and afterwards had his temples 
pierced with an iron spike. The Greeks honour 
him on June 14. 

AMPELIUS (St.) M. (Feb. 11) 


AMPELIUS and CAIUS (SS.) MM. (Nov. 20) 

(4th cent.) They are presumed to have been 

Sicilians and to have been two of the numerous 

Martyrs at Messina, in the persecution under 

the Emperor Diocletian, about a.d. 302. 

(4th cent.) A native of Lycia (Asia Minor) 
who, while still a youth, when arrested and 
accused of being a Christian, had the hardihood 
to reproach his judge with being an idolater. 
The Martyr was partially burned at the stake, 
and then, still living, thrown into the sea at 
Caesarea in Palestine (A.D. 305). 

AMPHIBALUS (St.) M. (June 24) 

(4th cent.) The cleric or priest of Verulam, 
who was a fellow-sufferer with St. Alban (a.d. 
304 about) in the persecution under Diocletian, 
which, notwithstanding the tolerant clemency 
of the Caesar Constantius Chlorus, made some 
victims in Britain. His real name is unknown ; 
that of Amphibalus, commonly given to him, 
may be derived from the circumstance that 
St. Alban disguised him for a time In his own 
cloak or " caracalla " (amphibalus). His relics, 
with those of nine Christians who were put to 
death in the neighbourhood at about the same 
time, were enshrined in St. Alban's Abbey 
(a.d. 1178). 

AMPHILOCHIUS (St.) M. (March 27) 


AMPHILOCHIUS (St.) Bp. (Nov. 22) 

(4th cent.) An Asiatic who gave up a promis- 
ing career as a lawyer to become a solitary, and 
was afterwards elected Bishop of Iconium. 
He was of great service to St. Basil, assisting 
and supporting that Saint in the government 
of the Church of Cappadocia. St. Gregory of 
Nazianzen, his intimate friend, describes him as 
a pontiff without reproach. He attended the 
great Council of Constantinople (a.d. 381), 
where he met St. Jerome. As a theologian he 
vindicated the Divinity of the Holy Ghost against 
the followers of Macedonius, and it was to him 
that St. Basil dedicated his work on the Third 
Person of the Blessed Trinity. St. Amphilo- 
chius presided over a Council at Sida in Pam- 
phylia ; and his teachings are quoted with 
approval by later Synods. The date of his 
death was probably one of the closing years of 
the fourth century, for St. Jerome speaks of 
him as still living a.d. 392. 

AMPHION (St.) Bp. (June 11) 

(4th cent.) Sometime Bishop of Epiphania 

in Cilicia, he was chosen by the clergy of the 

important See of Nicomedia to replace their 

former Pastor, the Arian heretic Euscbius. 
St. Amphion attended various Councils of the 
period, and was one of the Fathers of the General 
Council of Nicaea. The year of his death is not 
well ascertained. 


(SS.) MM. (Oct. 31) 

(1st cent.) These Saints are the disciples of 
St. Paul mentioned by him in his Epistle to the 
Romans (xvi. 8, 9, 11). Some ancient authors 
place them among the seventy-two disciples 
chosen as preachers of the Gospel by Our Lord 
(Luke x. 19). Tradition has it that they 
subsequently attached themselves to the 
Apostle St. Andrew, and ultimately were put 
to death at the instigation of the Jews. They 
are also reported to have been Bishops in 
Greece and the Balkan countries. The Greek 
Church claimed to possess their relics at Con- 

ANACHARIUS (AUNAIRE) (St.) Bp. (Sept. 25) 
(6th cent.) Of a rich and noble family at 
Orleans, who spent his youth at the Court of 
Gunthram, King of Burgundy. Renouncing 
the world, he placed himself under the guidance 
of St. Syagrius, Bishop of Autun ; and on the 
death of St. iEtherius was chosen as his suc- 
cessor in the See of Auxerre (a.d. 572). He 
attended the Councils of Paris (a.d. 573) and of 
Macon (a.d. 583). In a special Synod (a.d. 
585) he added several disciplinary statutes to 
those already framed by the Councils. He died 
A.D. 650. 

ANACLETUS (St.) Pope, M. (July 13) 

(2nd cent.) According to the Liber Ponti- 
ficalis, St. Anacletus was ordained priest by 
St. Peter. His identity with St. Cletus has 
been the subject of great discussion, but whereas 
the latter was a Roman, St. Anacletus was an 
Athenian, according to the Catalogus Felicianus. 
The Roman Church has always distinguished 
the two Popes, keeping the Feast of St. Cletus 
on April 26 and that of St. Anacletus on July 13. 
St. Anacletus is styled a Martyr in the ancient 
Martyrologies, and is said to have suffered 
during the persecution of Trajan (a.d. 107). 

ANANIAS (St.) M. (Jan. 25) 

(1st cent.) The disciple at Damascus who 
baptised St. Paul (Acts ix.), and who, tradition 
tells us, afterwards became a zealous propagator 
of the Christian Faith, for which in the end he 
was arrested, scourged, put to the torture, 
and at last stoned to death. 

*ANANIAS and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Feb. 25) 

(3rd cent.) Martyrs in Phoenicia under 

Diocletian (A.D. 298). St. Ananias is said to 

have been a priest, and the seven who suffered 

with him Christian soldiers. 

ANANIAS (St.) M. (April 21) 


ANANIAS (St.) M. (Dec. 1) 

(Date uncertain.) The Roman Martyrology 
locates his passion at Arbela in Persia ; others 
at Arbela (Erbel) in Assyria, while the Greeks 
maintain that he was martyred in Greece. 
The Greek Menology relates that whilst expiring 
under the blows of the executioners he said 
to those around him : " I see a ladder reaching 
up to Heaven, and men clothed with rays of 
light inviting me to the Kingdom of Joy." 

ANANIAS (St.) (Dec. 16) 

(7th cent. B.C.) Otherwise SIDRACH 

(SHADRACH). One of the three children 

cast into the fiery furnace by order of King 

Nabuchodonosor (Dan. i. iii.). 

ANASTASIA (St.) M. (April 15) 


ANASTASIA (St.) V.M. (Oct. 28) 

(3rd cent.) According to the Roman Martyr- 
ology this Saint is called " the Elder," to 
distinguish her from the Roman Martyr of the 
same name but of a later generation. She 
was brought before Probus, during the persecu- 
tion of Valerian, and after undergoing the most 
frightful tortures and outrages, was beheaded 




(A.D. 253). Cyril, a bystander, gave her water 
to drink, and received as his reward a Martyr's 
crown. St. Anastasia is said to have been a 
nun of the community presided over by St. 
Sophia, by whom she was buried. She appears 
to have been a Greek, though there are not 
wanting hagiographers who identify her with 
the Roman Martyr above mentioned who is 
far better known. 

ANASTASIA (St.) M. (Dec. 24) 

(4th cent.) This famous Roman matron is 
commemorated daily in the Canon of the Mass. 
Particulars about her are given in the alleged 
Acts of St. Chrysogonus the Martyr, stated to 
have been her spiritual director. She was of 
noble birth, and on the death of her husband 
devoted all her time and wealth to the seeking 
out and succouring the poor, more especially 
the persecuted Christians. She followed St. 
Chrysogonus into Illyria when that holy priest 
was carried thither as a prisoner ; but was 
herself seized and imprisoned, to be in the end 
put to the torture and burned alive. She 
suffered under Diocletian (A.D. 304). The 
scene of her martyrdom was the Island of 
Palmarola off the Gulf of Gaeta, where about 
the same time two hundred and seventy other 
Christians of both sexes obtained their crown 
in various ways. Her body was taken back to 
Rome, and a famous church was there dedicated 
in her honour. In it the Popes have been accus- 
tomed to celebrate a Mass yearly on Christmas 

ANASTASIUS (St.) M. (Jan. 9) 

(4th cent.) A companion in martyrdom of 
St. Julian of Antioch, and said to have been 
previously by him miraculously raised from the 
dead. An old English Martyrology narrates 
the legend as follows : " This Julian awoke 
from death a heathen, who was afterwards 
baptised. This man told such a mournful tale 
about the way to Hell as never came to man 
before nor after since." The year 311 under 
Maximin Daza is given as a probable date of 
the martyrdom of St. Anastasius. 

ANASTASIUS and OTHERS (SS.) (Jan. 11) 

(6th cent.) St. Anastasius was a monk of 
Mount Soracte near Viterbo (Central Italy), 
who had formerly been a notary of the Roman 
Church. St. Gregory relates that on the day 
of his death (a.d. 570) he heard a heavenly 
voice calling : " Anastasius, come." Several 
of his fellow-monks whose names were also 
called out, also died on the same day. 
(7th cent.) An Anchorite in Palestine, 
author of several ascetical works of considerable 
value. He took part on the Catholic side in 
the controversies of his time, and at Alexandria 
engaged successfully in public disputations 
with the Eutychian heretics. He is styled 
" The Sinaite " from his having inhabited a 
hermitage on Mount Sinai, where he died about 
A.D. 678. 

ANASTASIUS (St.) M. (Jan. 22) 

(7th cent.) A Persian monk who suffered 
agonies from the most savage and prolonged 
torture, and was finally beheaded because of 
his religion by Cnosroas, King of Persia (A.D. 
628). His head was brought to Rome and 
deposited in a church dedicated to him and St. 
Vincent, the Spanish Martyr. Hence, the great 
veneration in which he is held in the West. 
In the Acts of the Seventh Oecumenical Council 
(A.D. 786), the Acts of St. Anastasius are men- 
tioned. They are believed to be the composition 
of a fellow monk of his who followed him into 
Persia. With St. Anastasius seventy other 
Christians are said to have been put to death. 

ANASTASIUS (St.) Bp. (April 21) 

(6th cent.) A Patriarch of Antioch and a 
resolute opponent of the Emperor Justinian, 
whom he rebuked on account of his various 
errors and misdeeds. Justinian threatened the 
Saint with exile and deposition. This menace 

was put into execution by Justinian's nephew 
and successor, Justin II. St. Anastasius was 
only recalled after twenty-three years of 
banishment. He died A.D. 598. This Saint 
is wrongly styled " the Sinaite " by Baronius. 
Anastasius the Sinaite was never a Bishop. 

ANASTASIUS (St.) Pope. (April 27) 

(5th cent.) A Roman by birth, who became 
Pope in the year 398. He is noted for the zeal 
with which he repressed the spreading errors of 
Origenism. St. Jerome describes him as " a 
man of holy life and rich in his very poverty." 
He passed away A.D. 402. 

(3rd cent.) A tribune in the army of the 
Emperor Decius, whose duty it became to carry 
out the sentences pronounced on the Christians 
on account of their religion. Moved by the 
courage under torture of St. Venantius, St. 
Anastasius was converted to Christianity, and 
together with his wife, children and some 
members of his household, was instructed and 
baptised by St. Porphyrius. Shortly after the 
death of the latter, Anastasius and his family 
were arrested and beheaded (a.d. 251). Their 
relics are in the church of St. Venantius at 
Camerino (Central Italy). 

ANASTASIUS (St.) Bp. (May 20) 

(7th cent.) A Bishop of Brescia in Lombardy 
who, by his successful preaching, is said to have 
greatly contributed to the conversion of the 
Lombard nation from Arianism. The year 
610 is given as that of his death. A solemn 
translation of his relics was celebrated by 
St. Charles Borromeo A.D. 1604. 

ANASTASIUS (St.) Bp. (May 30) 

(7th cent.) A Bishop of Pavia in Lombardy, 
commonly called St. Anastasius II, to distin- 
guish him from one of his predecessors of the 
same name who flourished in the fourth century. 
St. Anastasius was a convert from Arianism, 
but distinguished himself by his zeal as a Bishop 
for the purity of the Faith of his flock, and by 
his pastoral virtues and ability. He died 
A.D. 680. 


MM. (June 14) 

(9th cent.) Anastasius, a priest of Cordova 
in Spain, was put to death as a Christian, 
together with St. Felix, a monk of Aicala, by 
one of the persecuting Mohammedan Caliphs 
(A.D. 857). With them is associated the name 
of St. Digna, a Christian maiden, who was a 
witness of their martyrdom and herself demanded 
from the judge to share their fate. The bodies 
of all three were burned, and the ashes thrown 
into the river Guadalquivir. 

ANASTASIUS (St.) M. (June 29) 


ANASTASIUS (St.) M. (Aug. 13) 

(7th cent.) Two Saints of this name are 
mentioned as fellow-disciples and companions 
of St. Acacius. In honour of one of them the 
Greeks celebrate another festival on Jan. 21. 
One, Anastasius, was a monk, the other a Roman 
priest, apocrisiarius or legate of the Pope of 
the time. The Monothelite heresy, favoured 
by the Byzantine Court, was giving great trouble 
to the Church at the time, and both the Saints 
were imprisoned and eventually banished. 
Worn out by sufferings, the one and the other 
died in exile, about the year 662. 

ANASTASIUS (St.) Bp. (Aug. 17) 

(6th cent.) Said to have been a Syrian who, 
coming to Italy, led the life of a hermit in a 
solitary place near Perugia. Promoted to the 
Bishopric, he is described as a " most humble 
and virtuous prelate, well versed in Ecclesias- 
tical doctrine, a lover of the poor, zealous in 
Divine Worship and a shepherd watchful over 
his flock, exposed to the snares of Arian heretics 
who were numerous in the neighbourhood." 
During the invasion of Totila, he was wonder- 
fully preserved, and survived to encourage and 
aid his people in the work of rebuilding their 



houses and churches demolished by the bar- 
barians. He is believed to have died in the 
year 553. Owing to the many miracles wrought 
at his tomb, the inhabitants built a magnificent 
chapel, which they dedicated in his honour. 
ANASTASIUS (St.) M. (Aug. 21) 

(3rd cent.) A military tribune (cornicu- 
larius) who, on beholding the courage of the 
Christian youth, St. Aeapitus, tortured for his 
Faith, cried out : " The God of Agapitus is 
my God." On that account he was arrested 
by* order of the Emperor Aurelian and put to 
death (a.d. 274) at a place called Salone, 
twelve miles from Praeneste or Palestrina, near 
Rome. The theory advanced by some that 
this martyrdom took place at Salona in Dalmatia 
has not been able to withstand the contrary 
evidence brought against it. A St. Anastasius 
of Salona in Dalmatia is commemorated on 
Sept. 7. 
ANASTASIUS (St.) M. (Sept. 7) 

(4th cent.) A fuller of Aquileaia, not far 
from Venice, who crossed into Dalmatia during 
the persecution under Diocletian. Far from 
concealing his adherence to the proscribed 
Christian religion, he painted a conspicuous 
cross on his door at Salona. He was seized 
and drowned (a.d. 304). His body was recov- 
ered by some fishermen, and after the peace 
of the Church enshrined at Spalatro. 

and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Oct. 11) 

(Date unknown.) A band of Martyrs put 

to death for the Faith, probably in Sicily ; but 

excepting their names (that is, some of them) 

nothing has come down to us concerning them. 

ANASTASIUS (St.) M. (Dec. 5) 

(Date unknown.) A Saint of this name is 

commemorated on Dec. 5, in the Martyrologies, 

but neither the place nor the time of his passion 

is discoverable. 

ANASTASIUS (St.) M. (Dec. 19) 


Bp. M. (Dec. 21) 

(7th cent.) The successor of another St. 
Anastasius (April 21) in the See of Antioch. 
He devoted himself to the conversion of the 
Jews, numerous and influential at Antioch, 
and eventually was attacked by them and 
terribly injured. He died in consequence of 
the hurts he had received (a.d. 610). He is 
sometimes styled St. Anastasius the Younger. 
To him is attributed a translation into Greek 
of the work of St. Gregory the Great on the 
duties of a pastor of souls. There is also a 
treatise on Faith bearing his name as author. 
ANATHALON (St.) Bp. (Sept. 25) 

(1st cent.) Although there exists a certain 
amount of doubt as to the credibility of the 
Milanese tradition that their first Bishop was 
St. Barnabas the Apostle, it appears to be 
historically certain that, during his lifetime, his 
disciple St. Anathalon exercised the functions 
of Bishop, not only at Milan, but also at Brescia, 
and in other parts of Lombardy. It is at Brescia 
that he is said to have passed away (A.D. 61). 
ANATOLIA and AUDAX (SS.) MM. (July 9) 

(3rd cent.) Anatolia, a Roman maiden, 
with her sister St. Victoria, was denounced as 
a Christian by their rejected lovers, Aurelian 
and Eugene, and banished from Rome. St. 
Anatolia settled in a small town near Rieti, 
where her reputation as a worker of miracles 
again drew attention to her, and she was put 
to the torture. Audax, one of the guards of 
the prison in which she was confined, was con- 
verted by her, and the two were beheaded 
on the same day (a.d. 250). 
ANATOLIUS (St.) M. (March 20) 

ANATOLIUS (St.) Bp. (July 3) 

(3rd cent.) A native of Alexandria in Egypt, 
he early acquired a great reputation for elo- 
quence, learning and virtue. Chosen (a.d. 269) 

to succeed his friend St. Eusebius at Laodicea 
in Syria, he survived till the eve of the persecu- 
tion under Diocletian, which broke out in the 
last decade of the third century. He was the 
author of some theological treatises commended 
by St. Jerome, together with other works. 
ANATOLIUS (St.) M. (Nov. 20) 


ANDEOL (St.) Bp. (Oct. 15) 

Otherwise St. ANTIOCHUS. which see. 
ANDEOLUS (St.) M. (May 1) 

(3rd cent.) A sub-deacon and disciple of 
St. Polycarp, the Martyr-Bishop of Smyrna, 
who sent him into France to preach the Gospel. 
After forty-two years of successful Apostolate, 
he was seized by order of the Emperor Septimus 
Severus, scourged and beheaded (a.d. 208). 

MM. (Sept. 24) 

(2nd cent.) The priest Andochius was sent 
with a deacon, by name Tyrsus, into Gaul by 
St. Polycarp, Bishop of Smyrna. Landing at 
Marseilles, they journeyed to Lyons, and 
finally established themselves at Autun in the 
house of a rich merchant from the East named 
Felix. Their host not only assisted them in 
their Apostolic work, but shared their dangers 
and sufferings, and Anally their triumph (a.d. 
179). Their relics were the object of great 
veneration, not only in the Diocese of Autun 
but throughout Gaul. 
ANDREW CORSINI (St.) Bp. (Feb. 4) 

(14th cent.) A member of the Corsini family, 
one of the most illustrious of Florence. After 
an early life wasted in dissipation, he entered 
the Carmelite Order (a.d. 1318). For forty 
years he spent himself in doing penance and 
in preaching. He was then chosen Bishop of 
Fiesole (a small town near Florence). As 
Bishop he redoubled his penances and prayers, 
nor sought any respite from his energetic labours 
as a pastor of souls, being in particular remark- 
able for his charity to the poor. He died 
Jan. 6, a.d. 1373, and was canonised a.d. 162. 
Clement XII of the Corsini family built a 
magnificent chapel dedicated to him in St. John 
Lateran's in Rome, and his Feast is kept in the 
Universal Church on Feb. 4. 
ANDREW (St.) Bp. (Feb. 26) 

(5th cent.) The successor of St. Zenobius 
in the See of Florence. He continued the 
Apostolic work of his predecessor so successfully 
that he cleansed his Diocese from all vestiges 
of idolatry. He died a.d. 407. 
ANDREW (St.) M. (May 15) 

♦ANDREW BOBOLA (Bl) M. (May 23) 

(17th cent.) A Pole, priest of the Society 
of Jesus, who laboured for many years at the 
conversion of Heretics and bad Catholics in 
Lithuania, and who, on account of his zeal and 
success, was cruelly tortured and at length put 
to death by the Greek schismatics (A.D. 1657). 
♦ANDREW and BENEDICT (SS.) MM. (July 16) 
(11th cent.) Two Polish hermits of the 
Camaldolese Order, who served God in Moravia 
and Hungary, living lives of incredible austerity, 
but comforted by the graces of high contempla- 
tion. At length, assailed by marauders, they 
won the crown of martyrdom (a.d. 1020). 
♦ANDREW OF RINN (St.) M. (July 22) 

(15th cent.) A Tyrolese child, alleged to 
have been put to death by Jews out of hatred 
of Christianity (A.D. 1462). 
ANDREW and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Aug 19) 

(4th cent.) A tribune in the Greek army, 
who, with many of his comrades, was converted 
to the true Faith, owing to a miracle which 
took place in connection with a victory over 
the Persians. Accused of being Christians, 
they were massacred by the soldiers of the 
President Seleucus, in the defiles of Mount 
Taurus in Cilicia (a.d. 300). In the Church of 




St. Vincent at Brioude (France) some of the 
relics of these martyrs were venerated and 
became the object of an annual pilgrimage. 
*ANDREW OF TUSCANY (St.) Conf. (Aug. 22) 

(9th cent.) Of Scottish or Irish birth, he 
accompanied St. Donatus to Italy, and, on the 
latter being appointed Bishop of Fiesole, was 
ordained deacon. He died about A.D. 880, and 
is honoured as a Saint. 
ANDREW (St.) M. (Aug. 29) 


(SS.) MM. (Sept. 23) 

(10th cent.) According to the Greek Meno- 
logy, these Saints were deported from Syracuse 
in Sicily to Africa, by the Mohammedans, in 
their time masters of Sicily. They were there 
subjected to savage tortures, and in the end 
were put to death, about A.D. 900. 
ANDREW OF CRETE (St.) M. (Oct. 17) 

(8th cent.) A native of Crete, where he was 
living the life of a Solitary when the Byzantine 
Emperor Constantine Copronymus published 
his edict against the venerating of Holy Images. 
Fired with zeal for the Catholic doctrine, St. 
Andrew went to Constantinople and fearlessly 
denounced the Imperial heresy, going so far 
as to force his way to the foot of the Emperor's 
throne and boldly to reproach Constantine for 
his impiety. The enraged monarch ordered 
him to be seized and put to the torture, from 
the effects of which he died, A.D. 761. 
ANDREW AVELLINO (St.) (Nov. 10) 

(17th cent.) Born at Castelnuovo in the 
Kingdom of Naples, he received in Baptism 
the name of Lancelot, but changed it to Andrew 
on joining the Order of the Theatines. His 
zeal and eloquence gained for him the special 
friendship and esteem of St. Charles Borromeo 
and of other prominent Ecclesiastics of his 
time. Commissioned to reform abuses in 
Church discipline and to establish houses of 
his Order throughout Italy, he laboured all his 
life with great success and advantage to the 
Church. His preaching was helped by God 
with the working of many miracles, and he had 
the gift of prophecy in a remarkable degree. 
Worn out at last with fatigue and old age, he 
died at the Altar when beginning Mass (Nov. 10, 
A.D. 1608), being then in his eightieth year. 
He wrote several ascetical works, and has left 
some volumes of sermons. His relics are 
enshrined in the Church of St. Paul at Naples. 
ANDREW (St.) M. (Nov. 28) 

(8th cent.) A holy Solitary, one of those who, 
with St. Stephen the Younger, were put to 
death by Constantine Copronymus for main- 
taining the Catholic doctrine of the lawfulness 
of honouring holv statues and pictures (AD. 756). 
ANDREW (St.) Apostle. (Nov. 30) 

(1st cent.) A native of Bethsaida in Galilee, 
elder brother of St. Peter, by profession a fisher- 
man. He was a disciple of St. John the Baptist, 
and was the first of the Apostles to be called 
by Christ. There is no certainty as to the 
sphere of his missionary labours after the 
Ascension. It is, however, generally agreed 
that he laboured chiefly in Greece and in the 
Balkan countries. The Russians, who have 
taken him for one of their Patron Saints, assert 
that in his travels he penetrated at least as far 
as Poland. Tradition has it that he was 
crucified (on a cross of the shape of the letter X) 
at Patras in Achaia (Greece) (A.D. 60) during 
the reign of Nero. His relics were enshrined 
at Constantinople, whence St. Gregory the 
Great (A.D. 590) obtained an arm for his monas- 
tery of St. Andrew in Rome. Thither, later, 
the Apostle's head was also carried, and is 
venerated in St. Peter's. The emblem of St. 
Andrew usual in art is his cross (saltire). 

(9th cent.) Husband and wife, citizens of 
Antioch in Syria, where the former was a 
silversmith or banker. On the death of their 


two children, they agreed to separate, and 
thenceforth led lives of penance and prayer 
in one of the solitudes of Upper Egypt. Their 
pilgrimages to Jerusalem may account for the 
special veneration in which they were held in 
Palestine. The precise dates of their deaths 
are unknown. 

(SS.) MM. (Oct. 11) 

(4th cent.) The triumph of these Martyrs 
has a prominent place in the Greek and Roman 
Martyrologies. Their Acts are universally 
accepted as genuine and contain the particulars 
of the triple examination which they underwent 
in the towns of Tarsus, Mopsuestia and Anazar- 
bus in Cilicia, together with an authentic report 
of their passion written down by Christian eye- 
witnesses. The latter recovered their bodies 
and buried them. They were beheaded after 
unflinchingly undergoing excruciating tortures 
(A.D. 304), under Galerius, the colleague of the 
Emperor Diocletian. 
ANECTUS (St.) M. (March 10) 

ANECTUS (St.) M. (June 27) 

(4th cent.) A Martyr of Caesarea in Palestine, 
where he was beheaded, after being scourged 
and mutilated (A.D. 304). 
ANEMPODISTUS (St.) M. (Nov. 2) 

ANESIUS (St.) M. (March 31) 

•ANEURIN and GWINOC (SS.) Conf. (Oct. 26) 

(6th cent.) Welsh monks and Saints, father 
and son, of whom the latter has left some 
Celtic poems of a certain literary value. 
•ANGELA OF FOLIGNO (Bl.) Widow. (Jan. 4) 

(14th cent.) A penitent of the Third Order 
of St. Francis, born at Foligno, near Assisi, 
who after her husband's death, followed by that 
of her children, sought God's mercy and pardon 
for her past sins, spending many years in prayers 
and fastings. Her wonderful Book of Revela- 
tions and Visions has been often printed ; and 
there has been issued a modern translation of 
it into English. Blessed Angela died a.d. 1309, 
at the age of fifty-one, and was beatified in the 
year 1693. 
ANGELA DEI MERICI (St.) V. (May 31) 

(16th cent.) The foundress of the Ursuline 
Order of nuns, which originally was composed 
of women vowed to devote themselves to the 
care of the distressed of their sex, under the 
patronage of St. Ursula. It has since developed 
into a Congregation of Sisters spread over the 
world, and singularly popular in North America 
as school-mistresses. St. Angela was born near 
Brescia in Lombardy, and passed to a better 
life four years after the definite establishment 
of her Order (A.D. 1474). She was canonised 
A.D. 1807. The day of her death was Jan. 27 ; 
but the Holy See has ordered her Feast to be 
kept on May 31. Her emblem is a ladder 
raised on high, up which maidens are ascending. 
ANGELUS (St.) M. (May 5) 

(13th cent.) A native of Jerusalem and the 
son of converted Jews. With his brother, he 
entered the Monastery of Mount Carmel and 
later retired to a hermit's cell in the desert. 
John, his brother, became Patriarch of Jeru- 
salem, while Angelus received a Divine call to 
labour for the conversion of the Jews in Sicily. 
There, he led many of these to embrace Chris- 
tianity. He met his death at the hands of 
assassins hired by a certain Count Berengarius, 
whom he had rebuked for the wickedness of 
his life (A.D. 1225). In art he is represented 
with three crowns at his feet, signifying chastity, 
eloquence and martyrdom. 
ANGELUS (St.) M. (Oct. 13) 

(13th cent.) One of seven Franciscan Friars 
who, inspired by the example of the five brethren 
of their Order, put to death for the Faith in 
Morocco on Jan. 16, 1220, obtained the per- 
mission and blessing of St. Francis to follow 



in their footsteps. They arrived at Ceuta 
on the African coast, Sept. 29, 1221. After 
preaching in the suburbs for three days, they 
entered the town, and were there assailed 
by the populace and brought before the cadi 
or magistrate. He, seeing their coarse and 
strange habit and their tonsure, judged them 
to be madmen and put them in irons for eight 
days. Eventually they were beheaded, Oct. 13, 

♦ANGILBERT (St.) Abbot. (Feb. 18) 

(9th cent.) A Prankish nobleman, married 
to a daughter of Charlemagne, and a distin- 
guished and successful defender of his country 
against the marauding Norsemen. Both he 
and his wife elected to end their days in religion. 
St. Angilbert died, Abbot of the monastery of 
St. Riquier, A.D. 813. 

♦ANGUS OF KELD (St.) (March 11) 

Otherwise St. JENGUS, which see. 

(1st cent.) The disciple and successor of 
St. Mark the Evangelist at Alexandria. He is 
said to have been originally a poor shoemaker, 
and to have been cured of a diseased hand and 
converted to Christianity by St. Mark. St. 
Anianus died about a.d. 86. 

ANIANUS (St.) M. (Nov. 10) 


ANIANUS (AGNAN, AIGNAN) (St.) Bp. (Nov. 17) 
(5th cent.) Born at Vienne (Dauphine) of 
pious and noble parents who were Hungarian 
refugees from the Arian persecution raging in 
their own country, he retired in his boyhood 
to a secluded cave where he spent his time in 
prayer, study and penitential exercises, until 
the fame of St. Evurtius, Bishop of Orleans, 
reached him. Under the direction of this holy 
prelate, he was prepared for the priesthood, 
and after ordination was appointed Abbot of 
the monastery of St. Laurence in the environs 
of the city. Later he was promoted to be 
Bishop coadjutor of Orleans. When Attila 
the Hun appeared before its walls, Anianus, 
by his courage in facing the barbarian, saved 
the town and its inhabitants. He died two years 
later, a.d. 453. King Robert of France, some 
five hundred years afterwards, built a noble 
church at Orleans in honour of St. Anianus, in 
which the relics of the Saint were enshrined, 
but in the sixteenth century they were profaned 
and destroyed by the Calvinist insurgents. 
He is represented in art as praying on the top 
of the walls of Orleans, against which are 
crowding a multitude of Huns. 

ANICETUS (St.) Pope. (April 17) 

(2nd cent.) A Syrian, who succeeded St. 
Pius I on the Chair of St. Peter (a.d. 162), 
a year after the death of the Emperor Antoninus 
Pius. He defended the Faith with much zeal 
and ability against Valentinus, Marcian and 
other Gnostic heretics of that age. He welcomed 
St. Polycarp of Smyrna to Rome, whither that 
Saint had repaired in order to settle with the 
Pope the vexed question of the date of Easter. 
After a comparatively short Pontificate he is 
said to have been put to death by order of the 
Emperor Marcus Aurelius, whose philosophical 
leanings did not hinder him from oppressing 
the Christians then fast growing in numbers 
and influence. 


(SS.) MM. (Aug. 12) 

(4th cent.) Martyred at Nicomedia, on the 
shores of the Sea of Marmora, the favourite 
residence of the Emperor Diocletian (a.d. 304). 
SS. Anicetus and Photlnus were brothers, or 
(as others say) uncle and nephew. They, with 
several other Christians, were put to the torture 
and afterwards burned at the stake A church 
in which their relics were enshrined was after- 
wards built on the island of Daphnos, between 
Lesbos and Samos, in the Aegean Sea. The 
Greek Menology gives a detailed account of 
their martyrdom, and the account is corrobor- 

ated by independent MSS. now in the Imperial 
Library at Vienna. 

ANNA (St.) Widow. (Sept. 1) 

(First cent ) A prophetess, the daughter of 
Phanuel, of the tribe of Aser. After seven years 
of married life she consecrated her widowhood 
to the service of God in the Temple of Jerusalem, 
where she remained night and day in prayer 
and fasting. At the age of eighty-four she 
beheld the Presentation of the Child Jesus in 
the Temple (Luke ii. 36-38). In the Greek 
Church she is honoured on Feb. 3. 

ANNE (St.) Mother of Our Blessed Lady. (July 26) 

(1st cent.) SS. Joachim and Anne, both of 

the tribe of Juda and of the Royal House of 

David, are venerated by the Church as the 

Earents of the Blessed Virgin Mary It is 
elieved that Mary was their only child, and 
the Mary mentioned in the Gospels as the sister 
of the Mother of God wa3 in reality only her 
cousin, such manner of speaking being not 
unusual in the East. Holy Scriptine makes 
no mention of SS. Joachim and Anne; but 
they have been honoured by the Church \s 
Saints from early times. Churches were 
dedicated under their patronage, and the 
Fathers, especially those of the Oriental 
Churches, dilate on their privileges. The relics 
of St. Anne are said to have been brought 
from Palestine to Constantinople in the eighth 
century. St. Anne is usually represented as 
teaching her little daughter to read the Scrip- 

ANNO (HANNO) (St.) Bp. (Dec. 4) 

(11th cent.) A German nobleman who re- 
nounced a promising military career to become 
a priest. His distinction in sacred and profane 
studies attracted the attention of the Emperor, 
Henry III, who summoned him to his court 
and found in him a wise adviser. Raised to 
the dignity of Archbishop of Cologne, he proved 
himself a* zealous Pastor of souls. On the 
death of Henry III, his widow, the Empress 
Agnes, induced St. Anno to act as Regent 
during the minority of her son, the Emperor 
Henry IV. This misguided young man, 
however, resenting the remonstrances of St. 
Anno, occasioned by the tyrannical form of 
government he affected, removed the. holy 
prelate from his Episcopal city, though con- 
strained by popular clamour speedily to restore 
him. Nevertheless, he persecuted the Saint 
to the day of the latter's death (Dec. 4, a.d. 
1075), Such was St. Anno's charity to the poor 
that, on his deathbed, he was found to be 
destitute of the wherewithal to purchase food 
and medicine. He was interred in the Abbey 
Church of Siegberg. 

ANSANO (St.) Bp. (Sept. 3) 

Otherwise St. AUXANUS, which see. 

ANSANUS (St.) M. (Dec. 1) 

(4th cent.) A member of the Roman Patri- 
cian family of the Anicii, who, when only twelve 
years old, secretly asked and received Baptism. 
His father on discovering that his boy had 
become a Christian was so enraged that he did 
not hesitate himself to delate him to the 
persecuting Emperor Diocletian. Ansanus, 
however, contrived to escape from Rome, 
and took refuge at Bagnorea, and afterwards 
at Siena, wh^re he was instrumental in drawing 
many Pagans to Christianity. He was at last 
arrested and condemned to die at the stake. 
But, by a miracle, he emerged unharmed from 
the flames and was in fine beheaded (a.d. 303). 

ANSBERT (St.) Bp. (Feb. 9) 

(7th cent.) The Chancellor of the Mero- 
vingian King Clotalre III. His wife, having 
with his consent retired to a convent, he himself 
took the monastic habit in the Abbey of Fonten- 
elle ; and, on the death of St. Ouen, was chosen 
Archbishop of Rouen. In his old age he 
resigned his See and went to die in a monastery 
in Hainault (A.D. 095). He was buried at 




(9th cent.) A native of Amiens (France), 
who at an early age entered the Benedictine 
Abbey of Corbie, under the Abbot St. Adelard. 
Sent out as a missionary, he preached the 
Gospel with signal success in Denmark, Sweden 
and North Germany, establishing everywhere 
churches and schools. He became the first 
Archbishop of Hamburg, and Pope Gregory IV 
appointed him his legate in the North of Europe. 
Christianity was on the point of dying out in 
Scandinavia when St. Anschar devoted himself 
to the work of re-kindling the Faith among the 
Norsemen. He himself led a life of great 
austerity, but was indefatigable in his charity 
to the poor. He died at Bremen a.d. 865. 
ANSELM OF LUCCA (St.) Bp. (March 18) 

(11th cent.) A native of Mantua, appointed 
Bishop of Lucca by his uncle Pope Alexander II. 
He resisted zealously the encroachments of 
Henry IV, the German Emperor of the time. 
Forced to retire from his Bishopric, he took 
refuge with the monks of Cluny in France. 
St. Leo IX, who was carrying on the work of 
his predecessor, Pope St. Gregory VII, recalled 
St. Anselm into Italy, appointing him his legate, 
and entrusting to him the administration of 
several Dioceses. He died (a.d. 1086) at 
Mantua, of which citv he is a Patron Saint. 
Bp., Doctor of the Church. 
(11th cent.) Born of noble parents at Aosta 
in Piedmont (a.d. 1033), he gave early proof 
of exceptional talents. Owing to a disagree- 
ment with his father he left Italy in his youth 
for France, and on the latter's death, became a 
monk of Bee in Normandy, where later he suc- 
ceeded Prior Lanfranc and Abbot Herluin in 
their respective charges. In the year 1093 he 
accepted the Archbishopric of Canterbury, 
but four years later, on account of his resistance 
to the tyranny of William Rufus, was driven 
into exile. He returned to France and thence 
passed into Italy, where he assisted at several 
Councils and did much good work for the 
Church. On the death of King William Rufus, 
he came back to Canterbury at the invitation 
of the new king, Henry I. But the claim of 
that monarch to invest Bishops with their Sees 
was met by 4nselm with unflinching opposition. 
Hence, a second exile, terminated by a trium- 
phant return (a.d. 1106). St. Anselm died in 
the year 1109. His life was written by the 
monk Eadmer. His works are numerous, and 
he is especially to be noted as the forerunner 
in Theology and Metaphysics of the Scholastics 
of the succeeding centuries. In ability and 
learning he was far in advance of the uncultured 
age in which his lot was cast. 
ANSGAR (St.) Bp. (Feb. 3) 

Otherwise St. ANSCHAR, which see. 
ANSOVINUS (ANSEWIN) (St.) Bp. (March 13) 

(9th cent.) Born at Camerino in Umbria 
(Central Italy), first a canon, and later Bishop 
of his native city, he acquired a great and 
widespread reputation for holiness of life and for 
personal zeal. He died a.d. 816, and was forth- 
with honoured as a Saint by his sorrowing flock. 
*ANSTRUDE (St.) V. (Oct. 17) 

(7th cent.) A holy Abbess of Laon in France, 
and a strenuous upholder of conventual dis- 
cipline, who died A.D. 688. 
*ANSEGIS (St.) Abbot. (July 20) 

(9th cent.) A Benedictine monk, Abbot 
successively of several important monasteries 
in France. He is locally honoured in that 
country as a Saint. He died A.D. 833. 
ANTHELMUS (St.) Bp. (June 26) 

(12th cent.) A native of Savoy who, after 
being Provost of a Cathedral Chapter, entered 
the Carthusian Order and became Prior of the 
Grande Chartreuse. During the Schism of 
1159 he defended the rights of Pope Alexander 
II against the Anti-Pope Octavian, and thereby 
incurred the enmity of the German Emperor, 

Frederick Barbarossa. The Pope consecrated 
him Bishop of Belley, and sent him to England 
as his legate at the time of the dispute between 
King Henry II and St. Thomas A'Becket. 
There he rendered important services to the 
Church and to the country. St. Anthelmus 
died dining the famine which devastated a 
large part of France in the year 1178. 

ANTHEROS (St.) Pope, M. (Jan. 3) 

(3rd cent.) A Greek who occupied the Chair 
of St. Peter for one year, that of the Consuls 
Severus and Quintilian (A.D. 235). He was put 
to death by the tyrant Maximus for refusing to 
deliver up a volume in which he had registered 
the "Acts of the Martyrs," and was buried 
in the catacombs of St. Callistus (a.d 236). 

ANTHES (St.) M. (Aug. 28) 


ANTHIA (St.) M. (April 18) 


ANTHIMUS (St.) Bp. M. (April 27) 

(4th cent.) Martyred at Nicomedia, the 

Imperial residence under Diocletian (a.d. 303). 

His death was followed by a wholesale slaughter 

of the clergy of the district and of their flocks. 

ANTHIMUS (St.) M. (May 11) 

(4th cent.) A priest at Rome, who is said 
to have converted the Pagan husband of the 
Christian matron Lucina, well known for her 
charity to her imprisoned fellow-Christians. 
St. Anthimus, thrown into the Tiber but 
miraculously rescued by an angel, was after- 
wards retaken and beheaded (a.d. 303). 

ANTHIMUS (St.) M. (Sept. 27) 


(3rd cent.) St. Gregory of Toms numbers 
St. Antholian among the Martyrs of Auvergne, 
at the time of the raid into Gaul of the German 
chieftain Chrocas, which occurred while the 
Emperors Valerian and Gallienus were also 
persecuting the Christians, some time before 
a.d. 267. Among his fellow-sufferers we have 
the names of SS. Cassius. Maximus, Limininus 
and Victorinus. But particulars are wanting. 

ANTHOLIN (St.) Abbot. (Jan. 17) 

Otherwise St. ANTONY, which see. 

ANTHONIUS (St.) M. (May 11) 

Otherwise St. ANTHIMUS, which see. 


For this and kindred names see St. ANTONY, 

ANTHUSA (St.) V. (July 27) 

(8th cent.) Various versions are given of 
the life of this Saint. All agree that she was 
a Greek maiden of Constantinople, distinguished 
by her zeal for the Catholic practice of the 
veneration of holy pictures, and that she 
thereby incurred the indignation of the Icono- 
clast Emperors of the period. It also seems 
certain that she was at least once arrested 
and put to the torture. But, while some say 
that she died in exile, others have it that she 
was recalled and taken into favour by the 
Empress, wife of Constantine Copronymus, 
and that she died peacefully at Constantinople 
in extreme old age. There is further a tradition 
that the Empress named one of her daughters 
after this holy woman, and that this second 
Anthusa also became a Saint and was venerated 
in the East as such. No reliable dates are 

ANTHUSA (St.) M. (Aug. 22) 


ANTHUSA (St.) M. (Aug. 27) 

(Date uncertain.) Called St. Anthusa the 
Younger, to distinguish her from St. Anthusa 
of Seleucia (Aug. 22). She was probably a 
Persian, and suffered in that country. She is 
said to have been sewn up in a sack and drowned 
in a well. 

ANTIDIUS (St.) Bp. M. (June 25) 

(5th cent.) Otherwise known as St. Antel, 

St. Tude, St. Antible. A disciple and the 

successor of St. Froninus in the See of Besancon 



(Eastern France). He was put to death by a 
horde of marauding Arian Vandals at a place 
called Ruffey, where his relics were enshrined. 
But there are serious doubts as to the year 
and even the century in which he suffered. 
ANTIGONUS (St.) M. (Feb. 27) 

ANTIGONUS (St.) M. (July 24) 


The Syrian Church was fertile in Martyrs, 
both in the earlier persecutions under the 
heathen Emperors, and in those set in foot in 
the fourth and fifth centuries by the heretics 
of the period. It had also its Martyrs, some 
centuries later, at the hands of the Moham- 
medan Arabs. Antioch, the See of the Patriarchs 
of the East, was the scene of many of these 
triumphs of Christian heroes. In several cases 
no particular Saint's name is registered in con- 
nection with them. Of these we collect here a 
few instances from the Roman Martyrology. 

(4th cent.) Numerous Christians who suffered 
death for their religion in Syria, about a.d. 300, 
under the Emperor Maximian Galerius, colleague 
of Diocletian. 

(7th cent.) Ten Christians put to death by 
the Arabs after their seizure of Antioch (a.d. 
637). Some records put their number at forty 
or more. In such cases not all the Christians 
massacred are reputed as Martyrs, but only 
those previously distinguished for holiness of 
life, and those who, freedom being offered to 
them on condition of renouncing Christ, have 
elected to die for Him. 

(3rd cent.) Forty Christian maidens put to 
death at Antioch, because of their religion, 
under the Emperor Decius (a.d. 250). 
ANTIOCHUS (St.) M. (May 21) 

(3rd cent.) Antiochus, a Christian physician 
of Sebaste in Armenia, brother of the Martyr, 
St. Plato, was decapitated for his religion under 
a governor named Hadrian, towards the end 
of the third century. On seeing milk in place 
of blood miraculously flowing from the severed 
head of the Martyr, Cyriacus, the executioner, 
was converted to Christianity, and forthwith 
made to share the fate of the victim. 
ANTIOCHUS (ANDEOL) (St.) Bp. (Oct. 15) 

(5th cent.) When St. Justus, Bishop of 
Lyons, had renounced his Bishopric in order 
to join the Solitaries of Upper Egypt, the 
priest Andeol was sent to seek him out and 
induce him to return to his sorrowing flock. 
His efforts, however, were made in vain, and on 
his return to Lyons he was himself chosen 
Bishop. After distinguishing himself by his 
zeal and firmness, he fell asleep in Christ early 
in the fifth century. 
ANTIOCHUS (St.) M. (Dec. 13) 

(2nd cent.) A Sardinian Martyr, by pro- 
fession a physician, who suffered under the 
Emperor Hadrian, about a.d. 110. He is an 
object of popular devotion in Sardinia, where 
the place of his martyrdom is called the Isola 
di Sant' Antioco. There are details of his 
Passion in one of the codices preserved in the 
Vatican. His name appears in the Litany of 
Saints of the medical profession, compiled by 
William du Val, Archdeacon of Paris. 
ANTIPAS (St.) Bp. M. (April 11) 

(1st cent.) He is venerated as the first Bishop 
of Pergamus (Asia Minor), and is by St. John 
in the Apocalypse (ii. 13) styled the " Faithful 
witness." Tradition avers that he was roasted 
to death in a brazen ox in the reign of the 
Emperor Domitian (a.d. 81-a.d. 96). 

Variant of the names ANTONIA and ANTO- 
NINA, which see. 

ANTONIA (St.) V.M. (April 29) 


ANTONIA (St.) V.M. (May 4) 

(3rd cent.) A Christian maiden of Byzan- 
tium (Constantinople), who after torture was 
burned at the stake in one of the closing years 
of the third century, during the persecution of 
the Emperors Diocletian and Galerius. 

ANTONINA (St.) V.M. (March 1) 

(3rd cent.) A pious woman, who, in the 
persecution at the close of the third century, 
was shut up in a cask and thrown into a marsh 
near the town of Cea (Beira, Portugal). Cea 
is said by some to be a copyist's mistake for 
Nicaea in Bithynia. 

ANTONINA (St.) V.M. (May 3) 

(4th cent.) A Christian maiden who was 

delivered from a house of infamy by a soldier, 

St. Alexander. They suffered martyrdom 

together (a.d. 312) at Constantinople. 

ANTONINA (St.) M. (June 11) 

(3rd cent.) A Martyr of Nicaea in Bithynia 
during the persecution of Diocletian. By order 
of the governor, Priscillian, she was scourged, 
placed on the rack, torn with iron hooks and 
finally beheaded (a.d. 290). She is perhaps 
one and the same with the St. Antonina of 
March 1. 

ANTONINUS (St.) Abbot. (Feb. 13) 

(9th cent.) An Abbot of the monastery of 
St. Agrippinus at Sorrento (Naples), where a 
church was built in his honour. He is a Patron 
Saint of Sorrento, and his Feast is kept there 
on the anniversary of his burial, Feb. 13, a.d. 

ANTONINUS (St.) M. (April 20) 


ANTONINUS (St.) M. (April 24) 


ANTONINUS (St.) Bp. (May 10) 

(15th cent.) A Florentine, born a.d. 1389, 
who, embracing the Religious life in the Domini- 
can Order, and successively governed many 
convents, until he was raised to the Arch- 
bishopric of Florence (a.d. 1446). He died 
three years later, and was buried in the church 
of his* Order in Florence. His learning and 
intellectual grasp, conspicuous in his many 
erudite works on Divinity and Canon Law, 
together with his Apostolic virtues, gained for 
him the respect and esteem of his contempor- 
aries. He enjoyed the confidence of the Popes 
of his time. Pope Eugene IV, when dying, 
sent for him to administer to him the last Rites, 
and Pius II was present in Florence at the 
Saint's funeral. 

ANTONINUS (St.) M. (July 6) 

Some authors make this group of Saints 
identical with that described as " SS. Lucy 
and Twenty-two Others " (June 25). 

ANTONINUS (St.) M. (July 29) 

See SS. LUC1LLA, FLORA, &c. 

ANTONINUS (St.) M. (Aug. 22) 

(2nd cent.) One of the public executioners 
in Rome under the Emperor Commodus. 
While awaiting the result of the trial of SS. 
Eusebius and other Christians (a.d. 186), he 
saw a vision of Angels and, proclaiming himself 
a Christian, was himself beheaded, winning 
first of all that company, the Martvr's crown. 

ANTONINUS (St.) M. (Sept. 2) 

(2nd cent.) This holy Martyr is sometimes 
confused with St. Antoninus of Apamea in Syria, 
so much so that even the Bollandists offer no 
solution to the doubt. His cultus at Apamea 
(Pamiers, Languedoc) in France, and at Palentia 
in Spain, is undoubted. Local tradition in 
France places his martyrdom at Fredelas, 
afterwards called Pamiers, which is also said 
to have been his birthplace in the second half 
of the first century. He is supposed to have 
been of Royal blood, to have lived for a time in 
solitude, to have visited Rome, and to have 
been there ordained priest. After preaching 




in Italy and working many miracles, he is 
alleged to have returned to Prance, and laboured 
in the district of Noble-Val (now called S. 
Antonin) and also in Toulouse. After under- 
going torture he was beheaded. The date is 
too uncertain for reasonable conjecture. 
ANTONINUS (St.) M. (Sept. 3) 

ANTONINUS (St.) M. (Sept. 30) 

(3rd cent.) A soldier of the Theban Legion 
and a comrade of St. Maurice. He was martyred 
on the banks of the Trebbia near Piacenza, late 
in the third century. A church was founded 
in his honour in the year 324, restored in 903, 
and rebuilt in 1104. His blood, which is 
preserved in a phial, and exposed to public 
veneration on his Feast day, is said to have the 
same miraculous properties as that of St. 
Januarius at Naples. 
ANTONINUS (St.) Bp. (Oct. 31) 

(7th cent.) During his one year of Episcopate 
(A.D. 660) St. Antoninus Pontana, Archbishop 
of Milan, gave such convincing proofs of being 
rich in all pastoral virtues that even during his 
lifetime his flock proclaimed him a Saint. He 
was interred in the Church of St. Simplician, 
where the Milanese Bishop3 were as a ride 
buried. In the year 1581, St. Charles Borromeo 
after careful investigation, removed his relics, 
enshrining them under a magnificent altar which 
he had caused to be constructed in the same 

NATHA (SS.) MM. (Nov. 12) 

(3rd cent.) Martyrs under Galerius, the 
colleague of Diocletian, at Caesarea in Palestine 
(a.d. 297). St. Ennatha, a Christian virgin, 
after being severely scourged, was burned alive. 
Her male fellow-sufferers, who boldly reproached 
Firmilian, the pagan judge, for his cruelty to 
a woman, were beheaded. 
ANTONY (St.) M. (Jan. 9) 

ANTONY (St.) Abbot. (Jan. 17) 

(4th cent.) The " Patriarch " of the mona- 
stic life, as was his contemporary, St. Paul, 
the first hermit, of the eremitical. Born at 
Coma, near Heraclea in Upper Egypt (a.d. 251), 
he, after the decease of his parents, well-to-do 
Egyptians, retired into the solitudes of the 
neighbouring desert, where by dint of prayer 
and penance he overcame the most terrible 
temptations. Numerous disciples soon flocked 
to him, and (A.D. 305) he founded his first mona- 
stery in the Thebais. The awful persecution 
of Christianity at the close of the third century, 
by driving countless men and women as fugitives 
into the wilds surrounding the valley of the 
Nile, no doubt quickened the impulse felt by 
many in all ages to separate themselves per- 
manently from the world. St. Antony's wise 
government of his monks, coupled with his 
supernatural gifts, spread his fame both in the 
East and in the West and enabled him to 
contribute efficaciously to the victory of the 
Catholics over the Arians at the Council of 
Nicaea in A.D. 325. St. Antony died, A.D. 356, 
at the age of one hundred and five. From the 
submissiveness of animals to him, he is regarded 
as the Patron Saint of herdsmen. His life, 
written by St. Athanasius, is a religious classic. 
ANTONY, MERULUS and JOHN (SS.) (Jan. 17) 


(6th cent.) Three holy monks, disciples of 
St. Gregory the Great, in his monastery of 
St. Andrew (now San Gregorlo) in Rome, at the 
close of the sixth century. The great Pope 
writes at length of their wonderful sanctity 
and of the miracles by which Almighty God 
bore witness to it. 

(SS.) MM. 

(14th cent.) Officials at the Court of the 
Grand Duke of Lithuania who with his subjects 
was still heathen, converted to Christianity. 


The tliree Saints were on that account put to 
the torture and afterwards hanged at Wilna, 
about a.d. 1342. They are venerated as 
Patron Saints of the city of Vilna. 

ANTONY, CAULEAS (St.) Bp. (Feb. 11) 

(9th cent.) A native of Phrygia who entered 
a monastery of which he became Abbot, and 
who was elected (A.D. 893) Patriarch of Con- 
stantinople. He presided over a Council which 
condemned and reformed the Acts of Photius, 
originator of the Greek Schism. The Patriarch 
Antony died in his sixty-seventh year, a.d. 896. 

ANTONY (St.) M. (Feb. 14) 


ANTONY OF PADUA (St.) (June 13) 

(13th cent.) A native of Lisbon, who 
received the name of Ferdinand at Baptism 
(A.D. 1195). He joined the Order of Canons 
Regulars at an early age, but soon exchanged it 
for that of the Franciscans (A.D. 1221). He 
received the religious habit in the convent of 
St. Antony at Coimbra and assumed the name 
of Antony in honour of the great Hermit Saint 
of Egypt. His desire for martyrdom took him 
to Africa, but illness and storm brought him to 
Italy, where under the guidance of St. Franci3, 
he began his wonderful career as a preacher 
and worker of miracles. He died at Padua, 
A.D. 1231, and was canonised by Pope Gregory 
IX in the following year. In art he is repre- 
sented in various ways, but mostly bearing the 
Child Jesus in his arms. 


(16th cent.) Born at Cremona (Lombardy), 
he was remarkable from his early youth for his 
ability and yet more for his piety and zeal for 
the spiritual and temporal good of his neighbour, 
particularly of the poor. He laboured all his 
life long for the restoring of Church Discipline, 
and with that intent founded the Religious 
Order styled Barnabites, under the patronage 
of St. Paul the Apostle. Favoured with many 
supernatural gifts and graces, he passed away, 
a.d. 1539, and wa3 canonised by Pope Leo XIII 
at the end of the nineteenth centurv. 

♦ANTONY IXIDA and OTHERS (Bl.) MM. (Sept. 7) 
(17th cent.) Japanese Martyrs of the Society 
of Jesus, who laid down their lives for Christ 
after enduring many cruel tortures, A.D. 1632. 
Bl. Antony, who had laboured for many years 
at the conversion of his fellow-countrymen, 
was famous for his learning and eloquence. 

•ANTONY BALDINUCCI (Bl.) Conf. (Sept. 7) 

(17th cent.) A Jesuit missionary in Central 

Italy, famous for his eloquence and for his 

success in the converting of sinners. He was 

beatified by Pope Leo XIII. 

ANTONY (St.) M. (Sept. 23) 

See SS. ANDREW, JOHN, &c. 

ANTONY (St.) M. (Nov. 7) 


ANTONY (St.) M. (Dec. 15) 


ANTONY (St.) (Dec. 28) 

(6th cent.) By birth a Hungarian, who, 
after serving God for many years as a hermit 
of the Alps, passed the last two years of a holy 
life in the monastery of the Isle of Lerins, off 
the southern coast of France, where his relics 
were enshrined. Renowned for the working 
of miracles, he passed away about the year 526. 
St. Ennodius, Bishop of Pavia, wrote a Life of 
St. Antony, to be found in Surius. 

ANYSIA (St.) M. (Dec. 30) 

(4th cent.) A Christian woman who, by 
order of Dulcitius, Governor of Thessalonica, 
was arrested on her entering that city to attend 
the assembly of the Faithful, and put to death 
(30th Dec. A.D. 304), in the reign of the perse- 
cuting Emperor Maximian Galerius, Diocletian's 

ANYSIUS (St.) Bp. (Dec. 30) 

(5th cent.) The successor (a.d. 383) of the 

holy Bishop Ascolus in the See of Thessalonica 

in Macedonia. He was a friend of St. Ambrose, 



who wrote to the clergy and people of Thes- 
salonica, congratulating them on their choice, 
and also to St. Anysius, exhorting him to follow 
in the footsteps of the Saint, his predecessor. 
Pope St. Damasus showed his confidence in 
St. Anysius by appointing him his Vicar Apos- 
tolic in Ulyria. Anysius also was one among 
the forty Bishops who bravely stood by St. 
John Clirysostom against Theophilus of Alexan- 
dria. He died at an advanced age about the 
year 403. 
AOUT (St.) Conf. (Oct. 7) 

Otherwise St. AUGUSTUS, which see. 
APELLES and LUCIUS (SS.) Bps., MM. (April 22) 
(1st cent.) Disciples ot Our Lord, probably 
of the seventy-two chosen by Him as mission- 
aries. Traditionally, St. Apelles is held to have 
been Bishop of Smyrna, and St. Lucius Bishop 
of Laodicea. Both are mentioned by St. Paul 
in his Epistle to the Romans (xvi. 10, 21). 
(SS.) MM. 

(1st cent.) There can be little doubt that 
SS. Apellius and Lucius are identical with the 
SS. Apelles and Lucius commemorated on 
April 22. The St. Clement who is added will 
have been another of the seventy-two disciples 
mentioned in the Gospel as having been sent 
as missionaries by Christ Himself. By various 
writers this St. Clement is said to have been 
Bishop of Sardis. 
APHRAATES (St.) Conf. (April 7) 

(4th cent.) An anchoret of Persian birth 
who settled at Edessa in Mesopotamia. Later 
on he removed to Antioch, where he strength- 
ened the Faith of the Catholics by his sermons 
and miracles, during the Arian persecution, 
under the Emperor Valens. 
APHRODISIUS (St.) M. (March 13) 

EUSEBIUS (SS.) MM. (April 28) 

(1st cent.) According to the Martyrology 
of the Saints of France, St. Aphrodisius shel- 
tered the Holy Family during their flight into 
Egypt, and after the Ascension joined the 
disciples, attaching himself to St. Peter. Later 
he travelled with St. Paul and finally became 
the Apostle of Languedoc (France), where he 
was put to death for the Faith with the three 
of his followers named above. There is, how- 
ever, an opinion that this holy Bishop, though 
undoubtedly one of the Apostles of Gaul, lived 
one or two centuries later. 
APHRODISIUS and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (April 30) 
(Date unknown.) An Egyptian priest put 
to death for the Faith at Alexandria with about 
thirty of his flock. 
APHTHONIUS (St.) M. (Nov. 2) 

APIAN (APPHIAN) (St.) M. (April 2) 

Otherwise St. AMPHIANUS, which see. 
APODEMIUS (St.) M. (April 16) 

which see. 
APOLLINE (St.) V.M. Feb. 9) 

Otherwise St APOLLONIA, which see. 
APOLLINARIS (St.) V. (Jan. 5) 

(5th cent.) A daughter of the Consul Arthe- 
nius, who governed the Empire during the 
minority of Theodosius the Younger. After 
spending several years as a solitary, the Saint 
took the name of Dorotheus and placed herself 
under the guidance of St. Macarius of Alexan- 
dria. Of this holy virgin a legend asserts that 
she obtained the use of a hermitage from the 
Solitaries by disguising herself in man's attire. 
She died about A.D. 450. 
APOLLINARIS (St.; Bp. (Jan. 8) 

(2nd cent.) A Bishop of Hierapolis in Phry- 
gia, and one of the great lights of the Early 
Church. He refuted the doctrines of Cliristian 
Stoicism promulgated by Tatian, and exposed 
the hypocrisy of the heretic Montanus. In 
the year 177 he delivered Ins famous Apology 

for the Christians to Marcus Aurelius, the 
philosophic Emperor. He died about A.D. 180. 
He is also called Claudius Apollinaris. 

APOLLINARIS (St.) M. (June 21) 


APOLLINARIS (St.) Bp. M. (July 23) 

(1st cent.) Said to have come from Antioch 
with St. Peter, and to have been appointed 
by him as the first Bishop of Ravenna. His 
life was one of continuous suffering at the 
hands of persecutors, but it was preserved 
through a wnole series of savage and deadly 
torture. Ho was thrice banished from Ravenna, 
and during his exile preached the Gospel in 
Asia Minor, on the banks of the Danube, and 
in Thrace on the south side of the same river. 
He died from the effects of torture and fatigue 
in the reign of Vespasian (A.D. 79). St. Peter 
Damian says that Apollinaris sacrificed himself 
as a living victim for the true Faith by the 
continual martyrdom which he endured for the 
space of twenty-nine consecutive years. He 
was buried at Classe, near Ravenna. 

APOLLINARIS (St.) M. (4ug. 23) 

(3rd cent.) A gaoler at Rheims (France), 
who, on witnessing the constancy of St. Timothy 
and the heavenly visions with which he was 
comforted, threw himself at his feet and begged 
to be made a Christian. They were both 
beheaded by the Governor Lampadus, who is 
said to have been in punishment struck by 
lightning, obsessed by a devil, and in the end 
suffocated by the Evil One. Many churches 
were erected in honour of St. Apollinaris. and 
many miracles wrought at the tomb at Rheims 
of the Martyr and his fellow-sufferer. Some 
assert that St. Apollinaris is a Saint of the 
first century, but it is now commonly admitted 
that he is to be dated two hundred years later. 



(6th cent.) One of the family of Saints of 
which both his father St. Isicus and his brother 
St. Avitus became successively Bishops of 
Vienne (France). The See of Valence had 
been vacant for many years when St. Apollinaris 
was appointed to it by the Bishops of the 
Province (A.D. 486). His zeal in the extirpation 
of many abuses which had arisen during the 
vacancy was indefatigable, in spite of many 
serious maladies from which he miraculously 
recovered. He was exiled by King Sigismund 
for taking part in the sentence ,of excommunica- 
tion issued against Stephen, the Royal Treasurer, 
by the Council of Lyons, but was restored to his 
See on miraculously curing Sigismund of a 
mortal malady. He died about a.d. 520. 
His body was interred in the Cathedral of 
Va ence, which, owing to the frequent miracles 
wrought through his intercession, assumed the 
title of St. Apollinaris. His relics were cast 
into the Rhone by the Huguenots in the sixteenth 

♦APOLLO (St.) Abbot. (Jan. 25) 

(4th cent.) One of the Egyptian Fathers of 

the Desert. He governed a community of 

five hundred monks, near Heliopolis, and died 

about A.D. 393, being then over eighty years old. 

(SS.) MM. 

(4th cent.) These Saints are said to have 
been attendants in the Palace of the Empress 
Alexandra, wife of Diocletian. In the persecu- 
tion Crotates (Codratus) was beheaded, and the 
others left to die of hunger in prison (a.d. 302). 

(3rd cent.) A venerable Christian woman of 
Alexandria, who was burned to death after 
suffering many tortures. Her teeth were 
broken with pincers, and for this reason she is 
invoked against toothache and Is represented 
holding a tooth in pincers. Condemned to die 
at the stake, she is said to have leapt of her 
own accord into the flames (A.D. 249). 




APOLLONIUS (St.) M. (Feb \i) 

APOLLONIUS (St.) M. (March 8) 



(SS.) Bps., MM. (March 19) 

(4th cent.) There is a great difference of 

opinion about the Sees and places of martyrdom 

of these two Bishops. The most likely solution 

is that Apollonius succeeded Leontius in the 

See of Braga in Portugal. No particulars of 

their lives and alleged martyrdom are extant. - 

APOLLONIUS (St.) M. (April 19) 

(4th cent.) A priest of Alexandria, who was 

thrown into the sea with five other Christians 

during the persecution under Diocletian and 

his colleagues. All particulars are lost. 

APOLLONIUS (St.) M. (April 18) 

(2nd cent.) A Roman Senator who, accused 

of being a Cliristian by one of his slaves, was 

condemned to be beheaded (a.d. 186). He is 

called Apollonius the Apologist, on account of 

his eloquent speech before the Senate, in defence 

of the Faith. St. Jerome and Eusebius refer 

to this speech as one full of eloquence and of 

sacred and profane learning. 

APOLLONIUS (St.) M. (June 5) 

APPHIAN (St.) M. (April 2) 

Otherwise St. AMPHIANUS, which see. 
APOLLONIUS (St.) Bp. (July 7) 

(2nd cent.) A Bishop of Brescia in Lombardy, 
mentioned in the Acts of SS. Faustinus and 
Jo vita, as having ordained the former, priest, 
and the latter, deacon. He is said to have 
nourished from about the year 112 to 140. 
But in the Analecta Bollandiana, both the 
period of the Episcopate of St. Apollonius and 
the Acts of SS. Faustinus and Jo vita are called 
in question. However this may be, St. Apol- 
lonius was buried in the church of St. Andrew 
at Brescia, and his relics are preserved there 
in the Cathedral of the Assumption. 
APOLLONIUS (St.) M. (July 10) 

(4th cent.) The Menology of Basil tells us 
that he was a native of Sardis in Lydia (Asia 
Minor), and that by his real and preaching he 
converted many Pagans to Christianity. He 
was summoned before the Prefect Perinius at 
Iconium, scourged and crucified, early in the 
fourth century. 
APOLLONIUS and EUGENE (SS.) MM. (July 23) 
(Date unknown.) Roman Martyrs of whom 
little is known except that in the metrical 
Calendar of Dijon St. Apollonius is mentioned 
as having suffered at the stake. He was not 
burned, but shot at and pierced with arrows. 
St. Eugene is described as having courageously, 
after being sentenced to death as a Christian, 
of his own accord offered his neck to the axe 
of the executioner. 
APPHIAS (St.) M. (Nov. 22) 

APPIANUS and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Dec. 30) 

*APRONIA (EVRONIE) (St.) V. (July 15) 

(5th cent.) Sister of St. Anerius, Bishop of 
Toul, in which Diocese she lived a saintly life, 
and is honoured with a liturgical cultus. 
APRONIAN (St.) M. (Feb. 2) 

(4th cent.) A Roman official who was con- 
verted to Christianity when conducting the 
Martyr St. Sisinus before the Prefect Laudieius, 
and was himself thereupon also put to death 
for the Faith about A.D. 303. 

(St.) Bp. (Sept. 15) 

(6th cent.) A French Saint, born in the 
Diocese of Troyes. He began life as a lawyer, 
and in the practice of his profession acquired 
great fame on account both of his forensic 
ability and of his scrupulous integrity. After 
some years he abandoned the legal profession 
in order to enter into the Ecclesiastical state, 
and in time was chosen as their Bishop by the 

clergy and people of Toul. After a long 
Episcopate, during which he endeared himself 
to his flock as well by his gentleness in ruling 
as by the vivid example he gave in his own 
life of what he inculcated in preaching, he 
passed away (a.d. 507) at an advanced age, 
and was buried in the Basilica, which he was 
then busy in constructing. His Life, written 
soon after his decease, recounts many miracles 
wrought at his tomb. By many the tradition 
that he had been a lawyor before he was a 
priest is rejected, and attributed to his having 
been confused with another holy man of the 
same name who flourished half a century 
before him. 

(1st cent.) According to the Roman Martyr- 
ology, St. Apuleius and his fellow-martyr 
(by some said to have been his own brother), 
Marcellus, were at one time followers of Simon 
Magus, but were converted at sight of the 
miracles wrought by the Apostle St. Peter. 
They gained the crown of martyrdom under 
a judge by name Aurelian, and were buried 
without the walls of Rome. There is a tradi- 
tion that it was they who interred the body of 
St. Peter on the Vatican Hill after his cruci- 
fixion, which they carried out " after the 
manner of the Jews," in order that in his 
tomb as in his death, the Apostle might be like 
to his Divine Master. SS. Apuleius and 
Marcellus are commemorated in all the ancient 
Martyrologies and in many Liturgies. 

AQUILA (.St.) M. (Jan. 23) 


AQUILA (St.) (March 23) 


AQUILA (St.) M. (May 20) 

(4th cent.) An Egyptian Christian, torn to 
pieces with iron combs (a.d. 31 1), in the persecu- 
tion under the Emperor Maximinus Daza, by 
order of Arianus, Governor of Thebes, who 
subsequently himself became a Christian and 
suffered martyrdom in the same persecution. 

AQUILA and PRISCILLA (SS.) (July 8) 

(1st cent.) A husband and wife, natives 
of Pontus, a province of Asia Minor bordering 
on the Black Sea. They were tentmakers in 
Rome during the reign of the Emperor Claudius 
and with other Jews were thence banished. 
On their return journey to Asia they halted 
at Corinth, and there met St. Paul coming 
from Athens (Acts xviii. 3), and received him 
into their house. He was again their guest at 
Ephesus, leaving which city at about the same 
time as the Apostle, they returned to Rome in 
the fourth year of the reign of Nero. In his 
Epistle to the Romans St. Paul sends his 
greeting to Aquila and Priscilla (Rom. xvi. 
3, 4, 5 ; see also 1 Cor. xvi. 19). They are 
commonly believed to have returned again to 
Asia Minor, but there is also a tradition that 
they suffered martyrdom in Rome as Christians. 

AQUILA (St.) M. (Aug. 1) 


AQUILINA (St.) V.M. (June 13) 

(3rd cent.) A Christian girl, not more than 
twelve years old, who was tortured and beheaded 
at Byblos in Phoenicia (A.D. 293) in a first phase 
of the persecution under Diocletian, before that 
Emperor had openly declared his mind to 
uproot the Christian religion. 

AQUILINA (St.) V.M. (July 24) 

(3rd cent.) This Saint, with her sister, St. 
Niceta, is commemorated in connection with 
the Martyr St. Christopher, in whose Acts they 
are mentioned. Converted by him to Chris- 
tianity, they are said to have shared the glory 
of his martyrdom in one of the persecutions of 
the third centurv. 



(SS.) MM. (Jan. 4) 

(5th cent.) A band of Martyrs put to death 

in Africa by the Arian Hunneric, King of the 



Vandals, about A. P. 484. Their Acts, now lost, 
seem to have been in the hands of the Venerable 
Bede in the eighth century. 
AQUILINUS (St.) M. (Jan. 29) 

(7th cent.) A priest who was put to death 
near Milan by the Arians. A Bavarian by birth, 
he had refused more than one Bishopric out of 
desire to serve God in a more lowly capacity. 
He was a successful preacher, and, his zeal 
against the dangerous heresy of Arianism having 
drawn him to preach in Lombardy, his enemies 
sought and found an opportunity to have him 
assassinated, about a.d. 650. His relics are 


and DONATUS (SS.) MM. (Feb. 4) 

(3rd cent.) Martyrs at Fossombrone in 

Central Italy at the close of the third century. 

No particulars are now discoverable. 


(Date unknown.) Martyrs in the Province of 

Isauria (Asia Minor), and as such registered in 

the Martyrology of Venerable Bede. But we 

have neither date nor other particulars. 

AQUILINUS (St.) M. (May 17) 


AQUILINUS (St.) Bp. (Oct. 19) 

(7th cent.) A Prankish nobleman who 
fought under King Clovis II against the 
Visigoths. On his return from this war he 
and his wife agreed to separate and to devote 
themselves to the care of the sick, upon whom 
they proposed to expend all their wealth. On 
the death of St. JStherius, Aquilinus was 
chosen Bishop of Evreux and governed that 
Diocese with great zeal for forty-two years. 
He assisted at the Council of Rouen under 
St. Ansbert, and died about the year 690, 
having for a year or two previously been 
afflicted M'ith blindness. 


(4th cent.) In Arabia, as in other countries, 
very many Christians suffered death for their 
religion at the close of the third and beginning 
of the fourth century. Their number, much 
less their names, do not seem to have been 
entered in any authentic register. They are, 
however, commemorated liturgically on Febru- 
ary 23rd, and have been so honoured from 
ancient times. By the term Arabia is here 
understood, conformably to the usage of the 
period, the countries, mainly desert, east of 
the Jordan, and, again, the mountainous dis- 
tricts south of the Dead Sea. 

ARABIA (St.) M. (March 13) 


VITALIS (SS.) MM. (April 21) 

(Date unknown.) St. Arator was a priest 
of Alexandria in Egypt, put to death with the 
other Christians named above, in one of the 
earlier persecutions. No particulars are now 

ARBOGASTES (St.) Bp. (July 21) 

(7th cent.) Though claimed as their com- 
patriot both by the Irish and by the Scotch, 
he is described in his Life as a noble of Aquitaine, 
who, taking to the life of a hermit, passed several 
years in a solitary cave in Alsace. In A. P. 660, 
King Dagobert II insisted on his accepting 
the Bishopric of Strasbourg. St. Arbogastus 
was remarkable as a Bishop, and the object 
even in life of intense popular veneration. 
Among the many miracles related as wroueht 
by him is the raising again to life of one "of 
the King's sons, who had been accidentally 
killed while hunting. The Saint died in the 
year 678, and was at his own request at first 
interred in the place set apart for the burial 
of criminals. A church was soon built over his 
tomb. In art, St. Arbogastus is usually repre- 
sented as walking dry-shod over a river. 

ARCADIUS (St.) M. (.Ian. 12) 

(4th cent.) A prominent citizen of Caesarea 

in Mauritania (near Algiers), who, after having 

been savagely mutilated, was put to death 
in the persecution under Diocletian, or rather 
under his colleague Maximianus Herculeus, 
about A.D. 302. 
ARCADIUS (St.) Bp. M. (March 4) 


CHIAN and PAULILLUS (SS.) MM. (Nov. 13) 

(5th cent.) Spaniards who suffered death 
for the Catholic Faith in Africa, whither they 
had been deported by the Arian Genseric, 
King of the Vandals. Paulillus, a child, 
younger brother of SS. Paschasius and Euty- 
chian, though not put to death, but only 
scourged and sold into slavery, is reckoned 
like the others among the Martyrs. These 
Saints are regarded as the Proto-Martyrs of the 
Vandal persecution. Hence Honoratus, Bishop 
of Constantine, in a letter to Arcadius, addresses 
him by the title of " Standard-Bearer of the 
Faith." The year 437 is given as the date of 
their martyrdom. 
*ARCHELAA and OTHERS (SS.) VV.MM. (Jan. 18) 

(3rd cent.) Three Christian maidens put 
to the torture and afterwards beheaded at 
Nola in the south of Italy (a.d. 285), at the 
very beginning of the reign of Diocletian, and, 
it would appear, without his express sanction, 
but in virtue of the persecuting edicts of former 

(SS.) MM. (March 4) 

(Date unknown.) Nothing is known of these 
Saints beyond the fact of the insertion of their 
names in the Roman and other Martyrologies. 

(SS.) MM. (Aug. 23) 

(3rd cent.) Archelaus was a deacon ; Maxi- 
mus, a priest ; and Quiricus, or Quiriacus, a 
Bishop. They suffered death for their Faith 
in Christ, at Ostia, at the mouth of the Tiber, 
in one of the persecutions, about the middle of 
the third century. Their names appear in all 
the ancient Martyrologies. They seem to have 
been scourged and beheaded without any of the 
horrible and exquisite tortures to which Chris- 
tians were often subjected, even in defiance 
of the Imperial Law ordering simple decapita- 
tion. With St. Archelaus and the two men- 
tioned above, there were also a certain number 
of laymen who suffered with them. 
ARCHELAUS (St.) Bp. (Dec. 26) 

(3rd cent.) A Bishop of Cascus (Charchar) 
in Mesopotamia, well known for his pastoral 
zeal and for his talents and eloquence. A widely 
propagated story has it that, about A.D. 250, 
St. Archelaus held a public dispute with 
the heretic Manes, author of Manicheeism. 
He utterly discomfited his adversary ; but 
the dispute was afterwards renewed, always 
with the same result. St. Archelaus has left 
valuable writings on the controversy with the 
Manichees ; and St. Jerome on that account 
numbers him among prominent Ecclesiastical 
writers. St. Archelaus died about a.d. 280. 
ARCHIPPUS (St.) (March 20) 

(1st cent.) A fellow-worker with St. Paul, 
who mentions him by name in two of his 
Epistles (Philem. 2; Col. iv. 17). Greek 
tradition places him among Christ's seventy- 
two disciples. Again, it was an opinion popular 
in early and mediaeval times that he was the 
first Bishop of the Colossians. 
ARCONTIUS (St.) M. (Sept. 5) 

ARDALION (St.) M. (April 14) 

(4th cent.) An actor whose mimicry of the 
Christian Mysteries was very popular with 
Pagan audiences. During a performance in a 
city in Asia Minor, he suddenly proclaimed 
himself a Cliristian and was roasted alive in the 
public square (A. P. 300). 
*ARDWYNE (St.) Conf. (July 28) 

(7th cent.) He with his fellow-countrymen 
from England, SS. Gerard, Fulk and Bernard, 




while on a pilgrimage to Rome, was carried off 
by death in the south of Italy. The date is 
probably some time in the seventh century ; 
but even the most scientific research, carried out 
carefully in recent times, has failed to elucidate 
the story of these Saints. St. Ardwyne is vener- 
ated as Patron Saint of the town of Ceprano. 
AREGLOE (St.) Bp. (March 17) 

Otherwise St. AGRICOLA, which see. 

(SS.) MM. 

(Date unknown.) A band of seventeen 
African Martyrs, particulars concerning whom 
have been lost. Some Martyrologies class them 
with the Roman Martyrs, Basilides and others, 
commemorated on the same day. 
ARETHAS and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Oct. 1) 

(Date unknown.) St. Arethas, with five 
hundred and four others, according to the 
Roman Martyrology, suffered at Rome. They 
were first mentioned by TJsuard, and he was 
copied by Baronius ; but they are not found 
in more ancient documents. Some are of 
opinion that the Saints of the same name 
(Oct. 23) martyred at Magran or Negran in 
Arabia Felix (Aden) are meant. 
ARETHAS and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Oct. 23) 

(6th cent.) St. Arethas was the Governor 
of the town of Negran in Arabia Felix (Aden), 
and with him are commemorated innumerable 
Christians of both sexes who Avere the victims 
of the persecution of a Jewish King of the 
Homerites, by name Dunaan or Nowas (A.D. 
523). A priest, or Bishop, by name Simeon, 
wrote a history of this persecution a year after 
the martyrdom of St. Arethas. He describes 
the Siege of Negran by Dhu-Nwas and the 
burning of the Christians and their churches. 
Some of the women (he says) were being 
beheaded, when a little boy professed his wish 
to die with his mother, Ruoma, and was slain 
with her. 

(SS.) MM. (June 4) 

(Date unknown.) Beyond mention in the 
Martyrologies of the martyrdom of a St. Aretius 
at Rome, with a St. Dacian, and their burial 
in the Catacombs on the Appian Way, nothing 
else is known. A St. Pictus is venerated with 
them in places. 
♦ARGARIARGA (St.) V. (Sept. 9) 

(7th cent.) An Irish Saint, otherwise known 
as St. Osanna, who led a holy life in Brittany, 
and whose relics were enshrined at St. Denis 
near Paris. 

(SS.) MM. (Jan. 2) 

(4th cent.) Three brothers who suffered 
martyrdom at Tomis in Pontus (on the Black 
Sea), under the Emperor Licinius, who obliged 
all his soldiers to offer sacrifice to the gods. 
Because of their refusal, the three brothers 
were put to death (A.D. 320). Argaeus and 
Narcissus were beheaded and Marcellinus was 
cast into the sea. 
ARGIMIRUS (St.) M. (June 28) 

(9th cent.) A monk of Cordova in Spain, 

who was martyred during the persecution under 

the Arab domination, A.D. 856, or, according 

to St. Eulogius, Archbishop of Toledo, A.D. 858. 

ARIADNA (St.) M. (Sept. 17) 

(2nd cent.) A Christian woman, slave of a 
prince or noble in Phrygia (Asia Minor). She 
was flogged for refusing to join in the heathen 
rites celebrated on the anniversary of her 
master's birthday, but fled from his house to 
the neighbouring hill country. She evaded 
her pursuers until a rock miraculously opening 
offered her a place of refuge, closing again alter 
she had entered, and thus procuring for her 
both a. tomb and the crown of martyrdom 
(A.D. 130). 

(SS.) MM. (March 8) 

(3rd cent.) Arianus, Governor of Thebes 

(Egypt), with Theotychus and three others, 
was converted to Christianity on witnessing at 
Alexandria the martyrdom of St. Apollonius 
and St. Philemon. The judge ordered them to 
be drowned in the sea. There is a legend that 
their bodies were brought ashore by dolphins. 
♦ARILDA (St.) V.M. (Oct. 30) 

(Date uncertain.) A Christian maiden in 

Gloucestershire, murdered in defence of her 

chastity. The church at Oldbury is dedicated 

in her name. 


(Date unknown.) Though the Roman Mar- 
tyrology, following those of Bede, Ado and 
Usuard, describes St. Aristaeus as Bishop of 
Capua in Italy, modern investigation inclines 
to identify him with St. Aristaeon, an Egyptian 
Martyr, honoured by the Greeks on Sept. 3. 
Similarly, the St. Antoninus, a child-martyr 
associated with him, may be no other than the 
St. Antoninus of either Pamiers in France or 
of Apamaea in Syria, commemorated in the 
Roman Martyrology on Sept. 2, though the 
latter is usually said to have been a priest. 
At Capua there is no record of either Saint. 
ARISTARCHUS (St.) Bp., M. (Aug. 4) 

(1st cent.) A native of Thessalonica and a 
companion of St. Paul in his travels (Acts xx, 1 ; 
xxvii. 2). He was seized with the Apostle at 
Ephesus, and shared his imprisonment. He 
is also described as his fellow-worker (Philem. 
24). Tradition makes of him the first Bishop 
of Thessalonica. Pseudo-Dorotheus has it that 
he was beheaded in Rome at the same time as 
St. Paul. 
ARISTIDES (St.) (Aug. 31) 

(2nd cent.) Both Eusebius and St. Jerome 
speak of St. Aristides as an early Christian 
writer and an eloquent philosopher, who, like 
his contemporary Quadratus, presented to the 
Emperor Hadrian an Apologv for the Christian 
Faith (A.D. 133). He is cited by Usuard 
(in his Martyrology for Oct. 3) for his account 
of the Passion of St. Dionysius the Areopagite. 
This work, which was treasured by the Athenians 
as a noble monument of antiquity, is now 
apparently lost. 
ARISTION (St.) (Feb. 22) 

(1st cent.) One of the seventy-two disciples 
of Our Lord. He is mentioned in the Acts of 
St. Barnabas as a companion of the deacon 
Timon, in the latter's Apostolic labours in the 
Island of Cyprus. According to the Greek 
Menology St. Aristion was martyred at Alexan- 
dria, ; according to others, at Salamis in Cyprus. 
ARISTOBULUS (St.) M. (March 15) 

(1st cent.) Said by some to have been one 
of the seventy-two disciples (Luke x.) and the 
brother of St. Barnabas. He is referred to 
by St. Paul (Rom., xvi. 11). Others make him 
one and the same as Zebedee, Father of St. 
James and St. John the Evangelist. Again, 
there is a legend that he was consecrated a 
Bishop by St. Peter or St. Paul and sent to 
Great Britain, where he was martyred. But 
this last storv at least has no foundation. 



MM. (July 2) 

(3rd cent.) A band of Christian Martyrs 
put to death in the Campagna (Southern Italy) 
at the beginning of the reign of the persecuting 
Emperor, Diocletian (A.D. 285). Nothing more 
is known about them. 
ARISTONICUS (St.) M. (April 19) 


(St.)Conf. (Aug. 16) 

(6th cent.) A Briton, related to St. Paul 
de Leon. A Cornish church is dedicated to 
St. Armel. His sphere of work was chiefly, 
however, in Brittany, where Plou-Ermel 
perpetuates his holy memory. A.D. 562 is given 
as the date of his death. 



*ARMEL (St.) Conf. (Aug. 16) 

Otherwise St. ARMAGILLTJS, which see. 
ARMENTARIUS (St.) Bp. (Jan. 30) 

(8th cent.) He succeeded St. Damian 
(A.D. 711) in the See of Pavia (Italy). During 
his Episcopate, Pope Constantine declared the 
See of Pavia to have always been immediately 
subject to the Holy See, and not to the Metro- 
politan See of Milan, as advanced by St. Bene- 
dict, Archbishop of Milan. St. Axmentarius 
died A.D. 732. His Acts were lost or destroyed, 
but his body was preserved in the principal 
church of Pavia. 
*ARNOUL (ARNULPHUS) (St.) M. (July 18) 

(6th cent.) A missionary to the Franks, 

contemporary of St. Remigius. He suffered 

martyrdom between Paris and Chartres about 

A.D. 534. 


SATURUS (SS.) MM. (March 29) 

(5th cent.) African victims of the Arian 
persecution under Genseric, King of the Vandals. 
We have particulars concerning them from the 
pen of Victor Vitensis, a trustworthy writer of 
the following century. They were high-born 
nobles at the Royal Court. Armogastes was 
put to the torture, but afterwards made to 
languish to death in slavery " lest the Romans 
should venerate him as a Martyr." The other 
two were beheaded about A.D. 464. 

(See Note on St. MASCULAS.) 
ARMON (St.) Bp. (July 31) 

Otherwise St. GERMANUS of AUXERRE, 
which see. 
♦ARNOLD (St.) Conf. (July 8) 

(9th cent.) A Greek by birth, attached to 
the Court of the Emperor Charlemagne. He 
is described as a model of Christian virtue, 
and has been venerated above all for his 
devotedness to the poor. He died shortly 
after the year 800, and has left his name to the 
village, Arnold -Villiers. 
ARNOUL (ARNULPHUS) (St.) Bp. (July 18) 

(7th cent.) A Prankish nobleman, born near 
Nancy in Lorraine, and educated in piety and 
learning by Gondulphus, a councillor of King 
Theodebert II. He distinguished himself as 
a soldier and married Doda, a lady of quality, 
by whom he had two sons, Clodulph (Cloud) 
and Ansegisius. When the See of Metz became 
vacant in the year 613, clergy and people 
united in demanding Arnoul (whose wife had 
just taken the veil in a convent at Treves) as 
their Bishop. He governed his Diocese with 
zeal and success for about nine years, and 
during part of that time acted also as Duke 
of Austrasia for King Clotaire II. In his old 
age he resigned all his dignities and retired to 
a cave in the Vosges mountains, where he died 
attended by St. Romaric (A.D. 641). He seems 
to have been of the Blood Royal of the Mero- 
vingians, and it is asserted that through his son 
Ansegisius he transmitted it to the succeeding 
French dynasty, that of the Carolingians. 
ARNULPHUS (St.) Bp. (Aug. 15) 

(11th cent.) A nobleman of Brabant who 
had distinguished himself as a soldier, before 
entering the Ecclesiastical life. After some 
years passed in a monasterv at Soissons, he was 
appointed Bishop of that See. He found, 
however, so many disorders in Church discipline 
obtaining among his flock, that his efforts to 
cope with them literally wore him out, and 
in the end he was compelled to retire to the 
Abbey of Aldenberg. There he died and was 
buried A.D. 1087. 
*ARNULPH (St.) (Aug. 22) 

(9th cent.) Possibly a Huntingdonshire Saint 
of British origin who may have lived in this 
country in the ninth century. But history is 
silent concerning him ; and it is not improbable 
that he is no other than St. Arnulph, Bishop 
of Metz, the veneration of a portion of whose 
relics at Arnulphsbury. or Eynesbury, in Hunt- 
ingdonshire, may have given rise to the legend 

that another St. Arnulph lived and died in 
ARPINUS (St.) Bp. (Nov. 9) 

Otherwise St. AGRIPPINUS, which see. 
ARSACIUS (URSACIUS) (St.) Conf. (Aug. 16) 

(4th cent.) A Persian by birth and a soldier 
by profession, who on his conversion to the 
Faith retired to a high tower overlooking the 
city of Nicomedia, where he lived the life of a 
solitary and became famous on account of his 
gifts of miracles and prophecy. He is said 
to have forewarned the inhabitants of the 
destruction of their city by the earthquake of 
A.D. 358. Some survivors found Arsacius dead 
in his tower in the attitude of prayer. 

ARSENIUS (St.) Conf. (July 19) 

(5th cent.) Sprung from a rich and noble 
Roman family, his abilities and love of work 
soon placed him in the forefront of the learned 
men of his age. The Emperor Theodosius 
chose him as tutor of his two sons, the future 
Emperors Arcadius and Honorius. Declining 
the honours which were offered to him he bade 
farewell to the world and retired to the desert 
of Nitria in Lower Egypt. There, on account 
of his continuous prayer and severe fasting, 
he became an object of wonder even to his fellow- 
hermits. Later he changed his residence to a 
cell in the neighbourhood of Memphis, where he 
died in his ninety-fifth year (a.d. 450). 

ARSENIUS (ST.) M. (Dec. 14) 

(3rd cent.) A Martyr of the Decian persecu- 
tion (A.D. 250). St. Dionysius of Alexandria 
in a letter to Fabius of Antioch describes the 
Passion of this Holy Martyr and of SS. Heron 
and others who suffered with him. He is there 
named Ater, changed by later biographers into 
Arsenius and Arsinus. He was an Egyptian, 
and with the Christians, his companions, was 
burned to death at Alexandria. A Christian 
boy, fifteen years old, was arrested at the same 
time, but only scourged, being then let go on 
account of his vouth. 

*ARTEMAS (St.) *M. (Jan. 25) 

(Date unknown.) A Christian bey of a town 
near Naples, who in one of the first centuries 
was on account of his religion with the con- 
nivance of those in authority, murdered by his 

(SS.) MM. 

(4th cent.) Artemius, gaoler of one of the 
Roman prisons, with his wife Candida and 
daughter Paulina, was converted to Christianity 
by St. Peter the Exorcist, and baptised by 
St. Marcellinus. By order of Serenus the 
judge, Artemius was beheaded, and his wife 
and daughter buried under a pile of stones 
(A.D. 302). 

ARTEMIUS (St.) M. (Oct. 20) 

(4th cent.) One of the soldier-martyrs of 
the time of the Emperor Julian the Apostate, 
by whose order he was beheaded at Antioch 
(A.D. 363), after having been subjected to 
various forms of torture. He was a veteran 
officer and had been placed in high command 
by Constantine the Great. He was specifically 
charged before Julinn with having broken down 
the statue of an idol, something like which the 
veteran may likely enough have been guilty 
of in his irritation at the cruel persecution to 
which his fellow-Christians were subjected. 

ARTEMON (St.) M. (Oct. 8) 

(4th cent.; A priest of Laodicea, burned 
to death under Diocletian (A.D. 305). There 
is a good deal of dispute as to which of the 
several towns bearing the name of Laodicea, 
St. Artemon belongs. The probabilities fire 
in fovour of Laodicea in Phrygia. 

♦ARTHEN (St.) 

(Date uncertain.) This Saint seems untrace- 
able. He appears to be one and the same with 
the St. Arvan or A roan, who has left his name 
at St. Aroans and Cwmcarvan in Monmouth- 
shire. Stanton's Mcnology, following Challoner, 




identifies St. Arvan with Marnanus, a com- 
panion of SS. Banka (or Breaca) and Sennen 
(6th cent.) 
♦ARWALD (SS.) MM. (April 22) 

(7th cent.) Two brothers, sons of Arwald, 
a prince in the Isle of Wight, whose proper 
names are lost. They were put to death by 
the soldiers of King Ceadwalla, then a Pagan, 
on the morrow of their baptism (a.d. 686). 
ASAPH (ASA) (St.) Bp. (May 1) 

(6th cent.) The first Welsh Bishop of Llan- 
elwy, now St. Asaph's, in Flintshire. He 
entered the monastery built by St. Kentigern 
of Glasgow, at the confluence of the Elwy and 
the Clwydd (A.D. 545), and was appointed his 
successor as Abbot and Bishop when St. Kenti- 
gern returned to Scotland (a.d. 573). St. 
Asaph governed a monastery of nearly one 
thousand monks, some of whom preached and 
officiated in the church, while the rest laboured 
for the sustenance of the community and for 
the civilisation of the neighbourhood. The 
exact date of St. Asaph's death is not known. 
♦ASICUS (St.) Bp. (April 27) 

(5th cent.) One of the earliest disciples of 
St. Patrick in Ireland. The Apostle placed 
him at the head of the monastery and Diocese 
of Elphin, of which he is venerated as the 
Patron-Saint. He lived to a great age, dying 
after the year 500, having passed the evening 
of his life as a hermit. He is famous for his 
extraordinary skill as a metal-worker, and 
some remarkable specimens of his handiwork 
yet remain. 
ASCLAS (St.) M. (Jan. 23) 

(4th cent.) He suffered in the persecution 
under Diocletian. After being put to severe 
torture he was thrown into the Nile at Antinoe 
in Egypt. His judge thereupon i3 said to have 
become a Christian and a Martyr. 
ASCLEPIADES (St.) Bp. M. (Oct. 18) 

(3rd cent.) According to Eusebius of Caesa- 
rea, St. Asclepiades was the successor of 
St. Serapion in the See of Antioch (a.d. 211). 
He is also mentioned by St. Jerome, and appears 
to have occupied the See of Antioch until his 
death in a.d. 217. No details are given of the 
manner of his death and many are of opinion 
that he gained the title of Martyr by reason 
of the sufferings he underwent during the 
persecution of Severus and Macrinus. 

(St.) M. 

ASELLA (St.) V. (Dec. 6) 

(5th cent.) Her life virtues and austerity 
are described in the Epistles of St. Jerome, 
where we are told that at the age of twelve 
years she began to dedicate herself entirely to 
the service of God. The holy Doctor calls her 
" a flower of the Lord." Palladius speaks of 
having visited her in Rome (a.d. 405), where 
she was in charge of a community of nuns. 
ASPREN (St.) Bp, (Aug. 3) 

(1st cent.) Although mention is not made 
of this Saint in the ancient Menologies, tradition 
from time immemorial and the records of the 
Neapolitan Church abundantly prove his cultus 
from the Apostolic Age. It is related that 
St. Peter parsing through Naples on his way 
from Antioch to Rome, cured St. Aspren of a 
serious malady, instructed and baptised him, 
and on a return visit confided to him the care 
of the Church in Naples. His conversion, 
miracles and other works were depicted on the 
walls of the chapel where he was interred. 
ASTERIA (HESTERIA) (St.) V.M. (Aug. 10) 

(4th cent.) A holy Martyr, held in great 
veneration from time immemorial at Bergamo 
in Lombardy. An ancient epitaph describes 
her as having been beheaded as a Cliristian under 
Diocletian, when she had already reached her 
sixtieth year. The old MSS. of Bergamo tell 
of her Christian parentage and education, and 
of her association with St. Grata in the burial 


of St. Alexander, a martyred soldier of the 
Theban Legion ; also of her own death and 
burial in the church of St. Alexander (a.d. 307). 

ASTERIUS (St.) M. (March 3) 


ASTERIUS (St.) M. (May 20) 

(3rd cent.) Probably a Syrian. He was 
converted to Christianity together with a fellow 
executioner on beholding the invincible fortitude 
of the holy Martyr St. Thalalaeus, a Christian 
physician, whom they were employed to put 
to death. They themselves, with several other 
Christian converts, suffered martyrdom at 
Edessa in Mesopotamia under the Emperor 
Numerian (A.D. 284). 

ASTERIUS (St.) Bp. (June 10) 

(4th cent.) Formerly an Arian, who after his 
conversion, became Bishop of Petra in Arabia, 
and gained the hatred of the heretics by pub- 
lishing the story of their intrigues at the Council 
of Sardica (a.d. 347). Banished to Africa by 
the Emperor Constantius, but recalled by Julian 
the Apostate, he assisted at the Council of 
Alexandria (a.d. 362), and was chosen to be 
the bearer of the letter from the Council to the 
Church of Antioch. He seems to have died a 
year or two later. 

ASTERIUS and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Aug. 23) 

(3rd cent.) Three brothers who were de- 
nounced by their step-mother as Christians 
to the Pro-consul Lysias at ^Egea, a seaport 
in Cilicia (Asia Minor). Two pious women, 
Domnina and Theonilla, were at the same time 
cited before the tribunal. After subjecting 
the brothers, Claudius, Asterius and Neon, 
to the most excruciating tortures, Lysias 
ordered them to be crucified outside the walls 
of the city, and their remains to be left to the 
birds of prey of the neighbourhood. Theonilla 
and Domnina, after undergoing many indig- 
nities, were drowned (a.d. 285). 

ASTERIUS (St.) M. (Oct. 21) 

(3rd cent.) Registered in several ancient 
Martyrologies on Oct. 19, but in the more recent 
ones on Oct. 21, he is described as a Roman 
priest ordained by Pope St. Callistus, and who, 
for having secretly buried the body of that 
Martyr Pope, was cast into the Tiber at Ostia 
by order of the Emperor Alexander (a.d. 222). 
But the Christians recovered his body and 
interred it in the tomb of other Martyrs at 
Ostia. In the year 1159 their relics were more 
suitably enshrined in the Church of St. Aurea, 
then just constructed in the partially rebuilt 

♦ASTERIUS of AMASEA (St.) Bp. (Oct. 30) 

(5th cent.) A Father of the Church, some of 
whose eloquent sermons are still extant. He 
was Bishop of Amasea in Pontus (Asia Minor), 
came unhurt through the persecution under 
Julian the Apostate, and was still alive in a.d. 

ASTIUS (St.) Bp. M. (July 7) 


ASYNCRITUS (St.) Bp. (April 8) 

(First cent.) Bishop of Hyrocania on the 
Caspian Sea, said to have been one of the 
seventy-two disciples chosen by Christ and 
mentioned by St. Paul in his Epistle to the 
Romans (xvi. 11, 14). With him the Church 
commemorates St. Herodion, Bishop of Tarsus 
in Cilicia, and St. Phlegon, Bishop of Marathon 

ATHAN (St.). 

Place-name near Pontyprydd. No record. 

ATHANASIA (St.) Widow. (Aug. 14) 

(9th cent.) Her parents belonged to an 
ancient Greek family, and she was born in the 
Island of iEgina. Her first husband died on 
the battlefield in a war against the Saracens ; 
but her second husband set her free by himself 
entering a monastery. She at first turned her 
own home into a convent, but, soon, desirous of 
greater retirement, built the Abbey of Timia, 
where, under the guidance of a saintly priest, 



she soon gathered a considerable community. 
Her virtues and wisdom were such that the 
Empress Theodora summoned her to Constan- 
tinople. There she remained seven years, 
but returned to die at Timia (a.d. 860). 
ATHANASIA (St.) (Oct. 9) 

(5th cent.) The wife of St. Andronicus, 
who, like him, on the death of their children, 
embraced the life of a solitary in the desert 
of Scete in Egypt. In some Greek accounts 
she is said to have concealed her sex, which was 
revealed after death by a paper which she left 
for her husband, who, without recognising her, 
was present at her deathbed (about a.d. 450). 
ATHANASIUS (St.) M. (Jan. 3) 

ATHANASIUS (St.) Bp., Doctor of (May 2) 

the Church 

(4th cent.) The famous champion of the 
Catholic Faith in the Blessed Trinity, against 
Arius, who denied the Divinity of Christ and 
was upheld by powerful partisans. Born at 
Alexandria in Egypt, St. Athanasius was 
ordained deacon by St. Alexander, Patriarch 
of that city, and succeeded him as Bishop 
(a.d. 326), having in the previous year taken 
part in the great Council of Nicaea. During 
his long Episcopate his life was frequently in 
danger, and he had, at several periods, to keep 
flying from place to place. Eventually he 
returned in triumph to his Church, and died 
at Alexandria, a.d. 373. His piety, learning 
and unparalleled energy made of him the most 
conspicuous figure of the age in which he lived ; 
and he has left many and valuable writings. 
Truly, as St. Gregory Nazianzen styles him, 
was he a " pillar of the Church." 
ATHANASIUS (St.) M. (July 5) 

(5th cent.) A deacon of Jerusalem. He 
denounced the heretic Theodosius, who had 
supplanted the Catholic St. Juvenal in the See 
of Jerusalem. For his act of zeal the good 
deacon was seized by the soldiery, scourged 
and beheaded (a.d. 452). 
ATHANASIUS (St.) Bp. ' (July 15) 

(9th cent.) A Bishop of Naples, known as 
Athanasius the First, to distinguish him from 
his unworthy successor of the same name. 
His brother, Sergius I, Duke of Naples, placed 
his son under the care of St. Athanasius, but the 
young man at the instigation of his wife and 
courtiers cast his uncle into prison. The clergy 
and people of Naples soon forced Sergius to 
release their bishop, but the young Duke 
threatened him with worse than imprisonment 
unless he abdicated. The Emperor Louis II 
then intervened and sent the Duke of Amalfi 
to conduct Athanasius to a place of safety. 
The Saint died at Veroli, and was buried at 
Monte Cassino (a.d. 872). His body was soon 
afterwards translated to the Cathedral of Naples. 

(SS.) MM. (Aug. 22) 

(3rd cent.) St. Athanasius was a Bishop of 
Tarsus in Asia Minor, and famous for the 
holiness of his life. He fell a victim to the 
cruelty of the persecuting Emperor Valerian 
(about a.d. 257). St. Anthnsa, a wealthy lady 
of one of the various Asiatic cities named 
Seleucia, had previously come to Tarsus to seek 
baptism at the hands of St. Athanasius. Having 
thus become a Christian, and having on that 
account been driven out of Seleucia. she em- 
braced the life of a solitary in the desert, 
persevering therein until her death, twenty- 
three years later. Two servants who had 
«+ ? u her to Tarsus fo und a home with 
8t. Athanasius, and in the end shared his crown 
of martyrdom. 
* AT HELM (St.) Bp. (Jan. 8) 

(10th cent.) The uncle of St. Dunstan. He 
was the first Bishop of Wells in Somerset, and 
afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, which 
bee lie governed from a.d. 914 to his death in 
a.d. 923. 

ATHENODORUS (St.) Bp. M. (Oct. 18) 

(3rd cent.) The brother of St. Gregory 
Thaumaturgus, and a native of Neo-Caesarea 
in Cappadocia. They were both pupils of 
Origen, and together combated the teaching 
of Paul of Samosata in the first Council of 
Antioch. St. Athenodorus is said to have been 
put to death during the persecution of Aurelian 
about the year 269. No mention is made of 
the See of which he was Bishop, but it is com- 
monly supposed to have been Neo-Caesarea 
itself, where he may have succeeded his brother. 

ATHENODORUS (St.) M. (Nov. 11) 

(4th cent.) One of the Christian victims 
immolated during the presidency of Eleusius 
in Mesopotamia, under the Emperor Diocletian. 
He survived many tortures, and was bound at 
last to the stake. But the fire refused to burn ; 
whereupon the executioner was summoned to 
behead him. However, the man fell dead at 
the feet of the Martyr, and, no substitute being 
found, Athenodorus was suffered to die in peace. 
He passed away while engaged in an ecstasy of 
prayer, only a few hours later (A.D. 304). 

ATHENOGENES (St.) M. (June 18) 

(2nd cent.) An aged priest, who while being 
burned at the stake, somewhere in Pontus (Asia 
Minor), is said to have repeated the beautiful 
Evening Hymn which he had formerly com- 
posed, and which still forms a striking feature 
in the Greek Vesper service. The date of his 
martyrdom is given as A.D. 196. St. Basil 
quotes him as an authority on theological 
questions. But there is much obscurity about 
him. The learned Cardinal Baronius goes so 
far as to think he may be identical with the 
well-known Christian writer Athenagoras. 
St. Athenogenes has also been credited with the 
composition of the hymn, Gloria in excelsis. 


(4th cent.) A Bishop with ten of his flock, 

put to death by the President Hirernarchus at 

Sebaste in Armenia (a.d. 302), during the great 

persecution under Diocletian and his colleagues. 

*ATHEUS (St.) Conf. (Dec. 26) 

Otherwise St. TATHAI, which see. 

*ATHILDA (St.) V.M. (March 27) 

Otherwise St. ALKELD, which see. 

*ATTALA (St.) V. (Dec. 20) 

(8th cent.) A niece of St. Odilia. For 
twenty years she was Abbess of a monastery 
at Strasburg, and venerated by all for her 
piety, prudence and charity. She died at the 
age of fifty-four, about A.D. 741. 

ATTALAS (St.) Abbot. (March 10) 

(7th cent.) The second Abbot of the famous 
Abbey of Bobbio in Lombardy, disciple and 
successor of St. Columbanus, whom he had 
followed into exile from Luxeuil, and near 
whose tomb he was buried (A.D. 627). 

ATTALUS (St.) M. (June 2) 


ATTALUS (St.) M. (Dec. 31) 


ATHO (St.) Bp. (May 22) 

(12th cent.) Badajoz in Spam and Florence 
in Italy put forth rival claims to have been the 
birthplace of this Saint. From having been 
Abbot of Vallombrosa, he was chosen Bishop 
of Pistoia, also in Tuscany, and occupied that 
See for twenty years. He died a.d. 1153. 
He has left a work on the miracles and relics of 
St. James of Compostella. 

ATHIUS (ATTUS) (St.) M. (Aug. 1) 

(4th cent.) One of nine Christian husband- 
men, among whom Leontius and Alexander are 
also mentioned by name. They were beheaded 
at Perge in Pamphylia (Asia Minor) in the great 
persecution under Diocletian. The fact that 
these were poor peasants, quite uncultured and 
yet heroes in their fight for Christ, appears to 
have greatly impressed their contemporaries. 

ATTICUS (St.) M. (Nov. 6) 

(Date unknown.) Although the Roman 

Martyrology registers St. Atticus without giving 




him the title of Martyr, various other reliable 
lists describe him as a Martyr in Phrygia. Fur- 
ther information respecting him is wanting. 

ATTILANUS (St.) Bp. (Oct. 5) 

(11th cent.) Born at Tarragona or Tarascona 
in Aragon (Spain), in early youth he entered 
the Benedictine Order and became the disciple 
of the holy Abbot St. Froilan, who later chose 
Attilanus as his Prior and substitute. The 
two Sees of Leon and Zamora becoming vacant, 
St. Froilan was appointed to the former and 
St. Attilanus to the latter, and they were 
consecrated together on Whit-Sunday, a.d. 990. 
St. Attilanus governed his flock in a period of 
great trouble and distress. He died A.d. 909, 
and was canonised A.D. 1098. 

*ATTRACTA (St.) V. (Aug. 11) 

(5th cent.) An Irish Saint, probably a 
contemporary of St. Patrick. Having embraced 
the religious life, she founded a monastery in 
the present County of Sligo (Killaraght), and 
another in the County of Roscommon. She 
was renowned far and wide for her charity to 
the poor and for the hospitality she extended 
to wayfarers and to the homeless. Precise 
dates cannot be fixed with any certainty. 

BERT) (St.) Bp. (Dec. 13) 

(7th cent.) One of the greatest and most 
illustrious Bishops and Saints of his age in the 
North of France. Appointed in the year 633 
Bishop of the United Sees of Cambrai and 
Arras, his position and character enabled him 
to enlist the services of princes and conspicuous 
personages in spreading the Faith through the 
vast districts committed to his pastoral care. 
He built many churches and monasteries, and 
others were founded by the converts to Chris- 
tianity he was daily making. King Dagobert 
chose him for his adviser in temporal, no less 
than in spiritual matters. After a glorious 
Episcopate of thirty-six years he passed away, 
about A.d. 669, and was buried in the church 
of St. Peter near Cambrai, to which later an 
Abbey was attached. 

AUBIERGE (St.) V. (July 7) 

Otherwise St. ETHELBURGA, which see. 

AUBYN (AUBIN) (St.) Bp. (March 1) 

Otherwise St. ALBINUS, which see. 

(SS.) MM. 

(Date unknown.) Martyrs at Amphipolis, 
anciently an important city of Western Mace- 
donia. They are commemorated in both the 
Eastern and Western Calendars ; but neither 
reliable particulars nor date of their martyrdom 
can be found. 

AUDACTUS (ADAUCTUS) (St.) M. (Oct. 24) 


AUCEJAS and LUCEIA (SS.) MM. (June 25) 


AUDAS (ABDAS) (St.) Bp. M. (May 16) 

(5th cent.) A Persian Bishop who is said 
to have set fire to a temple of the god of fire. 
Ordered to rebuild it at his own expense, he 
refused to do so. His conduct was made the 
pretext for a relentless persecution of Christian- 
ity. St. Audas, with seven priests, nine deacons 
and seven virgins, was among the first victims 
(A.D. 420). But there are considerable doubts 
as to the date and particulars of these martyr- 
doms. The destruction in Persia of Christian 
property in any way connected with religion was 
so indiscriminate that all records, if there were 
any, are lost. 

AUDAX (St.) M. (July 9) 


AUDIFAX (St.) M. (Jan. 19) 


AUDOMARUS (OMER) (St.) P. (Sept. 9) 

(7th cent.) Born at Ooldenthal near the 
Lake of Constance, in the sixth century, on the 
death of his mother, he and his father became 
monks in the Abbey of Luxeuil, under S. 
Eustace. Here St. Audomarus gained such a 

reputation for sanctity and learning that King 
Dagobert, encouraged by the wishes of the 
clergy, advised thereto by St. Acharius, Bishop 
of Noyon, chose the young monk to rule over 
the extensive Diocese of Terouanne (now 
St. Omer), which was sorely in need of a zealous 
pastor. By his exemplary life and untiring 
energy, the new Bishop suppressed idolatry 
and transformed his Diocese into one of the 
most flourishing in France. He founded the 
famous Abbey of Sithiu, later known as St. 
Bertin. In his old age he became blind, but 
never relaxed his endeavours to do good and to 
win souls to God. He died a.d. 670, and was 
buried in the church which has since become 
the Cathedral of St Omer. 
(St.) Bp. (Aug. 24) 

(7th cent.) A French Saint, son of Autharius 
and Aiga, who after their death were also, at 
least locally, venerated as Saints, and to whom 
St. Columbanus is said to have foretold that 
their son Ouen and his two brothers, Ardon and 
Radon, would become famous in Church and 
State. St. Ouen was entrusted with high 
offices at the Courts of Clotaire and Dagobert. 
There he met and formed a close friendship 
with St. Eligius (Eloi). Both of these noble- 
men resolving on entering the Ecclesiastical 
state, they were consecrated on the same day 
by Adeodatus, Bishop of Macon, Bishops 
Eloi of Noyon and Ouen of Rouen, where the 
latter succeeded St. Romanus (a.d. 640). The 
activity and success of St. Ouen in promoting 
the cause of Christianity and civilisation in 
the future province of Normandy was such 
that in life as in death he was acclaimed as a 
Saint. He passed away after more than forty 
years of a most fruitful Episcopate, at Clichy, 
near Paris (a.d. 683), and was buried in the 
Abbey of St. Pierre, hear Rouen, to which his 
name was given. There have been several 
translations of his relics, the last in the year 
1860. He has left us the Life of his friend, 
St. Eligius — an historical treasure, considering 
the dark century in which it was written. 
AUDREY (AWDREY) (St.) V. (June 23) 

DIS, ivhich see. 
AUGULUS (AUGUSTUS) (St.) Bp. M. (Feb. 7) 
(4th cent.) His name appears in the Martyr- 
ology of St. Jerome as a Bishop. Other 
ancient authorities describe him as a Martyr 
who laid down his life for Christ in London. 
This would be in the persecution under Dio- 
cletian in which St. Alban suffered about A.D. 
303. St. Augulus is called Augustus by 
Venerable Bede, and Augurius by some other 
authors. He has been identified by French 
writers with St. Ouil or Aule of Normandy. 
AUGURIUS (St.) M. (Jan. 21) 


* AUGUSTA (St.) V.M. (March 27) 

(Date uncertain.) The daughter of one of 

the Barbarian chiefs who overran Italy at the 

time of the fall of the Roman Empire. It is 

said that he, being a heathen, was so angered 

at finding that his child had become a Christian 

that he slew her with his own hand. St. 

Augusta is still venerated in some of the Alpine 

villages in the north of Italy. 

AUGUSTALIS (AUTAL) (St.) Bp. (Sept. 7) 

(Date uncertain.) According to all records, 

this Saint was a Bishop, but opinions vary as 

to his See. The most probable opinion is that 

he was Bishop of Aries (third or fourth century). 

The Roman Martyrology simply states that he 

was a Bishop in Gaul. Saint-Marthe and Gams 

place his name between those of Ravennius and 

Leontius (455-462) in their lists of the Bishops 

of Aries. 


(7th cent.) St. Augustine shares with St. 



Gregory the Great the title of Apostle of the 
English. St. Gregory himself, hefore his 
advancement to the Papal See, set out to 
convert the English, but was recalled to Rome. 
Five years after his election to the Pontifical 
Chair, he sent forth a band of forty monks 
from the monastery of St. Andrew in Rome, 
under their Prior Augustine, to begin a mission 
in England. They landed at or near Ebbsfleet 
in the Isle of Thanet, where they were received 
and listened to by King St. Ethelbert, who 
received Baptism and established the holy 
missionaries at Canterbury (A.D. 597). St. 
Augustine was consecrated the first Archbishop 
of Canterbury, it is said, by Virgilius, the 
Metropolitan of Aries. St. Gregory, on hearing 
of the success of the mission, sent the pallium 
(an ornament distinctive of Archbishops) to 
Augustine, together with a reinforcement of 
labourers, among whom were Mellitus, Paulinus 
and Justus. These were appointed to the Sees 
of London, York and Rochester. St. Augustine 
died within a short time of St. Gregory Oa.d. 
604). He was buried in the Abbey church with- 
out the walls of Canterbury, which he had 
AUGUSTINE of HIPPO (St.) Bp., (Aug. 28) 

Doctor of the Church. 

(5th cent.) He was born at Tagasta, a town 
of Numidia (near Algiers in Africa), a.d. 354. 
In his youth he went headlong into vice, and 
all but became a Manichaean. He taught 
Rhetoric at Tagasta, Carthage, Rome and 
Milan. In the latter city he met St. Ambrose 
and attended his sermons, which, with the aid 
of St. Simplician, a priest, brought about his 
conversion. He was baptised by St. Am- 
brose in the presence of his holy mother, 
St. Monica (a.d. 387). On his return to Africa 
he lived in solitude for three years, and was 
then consecrated Bishop of Hippo. In this 
high station he displayed great zeal and learning 
in repelling the attacks of the Pagans, Mani- 
chaeans, Arians, Donatists and Pelagians. His 
writings fill many folio volumes, his best-known 
work being the City of God and his Confessions. 
He died A.D. 430 in his seventy-sixth year, 
and was buried at Hippo in the church of 
St. Stephen. In the year 498, owing to the 
irruption of the Vandals, his relics were trans- 
ferred to Sardinia by the exiled African Bishops, 
and interred at Cagliari. When Sardinia fell 
into the hands of the Saracens, his relics were 
carried to Pavia (A.D. 772) and placed in the 
triple crypt of the Basilica of St. Peter. 
AUGUSTUS (St.) M. (May 7) 

AUGUSTUS (St.) Conf. (Sept. 1) 


AUGUSTUS (St.) Conf. (Oct. 7) 

(6th cent.) A saintly Abbot of Bourges in 

France, friend of St. Germanus of Paris. He is 

chiefly notable for having discovered the body 

(still incorrupt) of St. Ursinus, Apostle of the 

neighbourhood. He was remarkable for his 

austere piety, witnessed to by many miracles. 

He died towards the close of the sixth century. 

AULAIRE (St.) V.M. (Feb. 12) 

Otherwise St. EULALIA of BARCELONA, 

which see. 

*AULD (St.) Bp. (Feb. 4) 

Otherwise St. ALDATE, which see. 
AUNAIRE (St.) Bp. (Sept. 25) 

Otherwise St. ANACHARIUS, which see. 
AURA (St.) V.M. (July 19) 

(9th cent.) A Spanish nun of Cordova, 
daughter of intidel parents, who themselves 
denounced her to the Mohammedan officials as 
a convert to Christianity. She was in con- 
sequence beheaded (a.d 856). 
AUREA (St.) V.M. (Aug. 24) 

(3rd cent.) Out of many varied histories of 
the passion of this Saint it may be gathered that 
she was thrown into the sea at Ostia at the 
mouth of the Tiber, after undergoing many 

tortures, by order of Alpius Romulus, a Prefect 

under the Emperor Claudius (a.d. 260). She 

appears to have been associated with SS. 

Quiriacus, Maximus and Archelaus (Aug. 23), 

and to have been one of those devout women 

who used to visit the Christians in prison, 

attend to their needs, and give them decent 


AUREA (St.) V. (Oct. 4) 

(7th cent.) A Syrian lady, who became 

Abbess of the convent of St. Martial at Paris, 

founded a.d. 633 by St. Eligius, in honour of 

St. Martial of Limoges. St. Ouen, in his Life 

of St. Eligius, speaks of her in terms of great 

praise. Many miracles during her life and after 

her death bore eloquent testimony to her 

sanctity. She died in the year 666, with one 

hundred and sixty of her community, victims 

of the plague, then raging in France, and they 

were buried in the Church of St. Paul outside 

the city walls. 

AURELIA and NEOMISIA (SS.) VV. (Sept. 25) 

(Date uncertain.) Both are believed to have 

been of Asiatic origin. They visited the Holy 

Places in Syria and Palestine, and the Tombs 

of the Apostles in Rome. At Capua they were 

maltreated by the Saracens, but escaped under 

cover of a thunderstorm. They took shelter 

at Macerata, near Anagni, where they died. 

AURELIA (St.) V. (Oct. 15) 

(11th cent.) Said to have been a princess of 

France, of the family of Hugues Capet, and to 

have fled in disguise to Strasburg, in order to 

escape a marriage arranged against her will 

by her parents. Following the advice of St. 

Wolfgang, Bishop of Ratisbon, who penetrated 

her disguise, she embraced the life of a Solitary 

and took up her abode in a hermitage where 

she remained for about fifty-two years. The 

fame of her sanctity, borne witness to by 

several miracles, was already widespread at 

the time of her holy death in the year 1027. 

Her relics were worthily enshrined, and her 

hermitage converted into a chapel which became 

a place of popidar pilgrimage. 

AURELIA (St.) M. (Dec. 2) 

AURELIAN (St.) Bp. (June 16) 

(6th cent.) A Saint of the South of France, 
particulars of whose early life are not extant. 
On his election to the See of Aries (a.d. 546) 
he received the Pallium from Pope Vigilius, 
whose vicar in Gaul he became. He founded 
two monasteries, one for monks and one for 
nuns, and wrote a special Rule for their guid- 
ance. He assisted at the Council of Orleans 
(A.D. 549), and died two years afterwards at 
*AURELIUS (St.) Bp. (July 20) 

(5th cent.) An Archbishop of Carthage, 
fellow-worker with St. Augustine of Hippo, 
and the first to detect and condemn the heresy 
of Pelagius. He died a.d. 423. 
AURELIUS of CORDOVA (St.) M. (July 27) 

AURELIUS (St.) M. (Oct. 20) 

{These Saints are probably identical vrith the 
group in which the same names occur, com- 
memorated on July 27.) 
AURELIUS and PUBLIUS (SS.) (Nov. 12) 

Bps., MM. 

(2nd cent.) Two Bishops who each wroto 
a confutation of the errors of the Montanists 
or Cata-Phrygians. Tradition has it that both 
suffered martyrdom, but whether in Asia or in 
Northern Africa, seems uncertain. 

(SS.) MM. 

(Date uncertain.) During an invasion of 
Huns or other savages, St. Aureus, Bishop of 
Mentz, was driven from his See and was fol- 
lowed into exile by his sister, St. Justina. On 
his return to Mentz, his zeal for the restoration 
of Christian discipline so angered certain evil- 




doers that while the Bishop was celebrating 
Mass they murdered him and his sister. They 
certainly lived before the seventh century 
Apostolate of St. Boniface in Germany, but no 
reliable date can be assigned them. 
AUSPICIUS (St.) Bp. (July 8) 

(2nd cent.) He is said to have been the 
fourth Bishop of Treves and successor to 
St. Maternus (about A.D. 130). Some authori- 
ties, however, assert his identity with St. 
Auspicius, the fifth century Bishop of Toul. 
Again, some refer to him as a Martyr, others 
simplv as a Confessor. 
* AUSTELL (St.) Conf. (June 28) 

(6th cent.) A disciple in Cornwall of St. 
Me wan or Me van. He lived as a hermit in the 
latter half of the sixth century, probably in 
the district where a place-name preserves his 
memory. There is no account extant of St. 
Austell ; and some moderns have conjectured 
that Austell (Hawystill) is a woman Saint, 
one of the daughters of the famous Brychan 
of Wales, who has perhaps left her name to Aust 
or Awst in Gloucestershire. 
*AUSTREBERTA (St.) V. (Feb. 10) 

(8th cent.) A Saint of the North of France 
who fled from her home to escape being forced 
into a marriage against her will. She received 
the veil from St. Omer. She died Abbess of 
Pavilly A.D. 704. Some of her relics are said 
to have been brought to Canterbury by the 
Norman invaders (A.D. 1066). 
♦AUSTREGILDA (St.) Widow. (Sept. 1) 

Otherwise St. AGIA, which see. 

(St.) Bp. (May 20) 

(7th cent.) An attendant at the Court of 
King Gontram at Chalon-sur-Saone. His 
virtues induced JStherius, Bishop of Lyons, 
to ordain him priest and to appoint him Abbot 
of the monastery of St. Nizier. On the death 
of St. Apollinaris (A.D. 612) he was elected to 
the See of Bourges, where he died (A.D. 624), 
bewailed by his flock and was speedily by the 
Bishops of Gaul declared worthy of public 
veneration as a Saint. 
*AUTHAIRE (OYE) (St.) (April 24) 

(7th cent.) A nobleman of the Court of 
King Dagobert of France, and the father of 
St. Ouen of Rouen. St. Authaire distinguished 
himself by his lavish charity to the poor. 
Hence the village where he died (Ussy near 
La Ferte-sous-Jouarre) chose him after his 
death for its Patron Saint. 
AUSTREMONIUS (St.) Bp. (Nov. 1) 

(Date uncertain.) According to traditional 
belief in France, Austremontius was one of the 
missionaries sent into Gaul by the Apostle 
St. Peter himself. His field of labour lay 
principally in the province now known as 
Auvergne. After thirty-six years of successful 
missionary work, the Saint is said to have retired 
into solitude to prepare himself for death. 
It is further asserted that in the end certain 
evildoers, or perhaps an exasperated mob of 
heathens, sought him out and did him to death. 
The modern view is that St. Austremontius 
was one of seven missionaries sent from Rome 
into Gaul, but by one of the Popes of the third 
century, that is, two hundred years later than 
the older legend set forth. That Austremontius 
preached in Auvergne and may properly be 
regarded as the first Bishop of Clermont is 
quite in conformity with the result of scientific 
AUSTRICLINIAN (St.) (June 30) 

(Date uncertain.) One of two Roman 
priests, the other being St. Alpinianus, who 
accompanied St. Martial into Gaul, where they 
spent their lives with that Saint in preaching 
Christianity in the country round Limoges. 
But in this as in similar instances of the preach- 
ing of Roman missionaries in ancient France, 
it is now usual to accept the facts but to post- 
date the mission for two centuries. To explain 


the possible error, it should be noted that for 
many centuries, messengers and letters from the 
Popes of Rome were commonly designated as 
coming from St. Peter himself. Whence, 
easily enough, in later ages they got to be ante- 
dated to Apostolic times. 

*AUSTRUDE (St.) V. (Oct. 17) 

Otherwise St. ANSTRUDE, which see. 

AUTHBERTUS (AUDEBERT) (St.) Bp. (Dec. 13) 
Otherwise St. AUBERT, which see. 

AUTEL (St.) Bp. (Sept, 7) 

Otherwise St. AUGUSTALIS, which see. 

AUTONOMUS (St.) Bp., M. (Sept. 12) 

(4th cent.) Alleged by the Greeks to have 
been an Italian Bishop, who, to escape the fury 
of the persecution under Diocletian, fled into 
Bithynia in Asia Minor, where he made many 
converts to Christianity and afterwards suffered 
death for the Faith. This must have been 
about A.D. 300. The Life of St. Autonomus 
we possess was not written till the sixth 

AUXANUS (St.) Bp. (Sept. 3) 

(6th cent.) Known in Milan as SanV Ansano, 
and said to have occupied the See of that city 
for two or three years. He died A.D. 568 and 
has always been in great veneration locally as 
a Saint and model bishop. 

AUXENTIUS (St.) Abbot. (Feb. 14) 

(5th cent.) Born in Syria, but of Persian 
ancestry, he served as a soldier in the body- 
guard of the Emperor Theodosius the Younger. 
Later in life he retired to the Desert of Oxea in 
Bithynia, where he gathered disciples around 
him. He appeared to have done all that was 
in his power in defence of the Catholic Faith 
at the time of the Council of Chalcedon ; but 
speedily returned to his cell, and soon after 
passed away. 

AUXENTIUS (St.) M. (Dec. 13) 


AUXENTIUS (St.) Bp. (Dec. 18) 

(4th cent.) At one time a soldier in the army 
of the Emperor Licinius, he had to suffer, like 
other Christians, for refusing to take part in 
heathen sacrifices. But he survived the perse- 
cution and, embracing the Ecclesiastical state, 
in due course became Bishop of Mopsueste in 
Cilicia (A.D. 321). The date of his death is not 

AUXIBIUS (St.) Bp. (Feb. 19) 

(1st cent.) Said to have been the first 

Bishop of Soli in the Island of Cyprus, and to 

have been consecrated to that See by the 

Apostle St. Paul. 


(SS.) Bps. (Dec. 6) 

(5th cent.) Fellow- workers with St. Patrick 
in the evangelisation of Ireland in the fifth 
century. The decree signed by Patrick, 
Auxilius, Secundinus, and Benignus reminding 
the Irish clergy that appeals from the judgment 
of Armagh may be made to Rome is still 

AUXILIUS (St.) M. (Nov. 27) 


♦AVENTINUS of CHARTRES (St.) Bp. (Feb. 4) 
(6th cent.) A French nobleman, Bishop, 
first of Chateaudun, and then of Chartres, 
remarkable for his zeal and devotedness to his 
work as a pastor of souls. Many miracles 
are recounted worked through his prayers. 
He subscribed the Acts of the Council of Orleans 
(A.D. 511) which he probably survived some 
years. A translation of his relics was cele- 
brated in the year 1853. 

AVENTINUS (St.) (Feb. 4) 

(6th cent.) Born in one of the Central 
Provinces of France, he acted as Almoner to 
St. Lupus, Bishop of Troyes, until, moved by 
a desire of living a life of greater perfection, 
he withdrew from the world into a solitude, 
and after some time was ordained priest. To 
the retired spot where he lived and died (A.D. 
538) he has left his name, St Aventin. 



*AVENTINUS (St.) M. (June 7) 

(8th cent.) A holy hermit in the Pyrenees, 
put to death by the Moors, when making that 
great inroad of theirs into France, which led to 
the total destruction of their armies at Poictiers 
bv Charles Martel (A.d. 732). 

*AVERTINUS (St.) Conf. (May 5) 

(12th cent.) A Gilbertine Canon, the faithful 
friend of St. Thomas of Canterbury, who fol- 
lowed the holy Martyr into exile, and after his 
death devoted himself in France to the service 
of the poor. He died about a.d. 1189. Some 
churches in France are dedicated in his honour. 

AVIA (AVA) (St.) V.M. (April 29) 

(9th cent.) A holy nun, niece of King Pepin, 
who became Abbess of Dinant in Hainault. 
In her childhood and youth she was blind, but 
her eyesight was miraculously restored to her 
through the prayers of St. Rainfrede, sometimes 
said to have been her sister. We have no 
exact date given of her death. 

*AYA of HAINAULT (St.) Widow. (April 18) 

(7th cent.) A relative of St. Waldetrude, 
who sanctified herself in a holy widowhood, 
and who is greatly venerated in Belgium, and 
especially by the Religious women called 
Beguines. Among other wonders it is related 
of her that after her death she hindered an 
injustice being done by speaking from her tomb. 

AVITUS (St.) M. (Jan. 27) 

(Date unknown.) A Saint of this name is 
honoured as Patron and Bishop of the Canary 
Islands, and is supposed to have reached them 
in Apostolic times, to have preached the Gospel 
there, and finally to have been put to death 
for the Faith. The translation thither in the 
fifteenth century of the relics of some early 
Martyr may have given rise to the legend. 

AVITUS of VIENNE (St.) Bp. (Feb. 5) 

(6th cent.) Born in Auvergne and brother 
to St. Apollinaris, Bishop of Valence. Their 
father, St. Isychius, a Roman Senator, had been 
chosen Archbishop of Vienne on the death of 
St. Mamertus. St. Avitus succeeded him and 
presided over the famous Council of Epaon. 
It was he who converted the Burgnndian King 
Sigismund, who became a monk and a Saint. 
Only a few of the homilies, poems and letters 
of St. Avitus have been preserved. He was 
buried in the Cathedral of Vienne (A.D. 525). 

AVITUS (AVIT) (St.) Abbot. (June 17) 

(6th cent.) A monk of Orleans who suc- 
ceeded St. Maximin as Abbot of Micy. He 
finished his career as a hermit in one of the 
forests in the West of France, where, however, 
he seems to have gathered around him a body of 
disciples. The year 530 is given as that of his 

AVITUS (St.) Abbot. (Dec. 19) 

Otherwise St. ADJUTUS, which see. 

AZADANES (St.) M. (April 22) 

(4th cent.) A deacon among the Martvra of 

Persia, venerated on this day with St. Abdiesns, 

St. Azades, &c. They suffered under King 

Sapor II (a.d. 341). 

AZAS and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Nov. 19) 

(4th cent.) Martyrs in Isauria (Asia Minor) 

in the persecution under Diocletian about 

a.d. 304. They were Christian soldiers, about 

one hundred and fifty in number. 

AZARIAS(St.) (Dec. 16) 

(6th cent. B.C.) One of the three youths cast 
into the fiery furnace by order of King Nabucho- 
donosor of Babylon. The officials gave him the 
name of Abedncgo. The relics of these three 
holy men are venerated in one of the Roman 



(SS.) MM. (Jan. 24) 

(3rd cent.) St. Babilas, for thirteen years 

Bishop of Antioch, is said to have forbidden 

the Emperor Philip (reputed a Christian) the 
entrance to a church until he had publicly 
repented of a murder of which he was guilty. 
St. Babilas died in chains, awaiting execution, 
during the Decian persecution (A.D. 250). With 
him are commemorated three youths, his pupils, 
privileged with him to lay down their lives for 
♦BABILLA (St.) V.M. (May 20) 

(3rd cent.) Babilla or Basilla was a niece 
of the Emperor Gallienus and baptised by Pope 
St. Cornelius. Accused by one of her maids 
of being a Christian and forced to choose between 
marriage with a Pagan and death, she elected 
martyrdom. She was beheaded and buried 
in the catacombs of the Via Salaria, outside 
Rome (a.d. 270). St. Babilla seems to be 
identical with the St. Basilla commemorated 
in the Roman Martyrology on May 20. 
BABOLEN (St.) Abbot. (June 26) 

(7th cent.) A monk of unknown nationality 
but of the school of St. Columbanus of Luxeuil, 
and allied with St. Fursey. He laboured for 
the good of souls in the neighbourhood of Paris 
where he governed the monastery of St. Maur- 
BACCHUS (St.) M. (Oct. 7) 

*BADARN (PADARN) (St.) Bp. (Nov. 1) 

Other unse St. PATERNUS, which see. 
BADEMUS (St.) M. (April 10) 

(4th cent.) A Persian Saint, and founder of 
a monastery in his own country. He suffered 
martyrdom under King Sapor (a.d. 376). His 
Acts are extant in the original Syriac of St. 
Maruthas, his contemporary. 
*BAGLAN (St.) 

(Date unknown.) There are two Welsh 
Saints of this name, the one and the other 
attributed to the fifth century, but beyond the 
fact of there being existing churches dedicated 
in their honour, and a mention in an ancient 
litany, nothing is known of them. 
*BAIN (St.) Bp. (June 20) 

(8th cent.) Bishop of.Terouanne (St. Omer). 
After a fruitful Episcopate he retired to the 
monastery of St. Wandrille (Fontenelle) in 
Normandy, and later presided, in addition, 
over that of Fleury or St. Benoit-sur-Loire. 
He passed away about A.D. 711. 
*BAISIL (St.) 

(Date unknown.) Patron of a church in 
Llandaff Diocese. There is no record of such 
a Saint in Welsh Hagiology. It may be that 
Baisil is only a misspelling of some other appella- 
*BAITHIN (St.) Abbot. (June 9) 

(6th cent.) Also called Comin or Cominus, 
and described as first cousin to St. Columbkille, 
by whom he was educated, and whom he 
succeeded as Abbot of Hy or Iona. He is said 
to have died (a.d. 598) on the anniversary of 
the death of St. Columba. 
BAJULUS (St) M. (Dec. 20) 

BALBINA (St.) V.M. (March 31) 

(2nd cent.) A daughter of the Roman 
Tribune, St. Quirinus the Martyr. She was 
baptised together with both her parents by 
Pope St. Alexander. It appears that she 
ended her life by martyrdom, about a.d. 130, 
but whether she was drowned or buried alive 
is a matter of dispute. 
BALDOMER (St.) Conf. (Feb. 27) 

(7th cent.) Better known as St. Galmier. 
He was by trade a locksmith at Lyons, and late 
in life retired to the monastery of St. Justus 
under the Abbot Viventius, and was ordained 
sub-deacon. He died about a.d. 650, and is 
represented in art carrying pincers and lock- 
smith's tools. He is reputed the Patron Saint 
of those of his old trade. 
BALDERIC (BAUDRY) (St.) Conf. (Oct. 27) 

(7th cent.) He, with his sister St. Bova, 
were children of Sigebert I, King of Austrasia 




(Eastern France and Western Germany). He 
led a life of prayer and penance in a monastery 
near Rheims, and after his death was venerated 
as a Saint. 
*BALDRED (St.) Bp. (March 6) 

(7th cent.) A Scottish Bishop alleged to 
have been the successor of St. Kentigeru or 
Mungo, at Glasgow, and to have ended his life 
as a hermit on the coast of the Frith of Forth. 
The date usually given as that of his death 
would of course have to be corrected if he could 
be proved to be (as some surmise) one and the 
same person with St. Balther, hermit, also 
commemorated on March 6. 
BALDWIN (St.) M. (Jan. 8) 

(7th cent.) Archdeacon of Laon in the time 
of Dagobcrt I, King of France. He was a son 
of St. Salaberga and brother of St. Anstrude, 
Abbess of Laon. He was murdered about 
a.d. 680, in circumstances which have led to 
his being honoured as a martyr. 
*BALIN (BALANUS, BALLOIN) (St.) (Sept. 3) 


(7th cent.) Said to have been the brother of 
St. Gerald (March 13) and one of the four sons 
of an Anglo-Saxon king. He and his brothers, 
after accompanying St. Colman of Lindisfarne 
to Iona, retired into Connaught in Ireland, 
at Teehsaxon, " the House of the Saxons," in 
the Diocese of Tuam. 
BALTHASAR (St.) Xing, Bp. (Jan. 11) 

(1st cent.) The third of the Three Magi or 
Kings from the East who brought their gifts 
to the Infant Saviour. The tradition is that 
he afterwards became a Christian Bishop and 
died while celebrating Mass. 
*BALTHER (St.) Conf. (March 6) 

(8th cent.) An Anchoret at Tinningham on 
the Scottish border, where he lived on a solitary 
rock (Bass Rock, near North Berwick), almost 
surrounded by the sea. He died, famous for 
sanctity and miracle?., A.D. 756. Under King 
Canute, his body, with that of St. Bilfrid, was 
translated to Durham. Some identify St. 
Balther with St. Baldred of Scotland. 
*BALDUS (St.) (Oct. 29) 

Otherwise St. BOND, which see. 

(St.) Bp. (Aug. 9) 

(6th cent.) A French Saint, who, appointed 
Bishop of Soissons (a.d. 540), was banished the 
country by King Clothaire I, and worked for 
seven years, without making himself known, 
as gardener in an English Abbey. At length, 
Clothaire discovered his place of refuge, and 
recalled him to his See (a.d. 554). He died 
a.d. 666, and was buried in the Abbey of 
St. Crispin, which he had founded. 
*BANKA (St.) V. (Oct. 27) 

Otherwise St. BREACA, which see. 
BARACHISIUS (St.) M. (March 29) 

*BARADATAS (St.) Hermit. (Feb. 22) 

(5th cent.) A Syrian Solitary of whose 
austere life Theodoret his contemporary has 
left us a glowing account. He is otherwise 
celebrated as having been adviser to the Emperor 
Leo I of Constantinople, in regard to his pro- 
ceedings at the Council of Chalcedon. He died 
some years later, about a.d. 460. 

BARBARA (St.) V. M. (Dec. 4) 

(3rd cent.) A popular Saint, both in the 
Eastern and in the Western Church. She is 
looked upon as the Patron Saint of certain 
dangerous crafts and professions, such as those 
of firework makers, artillerymen, &c. There 
is no reliable account extant of her life and 
martyrdom. Some authors contend that she 
suffered at Nicomedia in Asia Minor under the 
Emperor Maximian 1, about a.d. 235 ; while 
others have it that she was a victim like so 
many thousands of other Christians of the savage 
cruelty of Galerius, colleague of Diocletian, 


and that she was done to death at Heliopolis 
in Egypt as late as A.D. 306. 

(SS.) MM. 

(4th cent.) Barbasceminus, Bishop of 
Seleucia, was one of the most distinguished of 
the Persian Martyrs of the fourth century under 
the persecuting King Sapor II. The con- 
temporary writer, St. Maruthas, has left us a 
vivid account of his sufferings and of those 
who with him gave their lives for Christ. 
BARBATIAN (St.) Conf. (Dec. 31; 

(5th cent.) A priest of Antioch who came to 
Rome and there attracted the attention of 
Placidia Augusta, mother of the Emperor 
Valentinian III. She induced him to attend 
her to her residence at Ravenna, where she 
built him a church and monastery. By his 
wise and moderate counsels he rendered great 
services to the State. The precise year of his 
death is uncertain. 
BARBATUS (BARBAS) (St.) Bp. (Feb. 19) 

(7th cent.) A citizen of Benevento in the 
South of Italy. He rendered great services 
to his native town, especially when besieged 
by the Emperor Constans of Byzantium. Chosen 
Bishop, he assisted at the Council held by Pope 
St. Agatho in Rome, and also at the sixth 
General Council against the Monothelites. He 
died Feb. 19, a.d. 682. 
BARBE (St.) V.M. (Dec, 4) 

Otherwise St. BARBARA, which see. 
BARBEA (St.) M. (Jan. 29) 

(2nd cent.) A Syrian woman converted to 
the Faith by St. Barsimeus, Bishop of Edessa. 
She was scourged and then speared to death at 
Edessa, some time during the reign of the 
Emperor Trajan, that is, before a.d. 117. 
*BARDO (St.) Bp. (June 10) 

(11th cent.) A monk of Fulda, consecrated 
Bishop of Mayence (a.d. 1031). He was 
distinguished not only for austerity of life and 
for pastoral zeal, but for self-sacrificing charity 
to the poor. He had from God many super- 
natural gifts, and in particular that of prophecy. 
He died on the day he had publicly foretold, 
June 11, a.d. 1051. 

(SS.) MM. (Sept. 28) 

(Date uncertain.) These Martyrs, twenty- 
eight in all, suffered together in Asia Minor in 
one of the early persecutions. But all details 
have been lost. 
*BARHADBESCIALAS (St.) M. (July 21) 

(4th cent.) A deacon martyred at Arbela in 
Adiabene under the Persian tyrant, Sapor II, 
about a.d. 854. His Acts, written in the Ara- 
maic language, are still extant. 
BARLAAM (St.) M. (Nov. 19) 

(4th cent.) A pious peasant, who bravely 
endured imprisonment and torture for the 
Faith at Antioch during the persecution under 
Diocletian and Galerius (a.d. 304). Among the 
works of St. Basil there is a panegyric preached 
on the festival day of St. Barlaam. 
BARLAAM and JOSAPHAT (SS.) Conf. (Nov. 27) 

(4th cent.) St. Barlaam, a monk or solitary 
in Northern India, converted to the Christian 
Faith, Josaphat, son of the king of the country, 
who, like Barlaam, is held in great veneration 
in the East. St. Barlaam worked many 
miracles, and the hermit's cell in which he 
passed the last thirty- five years of his life 
became a place of pilgrimage. Both Saints 
are honoured as Martyrs, and are said to have 
suffered in the year 383. But even the century 
in which they flourished is uncertain. A 
panegyric of St. Barlaam is attributed to St. 
John Damascene, and a foolish mistake has 
placed some of the legendary doings of Buddha 
to the credit of the Saint. 
BARNABAS (St.) Apostle. (June 11) 

(1st cent.) One of the seventy-two disciples 
of our Lord (Luke x.), though not of the Twelve. 
Bom in Cyprus and styled an Apostle by St. 



Luke and by the Church following the early 
Fathers, he is mentioned repeatedly in the 
Acts of the Apostles. He laboured with St. 
Paul at Aotioch, Seleucia, Paphos, &c, and is 
believed to have been stoned to death in his 
native island by the Jews, exasperated at the 
success of his preaching of the Gospel. St. 
Charles Borromeo proposed him as the Apostle 
of Milan, whither a tradition avers that he 
came in the course of his missionary career. 
It is alleged that several centuries after his 
death, on his tomb being opened, his body 
was discovered, holding in its hands a copy or 
the original Gospel of St. Matthew, written in 
♦BARNOCH (St.) Conf. (Sept. 27) 

Otherwise St. BARRUC or BARROG, which 



(8th cent.) St. Barontius was a married 
French nobleman of Berri, who, together with 
his son, leaving the Court of King Thierr> II, 
retired into the Abbey nf St. Cyran near Nevers. 
He afterwards migrated into Italy and took up 
the life of a hermit in the hill country near 
Pistoja in Tuscany. He was joined by St. 
Desiderius and others. He died in a.d. 700, 
or a year or two later. 
•BARR (St.) Bp. (Sept. 25) 

(6th cent.) St. Barr (Finbar, Barrocus) was 
a native of Connaught. He founded a monastic 
school at Lough Eire, thus originating the city 
of Cork, of which he became the first Bishop. 
He died at Cloyne after sixteen years of Epis- 
copate, but the exact date is not certain. 

(6th cent.) Said to have flourished towards 
the close of the sixth century and to have had 
charge of the church founded by St. Columb- 
kille at Drum Cullen (King's County), and 
afterwards to have lived in Donegal at a place 
called Kilbarron near Ballyshannon. A tradi- 
tion avers that he reached America in one of 
his missions by sea, and informed St. Brendan, 
the Navigator, of his discovery. Some Irish 
Calendars style him a Bishop. 
•BARROG (BARRWG) (St.) Hermit. (Sept. 20) 

(7th cent.) A disciple of the great Welsh 
Saint Cadoc, who had left his name (often 
spelled Barruc or Barnoch) to Barry Island, 
off the coast of Glamorgan, where he lived a 
holy life as an anchoret in the seventh century. 
♦BARSABIAS and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Oct. 20) 

(4th cent.) A Persian Abbot and his eleven 

monks put to death as Christians by the 

persecuting King, Sapor II, near the ruins of 

Persepolis (a.d. 342). 

BARSABAS (St.) M. (Dec. 11) 

(4th cent.) A Persian Abbot who, with 
several of his monks, suffered death for the 
Faith under King Sapor II (a.d. 342). 
BARSANUPHIUS (St.) Hermit. (April 11) 

(6th cent.) A monk of a monastery near 
Gaza in Palestine, who, after some years, left 
it for a cell in the desert (A.D. 540). He wrote 
against the Origenists. He is in great venera- 
tion among the Greeks, who keep his festival 
on Feb. 6. His relics were translated to a village 
near Sipontum (now called Manfredonia) in the 
South of Italy. 
BARSEN (BARSO, BARSAS) (St.) Bp. (Jan. 30) 

(4th cent.) A Bishop of Edessa in Syria, 
banished to Egypt by the Arian Emperor 
Valens. He died in exile a.d. 379. 
BARSIMAEUS (St.) Bp., M. (Jan. 30) 

(2nd cent.) The third Bishop of Edessa in 
Syria, put to death as a Christian by the Presi- 
dent Lysias, under the Emperor Trajan, a.d. 
♦BARTHOLOMEW (St.) Conf. (June 24) 

(12th cent.) A native of Whitby (Yorkshire), 
whose name in the world was William or Tostig. 
Entering a monastery, he elected to be hence- 
forth known as Bartholomew, and devoted 

himself to Apostolic work as a missionary to 
Norway, where he was ordained priest. In 
his old age he betook himself to a hermit's cell 
in the Island of Fame off the coast of Northum- 
berland, where he died A.D. 1193. 
BARTHOLOMEW (St.) Apostle. (Aug. 24) 

(1st cent.) One of the Twelve, by many 
thought to be the Nathanael, the " Israelite 
without guile " of St. John's Gospel. Tradition 
tells us that he preached the Gospel after the 
Ascension in North- West India, and afterwards 
in Asia Minor, and that in the end he suffered 
martyrdom in Greater Armenia. Some say 
that he was crucified, others that he was flayed 
alive. His relics have for the last thousand 
years been enshrined in his Church in Rome, 
situated on the Island in the Tiber. 
BARTHOLOMEW (St.) Abbot. (Nov. 11) 

(11th cent.) Born in Calabria but of Greek 
descent, he followed St. Nilus to the foundation 
of the monastery of Grotta Ferrata near Rome, 
which is still peopled with Greek monks who 
retain all the distinctive features of the Oriental 
rite. St. Bartholomew became Abbot of the 
monastery, where he died a.d. 1054. He has 
left a Life of St. Nilus of which he was the 
BARULAS (St.) M. (Nov. 18) 

(4th cent.) A child of seven years of age 
who confessed the Faith which he had learned 
from St. Romanus the Abbot, and who with 
him was put to the torture and beheaded 
at Antioch a.d. 303. 
♦BARYPSEBAS (St.) M. (Sept. 10) 

(1st cent.) A pious hermit in the East who, 
according to the Greek legend, acquired a vessel 
containing a part of the Sacred Blood which 
had flowed from the pierced side of Our Lord 
on the Cross, and conveyed it to Europe. He is 
averred to have suffered martyrdom in Dal- 
BASIL and PROCOPIUS (SS.) Conf. (Feb. 27) 

(8th cent.) Famous for their resistance at 
Constantinople to the Decree of Leo the Isaurian 
ordering the destruction of holy pictures. They 
entered into their rest about the middle of the 
eighth century. 


and ARCADIUS (SS.) Bps., MM. (March 4) 

(4th cent.) These nine holy pastors of souls 
flourished at the end of the third and beginning 
of the fourth centuries. Seven of them were 
sent as missionary Bishops to the Crimea and 
south of Russia ; but Nestor and Arcadius 
had their Sees in the Island of Cyprus. All 
alike are honoured as Martyrs by the Greeks on 
March 7, and by the Latin? on March 4, though 
it is doubtful if either Nestor or Arcadius 
perished at the hands of the enemies of the 
BASIL (St.) Bp. (March 6) 

(4th cent.) Consecrated Bishop of Bologna 

by Pope St. Sylvester. He ruled his Diocese 

for twenty years and passed away, famous for 

his sanctity of life, a.d. 335. 

BASIL (St.) M. (March 22) 

(4th cent.) A priest of Ancyra in Galatia 
(Asia Minor), a victim of the persecution of 
Christians set on foot by Julian the Apostate 
(A.D. 364). He was put to the torture at 
Constantinople (where under the Arian Emperor 
Constantius lie had distinguished himself by 
his zeal in preaching against heretics), and was 
afterwards thrown to the wild beasts in the arena 
at Caesarea in Palestine. 
BASIL and EMMELIA (SS.) (May 30) 

(4th cent.) This St. Basil, son of St. Macrina 
the Elder, and St. Emmelia his wife, were the 
parents of St. Basil the Great, of St. Gregory 
Nyssen, of St. Peter of Sebaste, and of St. 
Macrina the Younger. Exiled as a Christian 
with his wife in the time of the persecuting 
Emperor Galerius Maximianus, he returned 
after the peace of the Church to his native 




city of Caesarea in Cappadocia, and lived to 
a great age. He died some time before a.d. 370. 
St. Gregory Nazianzen, the friend of his children, 
styles him " the instructor of all men in Christian 
BASIL THE GBEAT (St.) Bp., (June 14) 

Doctor of the Church. 

(4th cent.) St. Basil, surnamed the Great, 
one of the most celebrated of the Greek Fathers, 
came of a family of Saints, the best known of 
whom are his brother, St. Gregory Nyssen, and 
Ms sister, St. Macrina. Born at Caesarea in 
Cappadocia (Asia Minor) he early distinguished 
himself as a student at Constantinople and at 
Athens, in which last city he contracted a close 
friendship with St. Gregory Nazianzen, destined 
like him to become a Bishop and Doctor of the 
Church. St. Basil was consecrated Bishop of 
Caesarea on June 14, A.D. 370, and died Jan. 1, 
A.D. 379. He is famous for his defence before 
the Emperor Constantius of the Catholic Faith, 
and in particular of the word " Consubstantial," 
inserted in the Nicene Creed. He has left 
many writings, among them his Hexaemeron 
or Treatise on Genesis, several hundred letters 
and a series of Homilies. St. Gregory Nazianzen 
allots to him the first place among commentators 
on the Bible, and the great scholar Erasmus 
declares St. Basil to have been the finest orator 
of all time. St. Basil led the life of a monk, 
and wrote a Rule for his brethren still followed 
in the East. In art St. Basil is represented as 
standing near a fire with a dove perched on his 
arm. His Encomium, by his brother, St. 
Gregory Nyssen, and his Life by Amphilochius, 
are among religious classics. Cardinal Newman's 
Life of St. Basil should also be read. 
BASIL (St.) M. (Nov. 28) 

BASILEUS (St.) M. (March 2) 

BASILEUS (St.) Bp., M. (April 26) 

(4th cent.) A Bishop of Amasea in Pontus 
(Asia Minor), cast into the sea by order of the 
Emperor Licinius (a.d. 319). One of his dis- 
ciples, by name Elpidiphorus, instructed by 
an Angel, recovered his body and gave it 
Christian burial. 
BASILEUS (St.) M. (May 23) 


(SS.) MM. (Nov. 27) 

(Date uncertain.) The holy Bishop Basileus, 
the name of whose See has not reached our times, 
suffered martyrdom at Antioch in Syria, to- 
gether with two other Christians, Auxilius and 
Saturninus ; but dates and particulars are 
altogether wanting. We have only the entries 
in the Martyrologies and ancient lists of Martyrs 
to guide us. 
BASILIAN (St.) M. (Dec. 18) 


(SS.). (June 10) 

(3rd cent.) Twenty-three Christians, mar- 
tyred outside the walls of Borne, on the Aurelian 
Way, under the Emperor Aurelian (A.D. 270- 
A.D. 275). There is much uncertainty about 
these Saints. Some authorities (among them 
the Bollandists) think this Basilides to be iden- 
tical with the better known Basilides of June 12, 
who also was martyred on the Aurelian Way. 

(SS.)MM. (June 12) 

(4th cent.) Celebrated Boman Martyrs, 
put to death under Diocletian (a.d. 304). They 
are described as soldiers (perhaps officers) of 
noble birth in the Imperial army. They were 
buried in the Aurelian Way, near the place of 
their martyrdom. 
BASILIDES (St.) M. (June 30) 

(3rd cent.) A soldier of the Guard of the 
Prefect of Egypt. He defended St. Potamia 
from insult, and in so doing won the gift of 
Faith and the crown of martyrdom at Alexan- 


dria, in the time of the Emperor Septimus 
Severus (A.D. 205). 

BASILIDES (St.) M. (Dec. 23) 

(3rd cent.) A Christian layman of Cydonia 
in Crete. In the persecution under the Emperor 
Decius (a.d. 250) he was beheaded with St. 
Theodulus and eight others. Their relics are 
in Bome, and they are known as the " Ten 
Martyrs of Crete." 


(4th cent.) A Christian soldier crucified at 

Comana in Pontus (Asia Minor), with two of his 

comrades, Eutropius and Clement, during the 

persecution under Maximian Galerius (a.d. 308). 

BASILICUS (St.) M. (May 22) 

(4th cent.) A Bishop of Comana in Pontus 
(Asia Minor), who was beheaded and his body 
thrown into a river near Nicomedia (a.d. 312), 
under the Emperor Maximin Daza. The Greeks 
honour him on July 30. This was the holy 
Martyr who, appearing to St. John Chrysostom, 
intimated to him that on the morrow that 
Saint'3 work for God on earth would end. 

BASILISSA (St.) V. (Jan. 9) 

(4th cent.) The wife of St. Julian the Martyr 
with whom she is commemorated. They were 
Syrians of Antioch, and had agreed on taking 
a vow of perpetual chastity, to be observed, 
even though married. This vow they faith- 
fully kept. St. Basilissa died a natural death ; 
but has been honoured as a Martyr both on 
account of her own sufferings for the Faith and 
because of her being commemorated in one 
festival with St. Julian, whom she encouraged 
to offer the sacrifice of his life during the 
persecution under Diocletian, in the first years 
of the fourth centurv. 

BASILISSA (St.) V.M. (March 22) 

(3rd or 4th cent.) A young girl, a Christian, 
burned alive with St. Callinica, at Antioch, 
under Diocletian (a.d. 305;, or, as others say, 
with greater probability, in Galatia, under 
Decius (A.D. 250). 

(1st cent.) Noble Boman ladies, who were 
among the first converts in the metropolis of 
the Empire to Christianity. They are said to 
have given honourable burial to the bodies of 
the Apostles SS. Peter and Paul, and on that 
account to have themselves perished in the 
massacre of Christians instigated and carried 
out bv the Emperor Nero (a.d. 68). 

♦BASINOS (St.) Bp. (March 4) 

(7th cent.) An Abbot of Treves, afterwards 
Bishop of that city, very much against his own 
will. He was a friend and helper of the English 
missionaries to Germany. His death took place 
before a.d. 680. 

BASILISSA (St.) V.M. (Sept. 3) 

(4th cent.) A child of nine years of age who 
was martyred at Nicomedia, the Imperial 
residence, during the persecution under Dio- 
cletian, about a.d. 303. As she was being led 
to execution, one of the officials, by name 
Alexander, is said to have tlirown himself at her 
feet, declaring his belief in Christ, and to have 
been forthwith baptised by the little Martyr. 

BASILLA (St.) M. (May 17) 


BASILLA (St.) V.M. (May 20) 

(3rd cent.) A Roman maiden of noble line- 
age, one of the victims of the persecution under 
Valerian and Gallienus (a.d. 257). The Acts 
of her martyrdom are not, however, such as to 
merit credit in regard to details. Her relics 
discovered in the seventeenth century, have 
been translated to Brittany. Possibly, this 
St. Basilla is identical with the St. Babilla also 
commemorated on May 20, of whom the Roman 
Martyrology makes no mention. 

BASILLA (St.) (Aug. 29) 

(Date unknown.) A holy woman who, 

according to the Roman Martyrology, died at 

Smyrna. Other Martyrologies substitute for 

Smyrna, Sirmium in Pannonia (now Mitrowicz, 



in the Balkans). Unfortunately, dates and 
particulars are wanting. 

BASOLUS (St.) (Nov. 26) 

(7th cent.) A famous hermit, born at 
Limoges (France), who entered a monastery 
near Rheims, but later retired to a hut on the 
top of a neighbouring hill, where he died and 
was buried, a.d. 620, after by prayer and fasting 
overcoming many assaults of the evil one. 
Later his monastery was rebuilt over his tomb, 
and his relics enshrined in it, a.d. 879. 

BASSA (St.) M. (March 6) 

(3rd cent.) A Christian woman, martyred at 
Corinth, or as others say. at Nicomedia. With 
her suffered her husband, Claudianus, and other 
two, Victor and Victorinus. It is added that 
Bassa had been three years in prison before 
being put to the torture and executed. There is 
great uncertainty as to the date of their martyr- 
dom ; and some opinions are to the effect that 
this was a group of Syrian Saints who suffered 
in their own country. Perhaps this St. Bassa 
is no other than the Martyr of that name 
commemorated on Aug. 21. 

(SS.) VV. MM. 

(Date unknown.) Three Christian maidens 
registered in the accepted lists as having given 
their lives for Christ at Carthage. 

(SS.) MM. (Aug. 21) 

(4th cent.) Bassa was a devout Christian 
woman, wife of a Pagan priest, who, with her 
three sons, suffered death for her Christian 
Faith at Edessa in Syria, under one of Dio- 
cletian's colleagues, about a.d. 304. She suf- 
fered the last of the four, having herself en- 
couraged her children bravely to die for Christ, 
and been a witness of their triumph. 

BASSIAN (St.) Bp. (Jan. 19) 

(5th cent.) A Sicilian by birth, Bishop of 
Lodi in Lombardy, and mentioned with high 
praise by his friend, St. Ambrose of Milan, with 
whom he had attended the Council of Aquileia 
(a.d. 381). St. Bassian died a.d. 413, and was 
buried in the Church which he had dedicated 
in honour of the holy Apostles at Lodi, of which 
city he is the Patron Saint. 

BASSIAN (St.) M. (Feb. 14) 


BASSIAN (St.) M. (Dec. 9) 


(SS.) MM. 

(Date uncertain.) All the ancient Martyr- 
ologies make mention on Feb. 14 of these 
Saints, and describe them as having been cast 
into the sea at Alexandria in Egypt, on account 
of their Faith. Some MSS. add the names of 
nine fellow-sufferers with them, but all parti- 
culars have long since been lost. 

BASSUS (St.) M. (May 11) 

(4th cent.) A Roman Christian who suffered 
martyrdom on the Via Salaria, outside the walls of 
Rome, under Diocletian (a.d. 304). With him SS. 
Maximus and Fabius won their heavenly crown. 
Besides the Martyrologies, the Acts of St. Anthi- 
mus the Martyr make mention of this St. Bassus. 


(SS.) MM. (Nov. 20) 

(Date uncertain.) A band of forty-three 

Christians put to death for their religion at 

Heraclea in Thrace. No particulars can now 

be found. 

BASSUS (St.) Bp., M. (Dec. 3) 

(3rd cent.) A Bishop of Nice in the middle 
of the third century. Tortured by the President 
Perennius, under the Emperors Decius and 
Valerian, he at length was put to death about 
a.d. 257 by having his body transfixed by two 
huge nails or spikes. 

BATHILDE (St.) Widow. (Jan. 26) 

(7th cent.) An accredited tradition tells us 

that she was an Anglo-Saxon princess or lady 

of high degree who, carried off from her native 

shores, became a slave in the family of the 
Mayor of the Palace, the highest official of the 
Frankish Merovingian Court. Espoused by 
King Clovis II, she became the mother of his 
successors, Clothaire III, Childeric II, and 
Thierry III, and on the death of her husband 
was made Regent of his kingdom. She re- 
founded St. Clotilde's Abbey of Chelles, whither 
she retired when no longer required to govern 
for her sons, and where she died A.D. 680. 
Generous and kind to all, she was a veritable 
mother to the poor. On her deathbed a vision 
of Angels summoned her to mount by a shining 
ladder to Paradise. Artists represent her in a 
nun's habit, but wearing a Royal crown. 

BAUDELIUS (St.) M. (May 20) 

(2nd or 3rd cent.) A married layman, born 
at Orleans, who laboured in the propagation of 
Cliristianity in Gaul and in the end was put to 
death on that account by the persecuting 
Roman authorities at Nimes in the south of 
France. As in many similar cases of Saints 
engaged in the conversion of France, there is 
no agreement among the learned as to the date 
of his Apostolate. Some hold that he was 
beheaded in the year 187 ; others place him 
more than a century later, and date his martyr- 
dom in 295. He has always been in great 
popular veneration. Some four hundred 
churches in France and Spain have been dedi- 
cated in his honour. 

BAVO (St.) Conf. (Oct. 1) 

(7th cent.) A nobleman of the district of 
Liege, who led an irregular life, but on the 
death of his wife became a devout penitent. 
Retiring to a cell in a forest, he gave himself 
up to prayer and died there (a.d. 654). He is 
the Patron Saint of Ghent and of Haerlem. 

*BATHUS and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (March 26) 

(4th cent.) A family consisting of father, 

mother, two sons and two daughters, put to 

death as Christians, somewhere in the Balkans 

about A.D. 370. 

BAUDRY (St.) Conf. (Oct. 27) 

Otherwise St. BALDERIC, which see. 

*BAYA and MAURA (SS.) VV. (Nov. 2) 

(10th cent.) Two holy Recluses in Scotland, 
St. Baya being the instructress of St. Maura, 
and the latter becoming the guide of a fervent 
community which attached itself to her. There 
is some doubt whether or not St. Baya may 
not be identical with St. Begha or St. Bee, a 
Saint much better known. 

*BEANDAN (BREANDAN) (St.) Abbot (Jan. 11) 
(5th cent.) A native of Ireland who crossed 
into Britain. There he suffered persecution at 
the hands of the Pelagian heretics, whose errors 
had become in his time widespread in the 
island. Constrained to leave the country, he 
took refuge in Gaul, and entered a monastery 
of which he later became the Abbot. Further 
particulars concerning him are lacking. 

BEAN (St.) Bp. (Dec. 16) 

(11th cent.) A Scottish Saint, Bishop of 
Murtlach in Banff, from which See he was 
later transferred to Aberdeen. He is said to 
have been appointed to Aberdeen by Pope 
Benedict VIII about A.d. 1012. 

Another St. Bean, also commemorated on 
Dec. 16, was an Irish Bishop in Leinster. The 
Feast of St. Bean of Murtlach is more properly 
kept on Oct. 26, as in the old Aberdeen Breviary 
and the present Scottish Calendar. 

BEATA (St.) M. (March 8) 


♦BEATRICE of ESTE (Bl.) V. (Jan. 18) 

(13th cent.) An Italian princess who, on the 
eve of her wedding-day, on receiving the news 
of the death in battle of her affianced husband, 
resolved on giving herself entirely to God, and 
founded a monastery near Ferrara, which she 
governed for many years, and where she passed 
away, a.d. 1270. An aunt of this Saint, also 
by name Beatrice, like her, attained to the 
honours of the Altar. 




BEATRICE (St.) M. (July 29) 

(4th cent.) Her brothers, SS. Siraplicius and 
Faustinus, were victims of the persecution under 
Diocletian (a.d. 304) and their bodies were 
thrown into the Tiber. Beatrice, having re- 
covered their remains and honourably buried 
them, went to live with St. Lucina, a noble 
Christian lady. Later, Beatrice was herself 
arrested as a Christian and strangled in prison. 
♦BEATUS (St.) Bp. (March 8) 

Otherwise St. BEOADH, which see. 
BEATUS (St.) Conf. (May 9) 

(3rd cent.) A native of Italy, he evangelised 
several parts of France, especially the neigh- 
bourhood of Laon, where be chose a cave for 
his hermitage and passed in prayer and medi- 
tation all the time which he did not spend in 
missionary work. He died at an advanced 
age towards the end of the third century. 

Another account, adopted by Baronms and 
other authorities, relates that he passed the 
closing year of his life in Western France, and 
was there interred. Again, some writers post- 
date St. Beatus to the fifth century. But it 
seems clear that the St. Beatus of Vendome is 
other than the holy man who evangelised Laon, 
though the Roman Martyrology treats the two 
Saints as cne and the same person. 
•BECAN (BEGAN) (St.) Abbot. (April 5) 

(6th cent.) A distinguished Irish Saint 
connected with St. Columbkille. He founded 
a monastery at Kil-Beggan (West Meath), 
later a Cistercian Abbey of importance. He 
also gave its name to the church and parish 
of Emlagh (Meath). He is reckoned as one 
of the " Twelve Apostles of Ireland." 
♦BECAN (St.) Conf. (May 26) 

(6th cent.) An Irish hermit in the time of 

St. Columbkille. He lived in the neighbourhood 

of Cork and acquired great fame on account of 

the austerity of his life. 

♦BECHE (JOHN) (Bl.) M. (Dec. 1) 

♦BEDE THE YOUNGER (St.) Conf. (April 10) 

(9th cent.) A noble of high rank at the 
Court of King Charles the Bald of France, who 
left the world to serve God in a monastery 
near Rovigo in the North of Italy. Over and 
over again he refused Ecclesiastical preferment, 
and passed away in great fame of sanctity, 
a.d. 883. His relics, enshrined at Genoa, were 
about the middle of the nineteenth century 
translated to the Benedictine Abbey of Subiaco. 
BEDE (VENERABLE) (St.) Doctor (May 27) 

of the Church. 

(8th cent.) The Venerable Bede, styled by 
Leland " the chief est and brightest ornament 
of the English nation," born a.d. 673, was a 
Northumbrian. He was educated at Jarrow, 
where he embraced the monastic life under 
St. Benet Biscop, and was ordained priest by 
St. John of Beverley. Well versed in the 
Latin and Greek languages, and for his time a 
fair poet, he has left prose works on the most 
varied subjects, ranging from clever expositions 
of the science of his day to noble commentaries 
on Holy Scripture. His Church History of 
the English has earned him the title of " Father 
of English History." It is a plain unadorned 
chronicle ; but that the author was thoroughly 
honest and most painstaking is evident to any 
reader. St. Bede was famous not only for his 
rare learning, but still more so for the holiness 
of his life. The account of his death (a.d. 735), 
which took place on Ascension Eve, written by 
one of his pupils, is touching in its loving 
simplicity. Bede's last words were " Gloria 
Patri et Filio et Spiritni Sancto." 

Trithemius supposed that the prefix " Vener- 
able," universally given to St. Bede, came from 
the circumstance that his Homilies were read in 
churches during his lifetime, as the most res- 
pectful appellation of one who had no claim 
as yet to the title of Saint ; but it is now 
generally accepted that it was first used by 


Amalarius and other ninth century writers 
long after St. Bede had acquired the honours 
due to a Saint. St. Bede's remains were 
enshrined in Durham Cathedral. 
*BEE (St.) V. (Oct. 31) 

Otherwise St. BEGH or BEGA, which see. 
BEGGA (St.) Widow. (Dec. 17) 

(7th cent.) A daughter of Pepin of Landen, 
mayor of the palace in the Merovingian Court, 
sister of St. Gertrude of Nivelle and grandmother 
of Charles Martel. On the death of her husband 
she made a pilgrimage to Rome, and returning 
to her own country gave herself up to good 
works. She is said to have founded seven 
churches, besides a convent near Namur, in 
which she died, a.d. 698. 
*BEGH (BEGA, BEE) (St.) V. (Sept. 6) 

(7th cent.) A holy maiden born in Ireland, 
who crossed over to Cumberland, where the 
promontory, St. Bee's Head, still perpetuates 
her memory, as does the name of the village 
Kilbees in Scotland. She received the religious 
veil from St. Aidan, and founded a monastery 
at Copeland, near Whitehaven. Distinguished 
in life for charity to the poor, for centuries 
after her death she was in the greatest venera- 
tion in the north-west of England, and her 
fame spread as far as Norway. There were 
several Saints of the same period with histories 
not unlike that of St. Bee. She may possibly 
be the virgin Hieu, mentioned by Venerable 
Bede. Baring-Gould distinguishes three St. 
Bees ; the first, the Irish Saint mentioned 
above ; the second a nun in Yorkshire ; and 
the third the Abbess of Kilbees. 
*BELINA (St.) V.M. (Feb. 19) 

(12th cent.) A peasant girl of the neighbour- 
hood of Troyes (France), who died in defence 
of her chastity, threatened by the feudal lord 
of the territory (A.D. 1135). 
BELLINUS (St.) Bp., M. (Nov. 26) 

(12th cent.) A Bishop of Padua, who suffered 

death in the faithful discharge of his pastoral 

duties in the year 1151, and was canonised three 

centuries later by Pope Eugene IV. 

BENEDICTA (St.; V.M. (Jan. 4) 

(4th cent.) A nun or "religious woman," 

beheaded in the time of Julian the Apostate 

(a.d. 364). Fellow-sufferers with her in Rome 

were Priscus, a priest, and Priscillian, a cleric. 

BENEDICTA (St.) V. (May 6) 

(6th cent.) A holy nun of marvellously 
ascetic life, an inmate of the convent founded in 
Rome by St. Galla, of whom St. Gregory the 
Great narrates that her death was foretold by 
St. Peter, seen in a vision. 
BENEDICTA (St.) V.M. (June 29) 

(3rd cent.) Martyred at Sens in France 
under the Emperor Aurelian (a.d. 273). Her 
brother, St. Sanctian, and another Martyr, a 
St. Augustine, were beheaded at the same time. 
They are said to have all been natives of Spain, 
whence they had passed into France. Surius, 
with others, refuses to accept tins account of 
St. Benedicta, nor does the Roman Martyrology 
number her among the Martyrs. According to 
the moderns, the St. Benedicta (or St. Beata) 
venerated at Sens was in all likelihood a holy 
nun of the locality, though it is possible that 
there may have been there an earlier Saint of 
the same name. 
BENEDICTA (St.) V.M. (Oct. 8) 

(3rd cent.) The daughter of a Roman 
senator who, inspired with a desire for martyr- 
dom by what she had heard of the triumph of 
St. Quentin, settled at Origny-sur-Oise in the 
Diocese of Soissons, where she was instrumental 
in propagating Christianity. Mathoclus, her 
father, enraged at her miraculous recovery 
from the many tortures he had had inflicted 
upon her, is said himself to have seized the 
executioner's axe and to have beheaded her 
with his own hands (A.D. 262). 
BENEDICT BISCOP (St.) Abbot. (Jan. 12) 

(7th cent.) A Northumbrian of noble birth 



who, after a pilgrimage to Rome, embraced the 
monastic life in the Isle of Lerins (an island off 
the Mediterranean coast of France). When 
again in Borne, Fope St. Vitalian ordered him 
to conduct back to England St. Theodore, Just 
made Archbishop of Canterbury. On their 
arrival he himself was appointed Abbot of St. 
Augustine's monastery at Canterbury. Other 
visits to Rome followed, and in the end North - 
umbria became the scene of St. Benedict's 
labours for the good of souls. There he founded 
the monasteries of Wearmouth and of Jarrow. 
He died Jan. 12, A.D. 690. He is, above all, 
celebrated for his learning and for his zeal in 
reforming English Church discipline in con- 
formity with that obtaining in Rome and in 
general in the West. 

♦BENEDICT of ANIANA (St.) Abbot. (Feb. 11) 
(9th cent.) Born in Languedoc in the eighth 
century, he has been styled " the second 
Benedict " and " the second father of mona- 
sticism in the West." He laboured all his 
lifelong for the good of the Church, especially 
in France. Leaving the Court of Charlemagne, 
he entered the monastery of St. Seine in a forest 
of Burgundy ; but on being chosen Abbot 
there, fled to his native province and built 
himself a cell in the gorge of the stream Aniane 
(Corbieres, where afterwards arose the famous 
Abbey of St. Sauveivr). Later he passed to 
the neighbourhood of Aix-la-Chapelle, where, 
on the banks of the river Inde, the Emperor 
Louis le Debonnaire built for him the great 
Abbey known as Cornelius-Munster. He at- 
tended the Councils of Aries (A.D. 813) and of 
Aix-la-Chapelle (A.D. 817), over the latter of 
which he presided. He died and was buried at 
Inde (a.d. 821). His writings comprise a Code 
of Monastic Rules, some Homilies and a Peni- 
tential. In art, he is often represented in the 
act of clothing St. William of Aquitaine with 
the monastic habit. 

BENEDICT (St.) Bp. (March 11) 

(8th cent.) An Archbishop of Milan, of the 
family of the Crespi, famous all over Italy for 
his sanctity, pastoral zeal and charity. He 
delivered the funeral discourse of Ceadwalla 
of Wessex, the Anglo-Saxon king baptised 
in the year 687 by Pope Sergius in Rome. He 
died a.d. 725, in the forty-fourth year of his 

BENEDICT (SI.) Abbot. (March 21) 

(6th cent.) The Patriarch of the Western 
monks, born at Norcia in Central Italy (a.d. 
480), of the noble family of the Anicii. In 
early youth he retired into a cave in the moun- 
tains of Subiaco near Rome, where, clothed 
with the religious habit, fed and instructed by 
St. Romanus, a Solitary of the vicinity, he led 
a hermit's life. After three years of solitude, 
he built at Subiaco twelve monasteries for the 
numerous disciples that had gathered round 
him. In the year 529 he left Subiaco for Monte 
Cassino, on the road to Naples, and there 
founded the great Abbey of that name, an event 
which marked in some sense a landmark in the 
history of religious life in Europe. St. Gregory 
the Great, who wrote the Life of St. Benedict, 
mentions also a monastery of nuns presided 
over by the Saint's sister, St. Scholastica. The 
Rule written by St. Benedict, in the course of 
a hundred years or so, was accepted by all the 
Western monks. It shows the way to religious 
perfection by the practice of humility, obedi- 
ence, prayer, silence and retirement from the 
concerns of the world. St. Benedict died 
(a.d. 543), standing before the Altar, immedi- 
ately after having received Holy Communion. 
In art he is represented holding a book on 
which Is a serpent, In allusion to one of the 
miracles he wrought, or with a raven at his 

BENEDICT (St.) (March 23) 

(6th cent.) A monk of Campania, mentioned 

by St. Gregory the Great, whom the Goths, 

under Totila, when devastating Italy, tried to 
burn alive, but were miraculously prevented 
from effecting their purpose (a.d. 550). This 
St. Benedict was a contemporary of the great 
St. Benedict of Nursia, and was personally 
known to him. 
BENEDICT (St.) (April 3) 

(16th cent.) Surnamed the " Black," or the 
Negro. He was born (a.d. 1526) of negro par- 
ents at a village near Messina in Sicily. His 
father and mother were slaves ; but he was 
made a freeman. An Order of Hermits which 
he had joined being suppressed by Pope Pius 
IV, he entered a convent of Franciscan Friars 
at Palermo, and, though only a lay-brother, 
was, on account of his eminent holiness of life, 
elected Guardian or Superior and Master of 
Novices. He died April 4, 1589, and many 
years afterwards, when his coffin was opened, 
his remains were found incorrupt. He was 
beatified a.d. 1743, and canonised A.D. 1807. . 

(18th cent.) The son of poor parents of 
Amettes In Artois (France), he first purposed 
to enter Into some Religious Order, but after- 
wards realised that his call from God was to 
a life of utter solitude. He made several 
pilgrimages, visiting the sanctuaries of France, 
Italy, Switzerland and Germany. He every- 
where begged his food, constantly refusing 
money, and spent his time in almost continuous 
prayer before the Blessed Sacrament. He died 
in Rome during Holy Week, a.d. 1783. He 
was canonised by Pope Plus IX In 1860, 
though the popular veneration of the poor 
mendicant was universal in Rome long before 
he had even passed from this world. His funeral 
cortege resembled a triumphal procession, and 
up to our own time his shrine Is one of the most 
frequented In Rome. 

(St.) (April 28) 

(12th cent.) A holy man of Avignon, locally 

venerated as having been aided by an Angel 

to construct a bridge at a dangerous ford over 

the river Rhone. He died a.d. 1184. 

BENEDICT II (St.) Pope. (May 7) 

(7th cent.) A Roman by birth, who in early 
life, devoted himself to the study of the Holy 
Scriptures and of the Ecclesiastical chant. 
On the death of St. Leo II (a.d. 683) he was 
elected Pope, but his enthronement was delayed 
for a year while awaiting the confirmation of the 
Emperor of Constantinople, up to that time 
usually sought. It was mainly on account of 
the case of this Pope that the then Emperor 
Constantine Pogonatus consented that thence- 
forth such Imperial approval need no longer 
be sought. Pope Benedict died A.d. 685, and 
was buried in St. Peter's. 
BENEDICT XI (St.) Pope. (July 7) 

(14th cent.) Born at Treviso, a.d. 1210, 
he In his youth joined the Dominican Order, of 
which he eventually became the Master General. 
Created Cardinal and Bi«hop of Ostla, he was 
employed by Pope Boniface VIII as his Nuncio 
and peacemaker in England, France, Hungary, 
Poland, Austria, Denmark, Servia and other 
countries. Everywhere he conciliated respect, 
and acquired fame and veneration from princes 
and people alike, on account of his simple piety 
and spirit of self-sacrifice. He was, moreover, 
a man of first-rate abilities, and well versed In 
the learning of his age. He was elected Pope, 
Oct. 21, 1303, but died at Perugia in the July 
of the following year. In the few months of 
his Pontificate he had done much to reform 
Church discipline and to repress abuses. Hence 
probably, the belief current at the time that he 
had died by poison. 
BENEDICT (St.) (Oct. 23) 

(4th cent.) Described as Bishop of Samaria 
or Sebaste in Palestine. His flock was dis- 
persed by Julian the Apostate. St. Hilary of 
Poitiers received him and gave him land, 




whereon he built a hermitage, which later 
became the Abbey of St. Benedict of Quincay 
(a.d. 654). His relics, hidden in the fourteenth 
century during the wars between France and 
England, were never afterwards discovered. 
But the Bollandists throw doubts on the 
legendary account of this St. Benedict, certainly 
seriously interpolated. The Church com- 
memorates him as a Saint, but not as a Bishop. 

CHRISTINUS (SS.) MM. (Nov. 12) 

(11th cent.) Holy men of the Order of the 
Camaldolese Hermits, who followed St. Bruno 
(otherwise St. Boniface) into Russia to preach 
the Gospel. They with some others were put 
to death by the Pagans at Gnesen in Poland 
(a.d. 1004), and were canonised many centuries 
later bv Pope Julius II. 

*BENEZET (St.) Conf. (April 14) 

which see. 
BENIGNUS (St.) M. (Feb. 13) 

(4th cent.) A priest of Todi in Umbria (Italy) 
who was tortured and put to death in the 
persecution under Diocletian, about a.d. 303. 
BENIGNUS (St.) M. (April 3) 

(Date uncertain.) Martyred in the city of 
Tomis or Tomois on the Black Sea, near the 
mouths of the Danube. His name is joined 
with that of a Saint Evagrius, and in some 
MSS. with several others. 
BENIGNUS (St.) Bp., M. (June 28) 

(6th cent.) A French Saint, Bishop probably 
of Chartres, who is mentioned in a Decretal of 
Pope Pelagius II as desirous of resigning Ins 
See. He appears to have retired afterwards 
to Utrecht. St. Gregory of Tours, his con- 
tempory, refers to an apparition of the Saint. 
His relics were rediscovered at Utrecht, A.D. 
BENIGNUS (St.) M. (Nov. 1) 

(2nd cent.) A Greek of Smyrna, said to have 
been sent into Gaul by St. Poly carp and to 
have become the Apostle of Burgundy. He 
planted the Faith at Autun and at Langres, 
making Dijon the centre of his activity. He 
was tortured and put to death in the persecu- 
tion under the Emperor Marcus Aurelius (a.d. 
178). Over his tomb at Dijon has been erected 
the noble Abbey Church (now Cathedral) of 
St. Benigne. 
♦BENIGNUS (BENEN) (St.) Bp. (Nov. 9) 

(5th cent.) A favourite disciple of St. 
Patrick, and his siiccessor in the See of Armagh. 
He is sometimes styled " Benen, son of Sessenen, 
St. Patrick's Psalmsinger." The Martyrology 
of Donegal gives an account of his virtues, 
dwelling particularly on his piety and gentleness. 
Many too were the miracles by which Almighty 
God bore witness to his sanctity. He appears 
to have resigned his pastoral charge some time 
before his holy death, which took place about 
a.d. 469. His reputed sojourn at Glastonbury 
is probably fictitious. 
BENIGNUS (St.) Bp. (Nov. 20) 

(5th cent.) A. Bishop of Milan, who displayed 
great fortitude and devotedness to his flock 
during the inroads of the barbarian assailants 
of the ancient Roman civilisation. He died 
A.D. 477. 
BENILDES (St.) M. (June 15) 

(9th cent.) A holy woman of Cordova, 
who was so moved by the fortitude displayed 
by St. Athanasius, a Spanish priest, during 
his martyrdom at the hands of the Moorish 
invaders of the country, that she braved death 
at the stake on the following day (a.d. 853). 
Her ashes were thrown into the river Guadal- 
*BENINCOSA (Bl.) Conf. (June 20) 

(15th cent.) A Saint of the Servite Order 
who lived a life of penance and prayer, as a 

hermit, in a ceil in the hilly country near Siena, 
where he died A.D. 1426. 
BENJAMIN (St.) M. (March 31) 

(5th cent.) A deacon of the Church in Persia, 
who having been imprisoned for the Faith, on 
refusing as a condition of his release the ceasing 
of his preaching of Christianity, was tortured to 
death (a.d. 424) under King Varanes (Bahran) V. 

Forms of the name BENEDICTUS or BENE- 
BENNO (St.) Bp. (June 16) 

(11th cent.) Also called Benedict. An Abbot 
of Hildesheim in Germany, who, appointed 
Bishop of Meissen, was much persecuted by the 
Emperor Henry IV, on account of his attach- 
ment to Rome. He, almost alone of the 
German Bishops, attended St. Gregory the 
Seventh's Council, which condemned Henry's 
usurpation of Church Rights. Returned to his 
See, he died after a long and fruitful Episcopate, 
ad. 1106. 
*BENNO (St.) Bp. (Aug. 3) 

(10th cent.) A prince of the Royal House of 
Burgundy, who embraced the Ecclesiastical 
state and became Canon of Strasburg. This 
dignity, however, he soon renounced, and 
retired into solitude in Switzerland, where, 
over the ruined cell of St. Meinrad the Martyr, 
he built a monastery for himself and his disciples, 
and thus founded the famous Abbey of Einsie- 
deln. The Emperor Henry the Fowler called 
him to the See of Metz, where, however, his 
zeal met with such hostility that he was as- 
saulted, blinded, and driven out of the city. 
Returning to Einsiedeln, he survived for eleven 
years, and on his death (a.d. 940) was buried 
in the Ladye-Chapel of the Abbey Church. 
BENVENUTUS (St.) Bp. (March 22) 

(13th cent.) A Franciscan Friar of holy life, 
who was created Bishop of Osimo in Central 
Italy by Pope Urban IV, and governed that 
Diocese for thirteen years in the difficult times 
of the Guelph and Chibelline warfare. Knowing 
beforehand his death to be at hand, he dis- 
tributed all his goods to the poor, and lay down 
to die before the High Altar of his Cathedral 
(a.d. 1276). Many miracles having been 
wrought at his tomb, he was canonised by Pope 
Martin IV. 
*BEOADH (BEATUS) (St.) Bp. (March 8) 

(6th cent.) Aeodh (Aidus), an Irish Saint, 
acquired the prefix Bo on accoimt of the 
greatness of his virtues, and was appointed 
Bishop of Ardcarne (Roscommon). Little is 
known of his Acts, but the tradition of his 
piety and miracles remains. He went to his 
reward between a.d. 518 and a.d. 523. The 
" Bell of St. Beoadh," a beautiful work of art, 
was long in veneration as a relic. 
*BEOCCA, ETHOR and OTHERS (April 10) 

(SS.) MM 

(9th cent.) Monks of Chertsey Abbey, 
burned in their monastery by the heathen 
Danes, out of hatred for the Christian Faith, 
quite as much as because they were Anglo- 
Saxons (a.d. 878), and for that reason venerated 
in England as Martyrs. 

(St.) Abbot. (Feb. 15) 

(6th cent.) The Patron Saint of Kilbarry 
(Co. Dublin). His future sanctity having been 
predicted by St. Patrick, St. Berach from his 
birth was placed under the care of his uncle, 
St. Freoch. He afterwards became St. Kevin's 
disciple, and made a monastic foundation at 
Cluain-coirpthe in Connaught. He is said to 
have survived into the sixth century, but the 
date of his death is uncertain. 

OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Jan. 16) 

(13th cent.) Franciscan Friars, sent by 
St. Francis himself into Spain to evangelise the 
Moors. From Aragon they went to Coimbra 
in Portugal, and then passed into Morocco, 



where they were put to the torture and beheaded 
(A.D. 1220). Their relics are at Coimbra, and 
they were canonised in the fifteenth century 
by Pope Sixtus IV. 

BERCHARIUS (St.) Abbot, M. (Oct. 16) 

(7th cent.) Born in Aquitaine and placed 
by St. Nivard of Rheims under the care of 
St. Remaclus of Maestricht, he after some years 
embraced the monastic life in the monastery of 
Luxeuil, and later still founded the Abbey of 
HautvUliers with two other monasteries. But 
in that of Moutier-en-Der he was stabbed by 
an unworthy monk whom he had sharply re- 
buked, and died of the effects of the wound on 
Easter Eve, A.D. 696. 

♦BERCTHUN (BERTIN) (St.) Abbot. (Sept. 24) 
(8th cent.) A disciple of St. John of Beverley, 
and by him appointed first Abbot of Beverley, 
where he died, A.D. 733. 

*BERCTUALD (St.) Abbot. (Jan 9) 

Otherwise St. BRITHWALD, which see. 

*BERE (RICHARD) (Bl.) M. (May 4) 


•BERENICE (St.) V.M. (Oct. 4) 

(4th cent.) A Christian maiden, who, with 
her mother, St. Domnina, and sister, St. 
Prosdoce, suffered for the Faith in Syria, during 
the persecution under Diocletian and his 
colleagues (a.d. 303-310). Eusebius, St. John 
Chrysostom and other early writers make 
mention of this holy martyr. 

*BERLINDA (St.) V. (Feb. 3) 

(7th cent.) A French maiden who led a life 
of prayer and penance in a monastery near 
Alost. She passed away at the close of the 
seventh century, and is still in great popular 

BERNARD (St.) Bp. (March 12) 

(12th cent.) A Bishop of Carinola in the 
Italian Province called Terra di Lavoro, a suf- 
fragan See of Capua, now united to the Bishopric 
of Sessa, which St. Bernard himself had trans- 
ferred from the ancient city of Forum Claudii. 
He died in extreme old age at Capua (A.D. 1109), 
and is still famous for the miracles wrought 
at his tomb. 

♦BERNARD cf TIRON (St.) Abbot. (April 14) 

(12th cent.) A French monk of Poitou who, 
after leading for some time an Eremitical life, 
and later devoting himself to preaching, retired 
into the Forest of Tiron, and there founded a 
monastery which became the Head House of 
a Benedictine Congregation. St. Bernard died 
A.D. 1117 at the age of seventy. His Con- 
gregation spread to the British Isles, among its 
monasteries being that of the Isle of Caldey. 

♦BERNARD of CORLEONE (Bl.) (April 29) 

(17th cent.) A Capuchin lay-brother, a native 
of Sicily, who, having been in his youth a soldier, 
at the age of twenty-seven embraced the Religi- 
ous life, and till his death (A.D. 1667), thirty-five 
years later, passed his days in the practice of 
severe penance, doing good to his neighbour 
by his example, and by his wise counsels ; for 
the giving of which, to the many who addressed 
themselves to him, Almighty God bestowed 
special graces on the poor unlettered Saint. 

♦BERNARD of OFFIDA (Bl.) (Aug. 22) 

(17th cent.) An Italian peasant who became 
a Capuchin lay-brother. He was distinguished 
for his charity to the poor and for the wonderful 
graces lavished upon him by Almighty God. 
He died a.d. ] 694 at the age of ninety. 

Bp. (Oct. 26) 

Otherwise St. BERWARD, which see. 

BERNARD of MENTHON (St.) (June 15) 

(11th cent.) Born in Savoy A.D. 923, and 
styled Bernard of Menthon or Mentone, his 
birthplace, a village near Annecy. He studied 
under Peter of Aosta and was elected Arch- 
deacon of that Diocese. He founded the 
Hospices of the Great and Little St. Bernard, 
and began a community of Hospitallers under 
the Rule of St. Augustine, earning himself by 

his zeal and charity to poor travellers and to 
the mountaineers of those regions the title of 
" Apostle of the Alps." He died at Novara in 
Piedmont A.D. 1008, and was at once popularly 
venerated as a Saint, though not formally 
canonised till the Pontificate of Innocent XI 
(A.D. 1681). The community he established 
in the Alps, as is well known, still continues the 
charitable work he set them. 

BERNARD (St.) Abbot. Doctor (Aug. 20) 

of the Church. 

(12th cent.) This famous French Saint, 
surnamed the " mellifluous Doctor," was born 
at Fontaines, near Dijon (A.D. 1091). At the 
age of twenty-three he consecrated himself to 
God under the leadership of the holy English 
Abbot, St. Stephen Harding, in the newly 
instituted Abbey of Citeaux, and became the 
second founder of the austere Cistercian Order, 
of which the Trappists are now the best known 
branch. In obedience to St. Stephen, Bernard, 
in the year 1115, founded the Abbey of Clair- 
vaux, of which he remained Abbot for the rest 
of his life, besides erecting several other mona- 
steries. He preached the Second Crusade in 
France (a.d. 1146), exerted a strong and healthy 
influence on the European politics of his age, 
and by his prudence and zeal healed more than 
one incipient schism. He passed away at 
Clairvaux, Aug. 20, 1153, and was buried in 
the Ladye-Chapel of his Abbey. Since its 
destruction in 1792 his relics have been vener- 
ated in the neighbouring parish church. Alex- 
ander III canonised St. Bernard twelve years 
after his death ; and Pius VIII proclaimed him 
a Doctor of the Church. Notable among his 
writings are his noble Treatise on the Canticle 
of Canticles, and his book, Be Consideratione, 
addressed to Pope Eugene III, who had been 
one of his monks. To him also is attributed 
the familiar Hymn, " Jesu dulcis memoria " 
(Jesus, the only thought of Thee). His tender 
devotion to Our Blessed Lady has led to the 
liturgical use of his Homilies on her festival 
days. He is often represented with three 
mitres on a book, or at his feet, in allusion 
to his refusal of three Bishoprics — or with a 
beehive near him — or again, with an Angel 
holding his crozier. 


MM. (Aug. 21) 

(12th cent.) A converted Moslem Prince in 

Spain, put to death for the Faith (A.D. 1180) 

with his two sisters, who had like him embraced 


BERNARD PTOLOMEI (St.) Abbot. (Aug. 21) 
(14th cent.) A citizen of Siena, educated 
by his relative, Christopher Ptolemy, a learned 
Dominican Friar. He retired from the world, 
choosing the Rule of St. Benedict as that to 
be followed by himself and such of his friends 
as elected to place themselves under his direc- 
tion. He thus founded the Congregation of the 
Olivetans, vowed to the Eremitical life. It was 
approved by several of the Popes of the period, 
and still exists. The brethren are robed in 
white from head to foot. St. Bernard died 
A.D. 1348 in his sixty-sixth year. 

BERNARD (St.) (Oct. 14) 

(11th cent.) Some writers say that this holy 
man was by birth an Englishman ; others that 
he was of French parentage. He appears to 
have come as a pilgrim to Rome, and after- 
wards to have lived a hermit's life near Arpino 
in Latium, where he died. His relics are in 
high veneration in the neighbouring town of 
Arce, whither they were translated. He 
probably died in the latter half of the eleventh 

BERNARD (St.) Bp. (Dec. 4) 

(12th cent.) A Florentine of the noble family 
of the Uberti, who sacrificed a brilliant career 
to become a poor monk of the Order of Vallom- 
brosa, in its monastery of San Salvio. So remark- 
able was he, however, not only for sanctity, 




but for intellectual ability and skill in business, 
that he was chosen as Abbot General of his 
Order, and later created Cardinal by Pope 
Urban II, who again and again employed him 
as his Legate. He was indefatigable in putting 
down simony, at that period rife in Italy. Con- 
secrated Bishop of Parma (a.d. 1106) by Pope 
Paschal II, he died (A.d. 1132) after an Epis- 
copate singularly distinguished by his success 
in promoting Christian piety. He is said to 
have steadfastly continued the austerities 
practised in his Order to the very day of his 
BERNARDINE of SIENA (St.) (May 20) 

(15th cent.) Born at Massa of the noble 
family of the Albizeschi of Siena (a.d. 1380), 
after spending himself in the service of the 
sick in the public hospitals, he entered the 
Franciscan Order, which he illustrated by his 
religious fervour. Famous for his devotion to 
our Blessed Lady, the Feast of whose Nativity 
was the date of his own birth, of his religious 
profession, of his first Mass and of his first 
sermon, he successively refused the Bishoprics 
of Siena, of Ferrara and of Urbino. But, 
elected Vicar- General of his Order, he was the 
author of a great reform among its members. 
He died at Aquila in the south of Italy (A.d. 
1444) and was canonised five years after his 
death by Pope Nicholas V. He has left many 
valuable ascetic writings, and instituted or 

Jropagated the cultus of the Holy Name of Jesus, 
n art, he is usually represented in the Fran- 
ciscan habit, holding to his breast the monogram 
IHS (the three first letters of the Greek form of 
that Most Holy name), with a mitre at his feet. 
He is also pictured with the Infant Jesus in his 

(18th cent.) An Italian Saint of the Society 
of Jesus, one of those who in the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries devoted themselves 
to the reformation of the lives of the Christian 
people by preaching and manifold self- 

*BERNO (St.) Abbot. (Jan. 13) 

(10th cent.) Born in Burgundy about the 
middle of the ninth century, he took the 
religious habit in the Abbey of St. Martin of 
Autun, and fifty years later founded those of 
Gigny and Baume. But he is chiefly known as 
the first Abbot of Cluny near Macon, a famous 
Benedictine monastery, cradle of the great 
Religious Congregation of the same name. In 
his old age St. Berno resigned his crozier to 
his disciple St. Odo (a.d. 926), dying in the 
following year. 

MM. (Oct. 19) 

(Date uncertain.) A group of fifty-nine Chris- 
tians put to death at Antioch in one of the early 
persecutions. Though all the ancient Martyro- 
logies register them on Oct. 19, no particulars 
concerning them are now extant. 
*BERTELLIN (St.) (Sept. 9) 

(Date uncertain.) An English Saint, a hermit, 

in the neighbourhood of Stafford, whose legend 

is too unsatisfactory to allow of any reliable 

particulars about bim being drawn from it. 

*BERTHA (St.) Widow. (July 4) 

(8th cent.) A holy woman of English 
extraction who built a monastery in the 
north of France over which she presided as 
Abbess, and where she died about a.d. 725. 
Bertha, the Christian Queen of King Ethelbert 
of Kent, has never been honoured as a Saint. 
*BERTHANC (BERCHAN) (St.) Bp. (April 6) 

(9th cent.) A Saint of this name occurs in 
all the Scottish Kalendars. He is described as 
Bishop of Kirkwall in the Orkneys, and is said 
to have passed his youth in the celebrated 
monastery of St. Columba at Iona. He seems 
to have died in Ireland about a.d. 840 ; and 
his tomb was shown at Inishmore on the Bay 
of Gal way. Hence perhaps his surname of 


Fer-da-Leithe (the man of two parts or coun- 

♦BERTHOLD (St.) (June 16) 

(6th cent.) In the Breviary, St. Berthold or 
Bertaud is said to have come from Ireland 
with a St. Amandus, and to have settled at 
Chaumont in the Diocese of Rheims, where he 
was ordained priest by St. Remigius. He 
died at the age of seventy-three, A.D. 540. 

*BERTHOLD (St.) (Oct. 21) 

(11th cent.) An Anglo-Saxon whose parents 
had fled from England at the Norman Con- 
quest (A.D. 1066) and settled in Italy, first at 
Milan and afterwards at Parma, where the 
Saint was born. He became a lay-brother in 
the monastery of St. Alexander, where he lived 
a humble and saintly life, and where his relics 
are preserved. He died about the year 1101. 

*BERTHWALD (BRITHWALD) (St.) Bp. (Jan. 9) 
(8th cent.) A Benedictine monk who, it is 
said, resigned the dignity of Abbot of Glaston- 
bury in order to seclude himself in the insigni- 
ficant monastery of Reculver in the Isle of 
Thanet. He was not, however, able to avoid 
acceptance of the Archbishopric of Canterbury 
(a.d. 692) in succession to St. Theodore. He 
assisted at the Synod of Nidd, in which St. 
Wilfrid was justified and restored to his See. 
He consecrated St. Aldhelm to the West Saxon 
Bishopric of Sherborne. After a long and 
strenuous Eniscopate St. Brithwald died 
A.D. 731. 

♦BERTILIA (St.) V. (Jan. 3) 

(7th cent.) A Belgian Saint who lived as a 
recluse in a cell adjoining a church she had 
built at Marolles, where she died A.D. 687. 

BERTIN (St.) Abbot. (Sept. 5) 

(8th cent.) A monk at Luxeuil in Eastern 
France, under his kinsman, the Abbot St. Omer, 
who preached the Gospel in various parts of 
France. Besides other monasteries, he founded 
the Abbey of Sithin (now St. Omer), and 
became its first Abbot. In the end, owing to 
his advanced age, he resigned this position, and 
betook himself to a hermit's cell, where he died 
a centenarian (a.d. 709). Baronius and others 
alter this date to A.D. 698. 

*BERTIN (St.) Abbot. (Sept. 24) 

Otherwise St. BERCTHUN, which see. 

♦BERTOARA (St.) V. (Dec. 12) 

(7th cent.) A French Saint enriched with 

many supernatural gifts, who founded at 

Bourges a monastery under the austere Rule 

of St. Columbanus, dying there about a.d. 689. 

♦BERTRAM (St.) Conf. (Sept. 9) 

Otherwise St. BETTELIN, which see. 

(St.) Bp. (July 3) 

(7th cent.) Appointed, because of his merits, 
Archdeacon by St. Germanus of Paris, and 
afterwards promoted to the Bishopric of Le 
Mans. In troublous times he laboured much 
and successfully in the interests of both Church 
and State. His death is placed A.D. 623. 

*BERTRAND of COMMINGES (St.) Bp. (Oct. 16) 
(12th cent.) A saintly prelate who governed 
the Diocese of Comminges (France) for fifty 
years. He died about a.d. 1120. 

*BERTUIN (St.) Bp. (Nov. 11) 

(7th cent.) Said by some to have been an 
Irishman, by others of a noble English family. 
He was brought up in an English monastery, 
and the tradition is that he was consecrated 
Bishop while still in England, probably as a 
Missionary Prelate, as he proceeded to Belgium 
and settled on the banks of the Sambre, where 
he built a church and abbey which he dedicated 
to Our Blessed Lady at a place called Maloigne, 
near Namur. a.d. 698 is given as the date of 
his death. 

*BERTULPH (St.) Abbot. (Feb. 5) 

(8th cent.) An Abbot, the accounts of whose 

life are unfortunately untrustworthy. He is 

venerated in the north of France and in 





(St.) Bp. (Oct. 26) 

(11th cent.) A celebrated Bishop of Hildes- 
heim in Saxony. Famous for his learning and 
virtues, it was to him that the Emperor Otho II 
on his deathbed entrusted the guardianship 
of his son and successor, Otho III. St. Berward 
died in the year 1021 (or 1023), and was canon- 
ised by Pope Celestine III in 1194. St. Ber- 
ward caused to be cast the fine metal gates 
of Hildesheim Cathedral, where is also preserved 
a splendid copy of the Gospels, written and 
illuminated by the Saint's own hand. 
BESAS (St.) M. (Feb. 27) 

(3rd cent.) A soldier who suffered at Alex- 
andria in Egypt under the Emperor Decius for 
having shown the indignation he felt at the 
sight of the horrible torments inflicted on the 
Martyrs, SS. Julian and Euno. 
BESSARION (St.) Conf. (June 17) 

(4th cent.) One of the Fathers of the 
Egyptian Desert. His virtues and miracles 
were such that Greek writers compare him to 
Moses, Elias, and others of the prophets. He 
must have died before A.d. 400. The Greeks 
keep his Feast on June 6. 
(St.) Conf. 

(8th cent.) Supposed to be the same as the 
St. Bertram whose memory is preserved at Ham 
in Staffordshire, where there exist a chapel, 
a spring and a well, each called after him. He 
was a disciple of St. Guthlac and lived in a 
hermitage near Croyland. It is presumed that 
his relics were conveyed to Stafford before the 
destruction of Croyland by the Danes, and that 
this accounts for the veneration in Catholic 
times of St. Bettelin in that neighbourhood. 
We have no means of fixing the precise date of 
the death of this Saint. 
♦BEUNO (St.) Abbot. (April 21) 

(7th cent.) Of a princely family in ancient 
Wales, educated in the monastery of Bangor, 
and in his afterlife founder and ruler of several 
monasteries in North Wales ; Clynnog in 
Carnarvonshire was his chief residence. He 
died, and was buried there some time in the 
first half of the seventh century. Butler notes 
some curious customs, vestiges of the ancient 
cultus of St. Beuno, existing in his time in 
Carnarvonshire ; but the memory of the Saint 
has happily been revived in our own age by 
the foundation of the important Ecclesiastical 
establishment known as St. Beuno 's College. 
BEUVE (St.) (April 24) 

Otherwise St. BOVA, which see. 

*BERTILLA (St.) V. (Nov. 5) 

(7th cent.) An Abbess of the Benedictine 

Order in the monastery of Jouarre in the 

Diocese of Meaux. She was chosen to be the 

first Abbess of Chelles, where she died, having 

presided over her community for more than 

forty-six years (A.D. 692). Queen Bathilde, 

the foundress, took the veil at Chelles, as did 

St. Hereswitha or Hereswide, Queen of East 

Anglia and sister of St. Hilda of Whitby. 

BIANOR and SYLVANUS (SS.) MM. (July 10) 

(4th cent.) Christians martyred in Pisidia 

(Asia Minor) under an Imperial magistrate, by 

name Severian. They were tortured and 

beheaded. They probably suffered at the 

beginning of the fourth century, but the extant 

Greek Acts are not trustworthy. 

BIBIAN A (VIBIANA, VD7IAN) (St.) V.M. (Dec. 2) 

(4th cent.) St. Bibiana was the daughter 

and sister of Martyrs. Her father, St. Flavian, 

her mother, St. Daphrosa, and her sister, 

St. Demetria, all laid down their lives for 

Christ. St. Bibiana herself was scourged to 

death at Rome in the persecution under Julian 

the Apostate (A.D. 363). A very long account 

is given of her sufferings in a composition much 

accredited in the Middle Ages ; but which 

resists badly scientific criticism. Her name, 

with the place and fact of her martyrdom, 

are all that can be asserted with certainty. 
Her fame has been widespread from early ages. 
She is Patron Saint of churches in Spain and in 
Germany. Her church in Rome was dedicated 
by Pope St. Simplicius, about one hundred 
years after her passion ; and she is liturgically 
commemorated yearly in the Universal Church 
on the anniversary of her martyrdom. In art, 
she is often represented holding in her hand a 
green branch covered with twigs and foliage. 

*BIBLIG (PEBLIG) (St.) (July 3) 

(5th cent, probably.) A Welsh Saint con- 
nected with Carnarvon, but particulars con- 
cerning whom are lacking. 

BIBLIS (St.) V.M. (June 2) 

(2nd cent.) One of the Martyrs of Lyons, 
under the Emperor Marcus Aurelius (a.d. 177). 
These were the Bishop St. Photinus, the virgin 
St. Blandina, and forty-four other Christians. 
St. Biblis was put to the torture to force her to 
admit the crime of cannibalism very commonly 
at that period imputed to Christians. At the 
outset, terrified at the horrors of the torture 
chamber, she showed signs of weakness, but 
strengthened by prayer and the example of 
her fellow-sufferers, she in the end bravely laid 
down, like them, her life for Christ. 

*BIEUZY (St.) M. (Nov. 24) 

(7th cent.) A native of Great Britain, who 

followed St. Gildas to Brittany. We have no 

particulars of his life or of the martyrdom which 

*BILFRID(BILLFRITH) (St.) (March 6) 

(8th cent.) A hermit, a skilled goldsmith, 
who bound in gold the Lindisfarne copy of the 
Gospels, written and illuminated by Bishop 
Eadfrid. In life and in death he was in great 
popular veneration on account of the austere 
sanctity of his life. His death took place 
between a.d. 740 and A.D. 756 ; but the day 
is uncertain. March 6 is the anniversary of the 
Translation of his relics, together with those 
of St. Balther to Durham. 
♦BILHILD (St.) Widow. (Nov. 27) 

(8th cent.) A holy woman who, after the 

death of her husband, founded a monastery at 

Mainz in Germany, where she died a holy 

death, the crown of a pious and charitable life. 

BIRILLUS (St.) Bp. (March 21) 

(1st cent.) Said to have been consecrated 
first Bishop of Catania in Sicily by St. Peter 
the Apostle, with whom he had travelled from 
Antioch, about A.d. 42. By his preaching and 
miracles, it is added, St. Birillus converted a 
vast number of pagans to Christianity, and 
died in extreme old age. 
BIRINUS (St.) Bp. (Dec. 3) 

(7th cent.) A missionary sent by Pope 
Honorius to convert the West Saxons to 
Christianity, and consecrated Bishop by 
Asterius, Bishop of Genoa. One of his first 
converts was King Cynegils of Wessex, at 
whose baptism another monarch, St. Oswald 
of Northumbria, officiated as godfather. St. 
Birinus died at Dorchester in Oxfordshire, 
where he had fixed his Episcopal See, a.d. 650, 
whence Bishop Hedda translated his body to 
the Church of St. Peter at Winchester (a.d. 686). 

(St.) Bp. 

(10th cent.) The successor of St. Frithestan 
in the See of Winchester and a disciple of 
St. Grimbald. He was famous for his devotion 
to the Holy Souls in Purgatory ; and it was his 
daily custom to wash the feet of the poor. He 
was suddenly called away from his labours 
on earth to the higher life of Heaven, Nov. 4, 
A.D. 934. 
♦BITHEUS and GENOCUS (SS.) Conf. (April 18) 

(6th cent.) Two British monks who accom- 
panied St. Finnian of Clonard to Ireland, and 
there passed away in peace and in great repute of 
sanctity. Nothing more is known about them. 
*BLAAN (St.) Bp. (Aug. 10 

Otherwise St. BLANE, which see. 




*ELADUS (St.) Bp. (July 3) 

(Date uncertain.) The tradition concerning 
him is to the effect that he was one of the early 
Bishops of the Isle of Man, and that by his 
pastoral zeal he merited to be by his flock 
honoured as a Saint. 
BLASE (BLAISE) (St.) Bp., M. (Feb. 3) 

(4th cent.) A Bishop of Sebaste in Armenia, 
famous for the miracles he wrought, among 
which was his having with a word saved from 
imminent death a boy choking from having 
half swallowed a fishbone so placed that its 
extraction was impossible. St. Blaise, a man 
of saintly life, was accused and tried as a 
Christian, and as chief of his fellow-believers 
in the persecution continued in the East after 
the Emperor Constantine had given peace to 
the Church elsewhere, by his colleague Licinius. 
The Saint was put to the torture and beheaded 
at Sebaste A.d. 316. His Feast is kept with 
much solemnity in Greece and in Asia Minor. 
The Crusaders propagated devotion to him in 
Europe. In some places bread is blessed on 
his Feast Day, of which a morsel is swallowed 
while invoking him. In others, oil is blessed, 
and with it a priest makes the sign of the cross 
on the throats of the Faithful. He is the 
recognised Patron Saint of wool-combers, 
whether because he was tortured by having his 
flesh torn with the iron combs used in the 
trade, or for some other reason, is uncertain. 

(St.) M. (Jan. 19) 

(9th cent.) The son of one of the Irish kings 
who became a monk, and at last the Abbot of 
his monastery. Thirsting for the glory pi 
martyrdom, he left his native country and 
crossed over to Great Britain, then in prey to 
the heathen Danes. He was murdered by these 
barbarians on the altar steps in St. Columba's 
monastery at Iona (a.d. 823). The Benedictine 
Walafridus Strabo has written in verse the Life 
of St. Blathmac. 
♦BLANCHE (GWEN) (St.) (July 5) 

BLANDA (St.) M. (May 10) 

BLANDINA (St.) V.M. (June 2) 

(2nd cent ) One of the most famous of the 
Martyrs of Lyons, who with St. Photinus suffered 
death for Christ (A.D. 177), in the time of the 
Emperor Marcus Aurelius. St. Blandina, a 
young girl, never ceased from encouraging her 
fellow-sufferers, even while herself in the hands 
of the torturers. She was scourged, mauled 
by wild beasts, made to sit on a red-hot iron 
chair, gored by a bull, and finally beheaded. 
The blood of these holy men and women was 
the seed of Christianity in Gaul. 
♦BLANE (BLAIN, BLAAN) (St.) Bp. (Aug. 10) 

(7th cent.) A celebrated Scottish Saint who 
is said to have been Bishop of Kingarth in Bute 
at the end of the sixth or beginning of the 
seventh century. He was buried at Dunblane, 
where the Cathedral and several other churches 
were dedicated in his honour. But the dates 
commonly given are altogether uncertain. 
His reputed connection with St. Comgall and 
St. Kenneth would put that of his birth after 
a.d. 550, whereas Butler, Dempster and others 
insist that he flourished in the fifth century. 
The Bollandists, on the other hand, describe 
him as having flourished in the tenth or eleventh 
century, surmising a confusion of names between 
St. Kenneth and King Kenneth, his namesake. 
Hence, the modern hypothesis that there were 
two St. Blanes, of whom one lived in the fifth 
and the other in the eleventh century. Hymns 
and prose compositions bearing the name of 
St. Blane are still extant. 
BLASIUS (St.) M. (Nov. 29) 

(1st cent.) Associated by tradition with 
St. Mary Salome in planting the first seeds of 
the Christian Faith at Veroli and Frosinone, 
between Rome and Naples. He is said to have 


been put to death for being a Christian, as 
early as a.d. 42. A St. Demetrius and twenty 
others are named as having suffered with him. 
But there is now a tendency among scholars to 
dissociate altogether St. Blasius from St. Mary 
Salome and her Apostolate, and to date his life 
several hundred years later. 
*BLATH (FLORA) (St.) V. (Jan. 29) 

(6th cent.) In the Irish Martyrologies, 
several Saints are registered under the name 
Blath (Latinised Flora). The one best remem- 
bered was a humble lay-sister in St. Brigid's 
monastery at Kildare, where she was in high 
repute of sanctity. The year 523 is assigned 
in the Martyrology of Donegal as that of her 

(Date unknown.) There is a church in 

Cardiganshire titled after a St. Bledrws. But 

it has not been found possible to identify 

the Saint. 

*BLEIDDAN (BLE WDIAN) (St.) Bp. (July 29) 

Otherwise St. LUPUS of TROYES, which see. 

(Date unknown.) The dedication of a chapel 
to him in the Isle of Anglesea is all that perpetu- 
ates his memory. 
*BLITARIUS (BLIER) (St.) (June 11) 

(7th cent.) A native of Scotland who passed 
over into France with St. Fursey, and settled 
at Seganne in Champagne. He is still in great 
local veneration, and is described as having 
been a man whose whole life was spent in 
penance and prayer. His relics were burned by 
the Calvinists in the sixteenth century. 
*BOETHIUS (St.) (Dec. 7) 

Otherwise St. BUITHE, which see. 
*BOBO (St.) (May 22) 

(10th cent.) A soldier of Provence (France) 
who distinguished himself in the defence of 
his country against the Moorish raiders, the 
terror of the south of France, and who later 
gave himself up to a life of piayer and penance. 
He died at Pavia in Lombardy (A.D. 985) while 
on a pilgrimage to Rome. 
*BODAGISIL (St.) (Dec. 18) 

(6th cent.) A noble Frank who, after a life 
spent in the service of his King and country, 
founded a monastery on the banks of the 
Meuse, where he died (a.d. 588). Venantius 
Fortunatus, St. Gregory of Tours, and other 
contemporary writers are loud in the praises 
of his sanctity. 

(7th cent.) The Patron Saint of Abern in 
Carnarvon. He is believed to have flourished 
in the seventh century, but we have no parti- 
culars of his life, except the tradition that the 
great inundation which formed Beaumaris Bay 
impelled him, with his father and some other 
relatives, to embrace the Religious life. 
*BOETIAN (St.) (May 22) 

(7th cent.) A disciple of St. Fursey and an 
Irishman by birth. He built his monastery 
at Pierrepont, near Laon, in France, and was 
eventually murdered there by miscreants whom 
he had sternly rebuked for their vices. His 
shrine is still a place of pilgrimage, and he is 
specially invoked in behalf of sick children. 
*BOISIL (St.) Abbot. (Feb. 23) 

(7th cent.) A Prior of Melrose Abbey and 
successor there of Abbot Eata. Bede describes 
him as a man of great virtue and as endued with 
the gift of prophecy. Among his disciples were 
St. Cuthbert and St. Egbert. The Holy Name 
of Jesus, pronounced so as to touch the hearts 
of all who heard him, was ever on his lips. He 
passed away during the great pestilence of the 
year 664. 
*BOLCAN (OLCAN) (St.) Bn. (Feb. 20) 

(5th cent.) Baptised by St. Patrick and sent 
by him to study in France, he was subsequently 
by the same Saint consecrated Bishop of Derkan 
in the North of Ireland. His school of learning 
there was one of the most distinguished in the 



island. He died after a.d. 480. Another St. 
Bolcan is venerated in the parish of Kill-Chule 
in the Diocese of Elphin. He is known as 
St. Olcan of Kilmoyle. 

BOLONIA (St.) V.M. (Oct. 16) 

(4th cent.) A Christian maiden of fifteen, 
who was tortured and put to death about 
A.D. 362 in the persecution under Julian the 
Apostate, and who has left her name to 
the village of St. Boulogne in the Haute 

BONA (BOVA) and DODA (SS.) VV.MM. (April 24) 
(7th cent.) St. Bona or Bova (Fr. Beuve) 
was a daughter of King Sigebert of Austrasia 
(Eastern France). She took the veil in a 
convent near Rheims, founded by the holy 
Queen Clotilde, and, with her brother, St. 
Baudry (Balderic), built the Abbey of St. Peter 
within the walls of Rheims, of which she became 
the first Abbess. During her government of 
twenty-three years her patience and humility 
won all hearts, and even during her lifetime she 
was regarded as a Saint. Sbe died a.d. 673, 
and was succeeded by her niece, St. Doda, 
likewise venerated as one of the Blessed. 

BONAJUNCTA (St.) Conf. (Aug. 31) 

THE SERVITE ORDER, which see. 

BONAVENTURE (St.) Bp., Doctor (July 14) 

of the Church. 

(13th cent.) Known as the " Seraphic 
Doctor." Born A.D 1231, at Bagnorea in 
Tuscany, he entered, at the age of twenty, 
the Order of St. Francis. He studied and 
afterwards taught at Paris, in company of St. 
Thomas Aquinas. After being General of his 
Order, he was created by Pope Gregory X 
Cardinal Bishop of Albano. He died during the 
General Council of Lyons (A.D. 1274), and was 
canonised two hundred years later, becoming a 
Doctor of the Church a century later. Besides 
noble Commentaries on Holy Scripture and on 
the work of the Master of Sentences (the theo- 
logical and philosophical text-book in use in 
his age), we have from the pen of St. Bona- 
venture many ascetical and mystical treatises, 
and a touchingly beautiful Life of St. Francis 
of Assisi, the Founder of his Order. Clement 
IV had chosen him for the Archbishopric of 
York ; and only the humility of the Saint 
hindered the English people from being able 
to number the " Seraphic Doctor " among 
their national glories. 

♦BOND (BALDUS) (St.) Hermit. (Oct. 29 

(7th cent.) A penitent and Saint venerated 
at Sens in France. 

BONFILIUS (St.) Conf. (Jan. 1) 

THE SERVITE ORDER, which see. 

♦BONIFACE of LAUSANNE (St.) Bp. (Feb. 9) 
(13th cent.) A Cistercian monk of the 
Abbey of Cambre, near Brussels. He was 
distinguished for his learning, and lectured at 
Paris and at Cologne. Appointed Bishop of 
Lausanne, he laboured indefatigably at the 
reform of Church discipline. In his old age he 
retired to die (A.D. 1265) in his monastery at 

BONIFACE (St.) M. (Oct. 5) 

Alleged to have been the name of one of the 
Christians who suffered with SS. PALMATIUS 
and OTHERS, which see. 

•BONIFACE (Bl.) Bp. (March 13) 

(13th cent.) A member of the Ducal House 
of Savoy, who became a Carthusian monk and 
Prior of one of the houses of his Order, whence, 
so great was the fame of his sanctity, he was, 
at the request of King Henry III of England, 
by the Pope raised to the See of Canterbury 
in succession to St. Edmund. He died while 
on a visit to his native country, and was buried 
in the Ducal vault at Hautecombe (A.D. 1270). 
Three centuries later his body was found to be 
still incorrupt. His cultus was authorised by 
Pope Gregory XVI in the nineteenth century. 

♦BONIFACE (St.) Bp. (March 14) 

(7th cent.) A leader of a band of missionaries 
sent from Rome to evangelise the Picts and 
Scots. He is venerated as Bishop of Ross, 
and is said to have founded one hundred 
and fifty churches. He passed away about 
A.D. 630. 

BONIFACE (St.) Bp. (May 14) 

(6th cent.) Bishop of Ferenti or Ferentino 
in Tuscany (not the better known town of the 
same name in Latium) in the time of the 
Emperor Justin. His holiness and miracles 
are commemorated by St. Gregory the Great. 

BONIFACE (St.) M. (May 14) 

(4th cent.) Beheaded as a Christian at Tarsus 
in Cilicia, whither he had gone from Rome to 
recover the bodies of certain Martyrs. His 
own relics repose in the church dedicated to 
him in Rome on the Aventine, together with 
those of St. Aglae, a woman associated with 
him both before and after their conversion to 
Christianity. The year 307 is given as that of 
their death. 

BONIFACE IV (St.) Pope. (May 25) 

(7th cent.) Born in the South of Italy, he 
embraced the monastic life in the monastery 
of St. Sebastian in Rome. Elected Pope, 
A.D. 608, he dedicated to Our Blessed Lady and 
to all the Saints, the Pantheon built by Marcus 
Agrippa as the temple of all the heathen gods 
of Rome, and enriched it with the relics of 
Martyrs from the Catacombs. He held a 
Council (A.D. 610), at which St. Mellitus, Bishop 
of London, was present. He died A.D. 615, 
and was buried in Old St. Peter's, under the 
altar of St. Thomas the Apostle, or, as some 
say, in the atrium or courtyard before the 

BONIFACE (St.) Bp. M. (June 5) 

(8th cent.) An Anglo-Saxon, born at Crediton 
in Devonshire, who received in Baptism the 
name of Winfried. Educated in monasteries 
at Exeter and Winchester, he lived for many 
years as a Benedictine monk ; but, feeling 
himself called to a missionary career, set forth 
(a.d. 716) to preach the Gospel to the heathen 
people of Friesland. Later, Pope St. Gregory 
II consecrated him Bishop, and, giving him the 
name of Boniface, sent him to evangelise 
Germany, of which country he is venerated as 
the Apostle. Having chosen Mainz as his 
Metropolitan See, he gave himself indefatigably 
to his work, which was wonderfully blessed by 
Almighty God. Twenty-two years later he 
resigned his Archbishopric in order to return 
to his unfinished task in Friesland. There, 
together with fifty-two companions, he suffered 
martyrdom at the hands of the pagans, A.D. 755. 
His body reposes in the Abbey of Fulda, and 
innumerable miracles have been wrought at 
his tomb. One of his achievements in Germany 
was the felling of an enormous oak tree, the 
centre of the idolatrous worship of the natives, 
which led to a conversion en masse of all the 
spectators. Hence, in art, he is often repre- 
sented with axe in hand at the foot of an 

BONIFACE (St.) Bp. (June 19) 

(11th cent.) The Apostle of Livonia and of 
the West of Russia, better known as St. Bruno. 
He succeeded St. Adalbert of Prague in the 
headship of the School of Magdeburg, and was 
for some time chaplain to his relative, the 
Emperor Otho III. Leaving the Imperial 
Court, he entered the Camaldolese Order of 
monks, and retired to Italy. Thenceforward 
he lived in solitude till, by order of Pope John 
XVIII, he took up the work of evangelising 
the Northern countries. With great gain of 
souls he preached in Poland and succeeded 
in penetrating into Russia proper, where 
however, he fell a victim to the fury of the 
heathen. He was seized, and with eighteen 
Christians, his fellow-workers, beheaded a.d. 




BONIFACE (St.) M. (Aug. 30) 

(3rd cent.) An African Christian martyred 
with his wife St. Thecla and their twelve 
children at Hadrumetum in the persecution 
under Decius (a.d. 250). There are, however, 
some of the learned in these matters who 
post-date their martyrdom for half a century, 
and maintain that they were victims of the 
great persecution under Diocletian and his 
colleague Maximinian Herculeus. Again, there 
are authors who hold that they escaped both 
persecutions, and survived to die natural 
deaths. It is controverted whether the twelve 
children of SS. Boniface and Thecla are not the 
Twelve Holy Brothers commemorated in the 
Liturgy on Sept. 1. 

BONIFACE I (St.) Pope. (Oct. 25) 

(5th cent.) A Roman priest of saintly life, 
elected Pope (A.D. 418), in succession to St. 
Zozimus, notwithstanding his reluctance. 
Though pre-eminently " a man of peace," he 
vindicated bravely and successfully the rights 
of the Holy See against the Anti-Pope Eulalius, 
and against the pretensions of the Patriarchs 
of Constantinople. He ordered the singing of 
the Gloria, in excelsis on Maundy-Thursday, and 
regulated several points of Church discipline. 
He passed away towards the close of the year 
423, and was buried in an Oratory of St. 
Felicitas, which with many other sacred buildings 
he had restored and embellished. 

BONIFACE and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Dec. 6) 

(5th cent.) An African Martyr put to death 
with several others by the Arian Hunneric, 
King of the Vandals. Among them were 
Dionysia and her son Majoricus, Dativa, her 
sister, and iEmilian her cousin, a physician. 

BONIFACE (St.) M. (Dec. 29) 

(Date unknown.) Martyred in Rome with 
SS. Calixtus and Felix. 

BONIFACE and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Aug. 17) 
(5th cent.) St. Boniface was a deacon 
martyred at Carthage in the time of Hunneric, 
Arian King of the Vandals (a.d. 477 to a.d. 488). 
His fellow-sufferers were SS. Liberatus, an 
Abbot, Servus and Austicus, sub-deacons, 
Rogatus and Septimus, monks, and Maximus, 
a boy, all members of the community of monks 
established at Capsa near Tunis. After having 
undergone cruel tortures, they were scourged 
to death. 

BONITUS (St.) Bp. (Jan. 15) 

(8th cent.) Born in Auvergne A.D. 623, he 
became Chancellor to King Sigebert III, 
afterwards Governor of Provence and nine 
years later Bishop of Clermont in Auvergne. 
After a zealous Episcopate he retired into a 
monastery, and in the eDd died at Lyons 
(A.D. 710), while returning from a pilgrimage 
to Rome. He is known in France as St. Bont 
or Bonet. His relics are in the Cathedral at 

BONONIUS (St.) Abbot. (Aug. 30) 

(11th cent.) A Benedictine Abbot of Vercelli in 
Piedmont, who preached the Gospel in the East, 
and who died at Bologna in Italy (a.d. 1026). 

BONOSA (St.) V.M. (July 15) 

(3rd cent.) Martyred at Porto Romano, 
at the mouth of the Tiber, under Severus 
(A.D. 207), with her brother Eutropius, and her 
sister Zozima. Modern discoveries made at 
Porto Romano go to negative the old opinion 
post-dating the martyrdom of St. Bonosa to the 
time of the Emperor Aurelian. 

(4th cent.) Bonosus, an officer of the Her- 
culean Legion, serving under Count Julian, 
uncle of the Apostate, was tortured and put to 
death with his comrade Maximinian or Maxi- 
milian, for refusing to change the Christian 
banner, the Labarum of Constantine, for the 
idolatrous standard of heathen times (a.d. 362). 

(3rd cent.) Bonus, a priest, with Festus, 


Maurus and nine others, was martyred at Rome 
under the Emperor Valerian (a.d. 257). They 
are mentioned in the Acts of St. Stephen, Pope, 
though the name Bonus does not occur therein. 
He is probably the same with Basil, one of the 
Martyrs they note. 

BORIS (St.) M. (July 24) 


BORIS and GLEB (SS.) MM. (Sept. 25) 

(11th cent. These Saints, otherwise called 
Romanus and David, sons of St. Vladimir, are 
included in Polish Calendars as having suffered 
martyrdom, a.d. 1015, at the hands of assassins 
incited thereto by their elder brother, usurper 
of their possessions. 

*BOSA (St.) Bp. (March 9) 

(8th cent.) A monk of St. Hilda's Abbey at 
Whitby, and the predecessor of St. John of 
Beverley in the Archbishopric of York, to 
which he was called in the troubled times of 
the exile of St. Wilfrid, by St. Theodore of 
Canterbury. St. Bosa was a man, says the 
Venerable Bede, of conspicuous virtue and 
humility. He died A.D. 705. 

BOSWELL (St.) Abbot. (Feb. 23) 

Otherwise St. BOISIL, which see. 

*BOTULPH (St.) Abbot. (June 17) 

(7th cent.) He and his brother, St. Adulph, 
were Anglo-Saxons, but entered a monastery 
in Belgium. St. Adulph became Bishop of 
Utrecht, and St. Botulph returned to England 
and founded a Benedictine Abbey at Icanhoe 
in Lincolnshire (a.d. 654), which was destroyed 
by the Danes in the ninth century. St. Botulph 
died about the year 700, and his relics were 
removed to Thorney by St. Ethelwald. Boston 
in Lincolnshire is an abbreviated form of 
Botulph's Town, and several churches were 
dedicated to him, among them four at the gates 
of the City of London. 

BOTVID (St.) M. (July 28) 

(11th cent.) A Swedish Christian, who 
endeavoured to convert to the Faith a captive 
from Finland. Having as he thought suc- 
ceeded, he sought to restore the neophyte to 
freedom and to his own country, but while on 
the voyage was cruelly murdered by the thank- 
less object of his compassion (a.d. 1100). 

♦BRADAN and ORORA (CRORA) (SS.) (Oct. 20) 
(Date uncertain.) These two Saints are 
honoured in the Isle of Man. In the church 
of St. Bradan, Kirk-Braddan, near Douglas, 
Mark, the Bishop of Sodor, held a Synod 
(A.D. 1291). In a map of the sixteenth century, 
reference is made to the churches of St. Patrick 
and St. Crora. 

♦BRANNOCK (St.) Abbot. (Jan. 7) 

(6th cent.) A Saint who appears to have 
migrated in the sixth century from South 
Wales into Devon, and to have founded a 
monastery at Braunton, near Barnstaple, in 
that county. The traditions concerning him 
are, however, very varying and unreliable, 
though possibly the place named Braunton 
perpetuates his memory. But see St. Brychan 
(April 7). 

*BRANWALLANUS (St.) Bp. (Jan. 19) 

(Date unknown.) We have also a St. Bran- 
wallator. St. Branwallanus and he may 
possibly be identical with St. Brannock. We 
hear of them only in connection with Transla- 
tions of Relics in Saxon times. All alike are 
West-Country Saints. 

*BRANWALLATOR (St.) Bp. (Jan. 19) 

(Date unknown.) Beyond the fact that his 
name was included with others in the Dedication 
of a church in Dorsetshire, where likewise relics 
of his were venerated, we have no information 
concerning him. He may, perhaps, be one and 
the same with St. Brannock or St. Branwallanus, 
or with both. 

BRAULIUS (St.) Bp. (March 27) 

(7th cent.) Braulius or Braulio, Bishop of 

Saragossa in Spain, and one of the Patrons of 

the Kingdom of Aragon, assisted at three 



Councils of Toledo. He was a disciple of 
St. Isidore of Seville, and part of their corre- 
spondence is still extant. Together they 
laboured at regularising Ecclesiastical discipline 
in Spain, and after the death of St. Isidore, 
St. Braulio completed some unfinished works 
he had left. St. Braulio is one of the most 
celebrated Saints of the Spanish Church. He 
died a.d. 646, after over twenty years of 

*BREACA (BREAGUE) (St.) V. (June 4) 

(6th cent.) She is said to have gone from 
Ireland to Cornwall about the year 460, with 
several companions, and to have landed on the 
Eastern bank of the river Hayle. Several 
of the holy maidens were slain by King Theo- 
doric or Tewder. St. Breague lived the life 
of a solitary, and died in the early part of the 
sixth century in high repute of sanctity. 

*BREACA (BRANCA, BANKA) (St.) V. (Oct. 27) 
(5th cent.) One of a band of Irish Saints 
who settled in Cornwall in the latter part of 
the fifth century. She is said to have been 
born in East Meath. Various days are assigned 
for her festival ; nor is it possible definitely 
to distinguish her from the Saint Breaca or 
Breague venerated on June 4. 

♦BREGWIN (St.) Bp. (Aug. 26) 

(8th cent.) The twelfth Archbishop of 
Canterbury (a.d. 761). His life was written 
by Eadmer, who gives little more than the 
date of his Pontificate, and an account of his 
many miracles. He was buried in the Chapel 
of St. John the Baptist at the East end of the 
Cathedral (A.D. 765). Letters of his to St. 
Lullus of Mainz are still extant. 

*BRELATE (St.) Abbot. (May 16) 

Otherwise St. BRENDAN, which see. 
He seems to have visited Jersey on his return 
from Brittany to Ireland. A place-name there 
commemorates him. There were probably two 
Sts. Brendan, and St. Brelade may have been 
of later date than his homonym. 

♦BRENACH (St.) Hermit. (April 7) 

(6th cent.) The name is variously spelled, 
Brenach, Brynach, Bernach. He was a 
Pembrokeshire hermit who inhabited a lonely 
cell near Milford in the sixth century. But we 
have no authentic record of his life. 

BRENDAN (St.) Abbot. (May 16) 

(6th cent.) A celebrated Irish monk, a dis- 
ciple of St. Finnian at Clonard, and of St. Gildas 
of Llancarvan Abbey in Wales. There St. 
Brendan had St. Malo among his own disciples. 
He died at the age of ninety-four (a.d. 578) 
at Enachduin in Connaught. He founded 
several schools and monasteries, among them 
the famous Abbeys of Ardfert and Clonfert, 
and wrote a monastic Rule remarkable for its 
austerity. St. Brendan's celebrated voyage 
to the West, resulting in his discovery of 
America, the " Land of Promise," is, by many, 
not without some evidence, upheld as an 
historical fact. It certainly cannot lightly be 
rejected as a mere myth, though it had no 
immediate results. 

♦BRENDAN of BIRR (St.) Abbot. (Nov. 29) 

(6th cent.) Sometimes called St. Brendan 
the Elder to distinguish him from his namesake, 
the still more celebrated St. Brendan of Clon- 
fert, his contemporary and fellow-disciple with 
him of St. Finnian of Clonfert. His Abbey of 
Birr was somewhere near Parsonstown in King's 
County. He was the great friend and adviser 
of St. Columba, who in a vision saw the holy 
soul of St. Brendan carried by angels to Heaven 
at the moment of his passing away (a.d. 562). 

BRETANNION (St.) Bp. (Jan. 25) 

(4th cent.) Bishop of Tomis in Scythia on 
the Black Sea, near the mouths of the Danube. 
Valens, the Arian Emperor, exiled him on 
account of his strenuous defence of the Chris- 
tian Dogma of the Blessed Trinity, but was 
compelled by popular discontent to recall him. 
The Saint died about a.d. 380. 

*BRIACH (St.) Abbot. (Dec. 17) 

(6th cent.) A Saint of Irish birth who became 
a monk in Wales under St. Tudwald, whom he 
accompanied to Brittany. He built a mona- 
stery at Guingamp, near the castle of Deroch, 
Prince of Leon. He died at Bourbiac in the 
year 570, or, as others say, in 627, and was 
buried in the local church. 

*BRIANT (ALEXANDER) (Bl.) M. (Dec. 1) 


*BRIAVEL (St.) (June 17) 

(Date unknown.) Her name is perpetuated 
as that of the Patron Saint of the parish of 
St. Briavels in the Forest of Dean in Gloucester- 
shire ; but no record of her life is extant. 

BRICTIUS (St.) Bp. (July 9) 

(4th cent.) Bishop of Martola near Spoleto 
in Umbria (Central Italy;. During the persecu- 
tion under Diocletian he was imprisoned for 
preaching Christianity, but miraculously escaped 
and zealously persevered in his ministry, passing 
to his reward after the Peace of the Church 
under Constantine (A.d. 312). It must, how- 
ever, be confessed that the traditional details 
given concerning him are of . very uncertain 

BRICE (St.) Bp. (Nov. 13) 

Otherwise St. BRIXIUS, which see. 

BRIDGET (BRIDE, BRIDIG) (St.) V. (Feb. 1) 
(6th cent.) The "Mary of Ireland" was 
born of Christian parents at Fouchard (Fough- 
ard) in the present county of Louth, then 
reckoned as part of Ulster, about the middle 
of the fifth century. Her parents are said to 
have been baptised by St. Patrick himself, 
and they brought up their children in the holy 
fear of God. From her infancy Bride gave signs 
of the sanctity to which God's grace was leading 
her. In due time the Bishop St. Mel or, as 
others say, St. Machalleus, his disciple, gave 
her the veil of holy Religion, and she founded 
the monastery of Kildare, the first Religious 
House of women in Ireland. Wonderful 
were the miracles she wrought, and equally 
marvellous her influence for good over the 
nascent Church of her country. She passed 
away about the year 523, and her remains 
were enshrined with those of St. Patrick, as 
being the relics of the Second Patron Saint 
of Ireland. In art, St. Bride is represented 
holding a cross — with a flame over her head — 
sometimes with a cow near her, she being 
reputed the Protectress of those engaged in 
dairy work. 

♦BRIDGET and MAURA (SS.) (July 13) 

(5th cent.) Venerated as two daughters of 
a Scottish chieftain, martyred in Picardy in 
the fifth century while on a pilgrimage to 
Rome. The details have not been satisfactorily 
ascertained. St. Louis of France had a great 
devotion to SS. Bridget and Maura. 

We have also two other pairs of holy sisters : 
Maura and Britta, mentioned by St. Gregory of 
Tours ; and Baya and Maura, whose names 
appear in the ancient Scottish Kalendars. 
How far all these are distinct personages is 

BRIDGET (St.) Widow. (July 23) 

(14th cent.) St. Bridget (Birgitta) born of 
a noble Swedish family (a.d. 1304) and married 
to a man of princely rank, after her husband's 
death, founded the monastery of Wadstena 
on the shore of Lake Wetten, thus instituting 
the Order of the Most Holy Saviour, commonly 
known as Bridgetines. For its regulation she 
drew up wise statutes which were confirmed by 
Pope Urban V. St. Bridget was favoured by 
Almighty God with marvellous visions and 
revelations, of which the record left by her to 
us is most useful to contemplative souls. She 
died in Rome on her return from Jerusalem 
(July 23, 1373), and was canonised twenty 
years later. Her Feast is kept by the Church 
on Oct. 8, anniversary of the Translation of 
her relics to Sweden. In art she is represented 




clothed in the Religious Habit of her Order — 
with a pilgrim's staff — holding a heart marked 
with a cross — with Our Saviour near her. 
BRIEUC (St.) Bp. (May 1) 

Otherwise S. BRIOCUS, which see. 
*BRIGA (BRIGID) (St.) V. (Jan. 21) 

(6th cent.) She is known as St. Brigid of 
Kilbride, in the Diocese of Lismore, and flour- 
ished in the fifth and sixth centuries. It is 
alleged that her famous namesake of Kildare 
visited her more than once at Kilbride. In 
the Calendar of Cashel she is styled St. Brigid 
of Killbrige. 
BRIGID (St.) V. (Feb. 1) 

(9th cent.) Not of course to be confused 
with the great St. Bride of Kildare, whose 
Festival is kept on the same day. This later 
St. Brigid was a sister of St. Andrew, the 
Archdeacon of St. Donatus of Fiesole in Tus- 
cany. She was present at his deathbed, carried 
thither, it is said, by angels. After his death 
she retired to a cave in the Apennines, where 
she closed her life some time in the ninth 
century. Soon after a church was built over 
her cave, which contained her grave. 
BRINSTAN (St.) Bp. (Nov. 4) 

Otherwise St. BIRNSTAN or BIRSTAN, 
tvJiicTi sec* 
BRIOCUS (BRIOC, BRIEUC) (St.) Bp. (May 1) 

(6th or 7th cent.) A native of Cardiganshire, 
who was educated in France by St. Germanus. 
He returned to Britain, where he converted to 
Christianity his own parents with other pagans. 
Crossing again to France, he settled in Brittany 
and founded the great monastery which bears 
his name, and has given it to the important 
town surrounding it. It was there he died in 
his ninetieth year. In the parish of St. Breock 
in Cornwall the annual fair is still held on 
May 1, his Feast Day. There were many 
translations of his relics. The epoch in which 
he lived (6th or 7th cent.) depends on whether 
his instructor was St. Germanus of Paris or 
(which is much more likely) St. Germanus of 
Auxerre, whom he probably followed to France 
when that Saint returned from Britain after 
his preaching against the heresy of Pelagius. 
♦BRITHWALD (St.) Bp. (Jan. 9) 

(8th cent.) One of the early Archbishops 
of Canterbury, the successor of St. Theodore. 
He was, says Butler, " a living rule of perfection 
to his Church." St. Brithwald died after nearly 
forty years of Episcopate, A.D. 731, and was 
buried at Reculver at the edge of the Isle of 
Thanet, where at that time there existed a 
small monastery. His name is frequently 
spelled Bercthwald. 
*BRITHWOLD (St.) Bp. (Jan. 22) 

(11th cent.) A monk of Glastonbury who 
became Bishop of Wilton or Ramsbury on the 
Translation of Alfric to the See of Canterbury 
(a.d. 996). He was distinguished for his gift 
of prophecy and is described as " vir sanctis- 
simus in the Liturgical Lections of the Feast 
of St. Edward the Confessor. He was buried 
at Glastonbury a.d. 1043. 
*BRITTA and MAURA (SS.) VV. (July 13) 

(5th or 6th cent.) Two Saints mentioned by 
St. Gregory of Tours. They are chiefly vener- 
ated in the Diocese of Beauvais in France, 
and are traditionally reputed to have been 
Princesses of Northumbria or of Scotland. 
Some assert that they were put to death for 
their Faith. Britta is a name variously spelled, 
and is, it would seem, a form of Brigid or 
Bridget ; but all is very uncertain. (See SS. 
Breaca and Maura.) 
*BRITWIN (BERCTHUN ?) (St.) Abbot. (May 15) 

(8th cent.) The holy Abbot, friend of 
St. John of Beverley, who assisted that Saint 
in his last moments and enshrined his remains. 
He lived in the eighth century, and is com- 
memorated by Venerable Bede and registered 
as a Saint in old English Calendars. 


(St.) Bp. 

(5th cent.) A native of Tours and disciple 
of the great St. Martin, in the monastery of 
Marmoutiers. He himself was raised to the 
Archbishopric on the death of his master. 
Owing to calumny he suffered exile ; but was 
restored to his See by the authority of the Pope, 
who was convinced of his innocence. He died 
seven years after his return, a.d. 447. His 
body was translated to Clermont in Auvergne 
by St. Gregory of Tours (A.D. 580). 

*BROCARD (St.) (Sept. 2) 

(13th cent.) The successor of St. Berthold 
in the government of the Hermits of Mount 
Carmel. At his request St. Albert Patriarch 
of Jerusalem drew up for them the Rule under 
which they developed in the West into the 
Order of Mount Carmel. St. Brocard died 
early in the thirteenth century. 

*BRON (St.) Bp. (June 8) 

(6th cent.) A disciple of St. Patrick, con- 
secrated Bishop of Cassel-Irra, near the town of 
Sligo, where he founded a church. He appears 
to have died about a.d. 511. 

*BRONACH (BROMANA) (St.) V. (April 2) 

(Date unknown.) Called the Virgin of Glen- 
Seichis and registered in the Martyrologies of 
Tallaght and Donegal. But we have neither 
dates nor other particulars concerning her. 
Glen-Seichis is the old name of Kilbrony or 
Kilbronach, in County Down, which takes its 
present appellation from her. 

♦BRONISLAVA (St.) V. (Sept. 3) 

(13th cent.) A relative of the Polish Saint 
Hyacinth. She led a holy life at Cracow, 
where her memory is still in great veneration. 

*BROTHEN and GWENDOLEN (SS.) (Oct. 18) 
(6th cent.) Of these Welsh Saints we know 
little beyond their names and the fact of their 
existence, coupled with that of the cultus 
locally given to them after their deaths. St. 
Brothen is Patron Saint of Llanbrothen in 
Merionethshire. According to the Welsh 
genealogies, he had a brother, St. Gwynnin. 
The two churches of Llangwynnin and Dwygy- 
fylchi, both in Carnarvonshire, may have been 
called thus after him. Dolwyddelen and 
Llanwyddelan in Montgomeryshire suggest a 
St. Gwendolen. * This and similar names are 
diminutives of Gwen (white), and are equivalent 
to our Blanche and its allied forms. 

BRUNO (St.) (Oct. 6) 

(11th cent.) The founder of the Carthusian 
Order, born at Cologne about a.d. 1030. After 
being Chancellor and Canon Theologian of 
Rheims Cathedral, he retired with others to 
the solitude known as the Grande Chartreuse, 
where they were welcomed by St. Hugh, 
Bishop of Grenoble, thus laying the foundations 
of their Order, which is flourishing even in the 
present century. Pope Urban II, a former 
disciple of St. Bruno, summoned him to Rome 
to be his Councillor. He obeyed, but shortly 
after, refusing the Episcopal See of Reggio, 
retired into the mountains of Calabria, where 
he assembled a community of monks and 
resumed the life of the Grande Chartreuse. 
He died there a.d. 1101, and five hundred years 
later was canonised by Pope Gregory XV. 
He wrote Commentaries on the Psalter and on 
the Epistles of St. Paul. The emblems artists 
associate with him are a crucifix with leaves 
and flowers, a star on his breast, a globe under 
his feet, a chalice with the Sacred Host, &c. &c. 

BRUNO (St.) Bp., M. (June 19) 

Otherwise St. BONIFACE, which see. 

BRUNO (St.) Bp. (May 17) 

(11th cent.) Matilda, mother of this Saint, 
was a niece of St. Bruno or Boniface, the 
martyred Apostle of Prussia and Russia. Her 
son became Bishop of Wurzburg (Herbipolis), 
and one of the most erudite scholars of his 
time. He wrote informing Commentaries on 



Holy Scripture. He was the adviser of Em- 
perors, but, what is much more, earned the 
title of " Father of the poor." Having built 
the Cathedral of Wurzburg, he died (a.d. 1045) 
from the effects of an accident. He is renowned 
for miracles wrought in life and after death. 

BRUNO (St.) Bp. (July 18) 

(12th cent.) A Lombard by birth and a 
distinguished scholar. After his conclusive 
defence of the Catholic doctrine of the Eucharist 
at the Council of Rome (a.d 1079), Pope St. 
Gregory VII made him Bishop of Segni. He 
assisted at several Councils, and for a time was 
Abbot of Monte Cassino. He died a.d. 1125. 
He has left several useful Theological works. 


(5th cent.) An Irish Saint who settled in 
Wales, where he built a cell and church at a 
place now called Carn-Englyi (Mountain of 
Angels), overhanging the Nevern (Pembroke- 
shire). It is conjectured that he flourished in 
the first half of the fifth century. By some 
authors he is identified with St. Brannock of 

•BRYNOTH (St.) Bp. (May 9) 

(14th cent.) A Swede, Bishop of Scara in 
West Gothland, who passed away Feb. 6, 1317, 
and is honoured in Sweden as a Saint. 

•BUDOC (St.) Bp. (Dec. 9) 

(7th cent.) A Breton Saint, educated in 
Ireland, where he became Abbot of Youghal. 
Returning afterwards to Brittany, he succeeded 
SS. Samson and Maglorius in the See of Dol. 
He died early in the seventh century after 
about twenty years of Episcopate. There 
seem to have been two other Saints of the same 
name also connected with Brittany. 

(6th cent.) A Scot who, after passing many 
years in Italy and elsewhere on the Continent, 
returned to his native country in company 
with St. Codrus, and helped in the evangelisation 
of the Picts. From him it seems that Carbuddo 
(Castrum Buithii) takes its name. He is said 
to have prophesied the birth of St. Columba, 
and to have died on the day that Saint was 
born (a.d. 521). 


(9th cent.) During the war between the 
Greek Emperor Nicephorus and the Bulgars, 
not as yet Christians, many Catholics, besides 
those slain in battle, were put to death on 
account of their Faith. There is much un- 
certainty as to how this came about, but they 
have always been reckoned as Martyrs. 

♦BURIANA (St.) V. (June 4) 

(Gth cent.) An Irish Saint, one of the many 
who migrated to Cornwall and there in solitude 
led holy lives. The place-name St. Buryan, 
opposite the Scilly Islands, perpetuates the 
memory of St. Buriana. 

BURCHARD (St.) Bp. (Oct. 14) 

(8th cent.) An English Saint of wealthy 
parentage who devoted his early manhood to 
helping and working for the poor. Having 
joined the missionary band led by St. Boniface 
into heathen Germany and laboured success- 
fully there, Pope Zaohary consecrated him 
First Bishop of Herbipolis (Wurzburg), " Zealous 
as a Pastor of souls, meek and generous, but 
ever humble and hard upon himself," for so 
he is described, he died (a.d. 752) at Hohenberg 
(Homburg), whither he had retired, and had 
lived a monastic life for his last six months 
upon earth. His relics were translated to 
Wurzburg a.d. 983. 

BURGONDOPHORA (FARA) (St.) V. (April 3) 
(7th cent.) Born of a noble Frankish family, 
she was favoured from her childhood with 
heavenly visions and other supernatural 
favours. She received the holy veil of religion 
from the famous Abbot St. Columbanus, but 
on account of her having refused to marry, was 
cruelly persecuted by her disappointed father. 

In the end, however, he was reconciled to his 
daughter, and built for her the monastery of 
Faremoutiers, near Meaux. Influenced by her, 
her brother St. Fare gave himself to God. St. 
Burgondophora passed away, surrounded by 
her weeping nuns, April 3, 655, being then 
sixty years old. 
*BYBLIG (PIBLIG) (St.) (July 3) 

(Date unknown.) A holy man honoured with 
some cultusm. parts of Wales, but nothing certain 
is known about him. 


*CADELL (St.) 

(7th cent.) A Welsh Saint, giving its title 
to Llangadell in Glamorgan. 
♦CADFAN (St.) Abbot. (Nov. 1) 

(6th cent) A holy man who came over from 
Brittany to Wales and became the first Abbot 
of Bardsey. He has left his name to Llangadfan 
in Montgomeryshire, but we have no reliable 
account of his life. 
•CADFARCH (St.) (Oct. 24) 

(6th cent.) A Welsh Saint, disciple of St. 
Illtyd, and member of a family of Saints. 
He is said to have founded churches at Penegos 
and Aberick . 
*CADOC (DOCUS, CATHMAEL) (St.) (Jan. 24) 
Bp. M. 

(6th cent.) The son of a Welsh chieftain 
and founder of the celebrated monastery of 
Llancarvan in Glamorgan, which became a 
veritable house of Saints. Accompanied by 
St. Gildas, St. Cadoc later continued his Religi- 
ous life in an island off the coast of Vannes in 
Brittany. Finally, he again crossed the 
Channel and settled in the Eastern counties, 
as is believed, taking spiritual charge of the 
Britons, his compatriots in those parts during 
their last struggle with the conquering Saxons, 
at whose hands he received the Crown of Martyr- 
dom about a.d. 580, near Weedon (Benevenna) 
in Northamptonshire. 
*CADOG (St.) 

(5th cent.) The Patron Saint of Llaodog- 
Faur in Carmarthen, not to be confused with 
the later St. Cadoc or Docus. 
♦CADROE (St.) (March 6) 

(10th cent.) A noble Scotsman, a monk at 
Fleury on the Loire, and afterwards at Metz. 
He died A.D. 975 while on a visit to the Empress 
Adelheid, mother of the Emperor Otho 1. 
*CADWALLADOR (St.) King. (Nov. 12) 

(7th cent.) A chieftain in Wales of the 
ancient British race, not to be confused with 
the Anglo-Saxon St. Cadwalla. St. Cadwal- 
lador was venerated as a Saint in Wales after 
his death (a.d. 682, probably). 

Otherwise often written CECILIA, CELES- 
TINE, and sometimes C03LESTINE. 
(2nd cent.) One of the most famous Virgin 
Martyrs of the early Roman Church. Of 
Patrician birth and a zealous Christian, she 
converted to Christianity her betrothed husband, 
Valerian, with his brother Tiburtius, who, like 
her, both gave their lives for Christ. Cecilia 
was seized as a Christian and suffocated with 
the steam of a hot bath in her own mansion, 
later converted into a church. The probable 
date is the reign of Septimus Severus (a.d. 
193-222). Her relics were recovered from the 
catacombs by Pope St. Paschal I (a.d. 821). 
C^ECILIAN (St.) (April 16) 

CZECILIAN (St.) (June 3) 

Otherwise St. CiECILIUS, which see. 
CiECILIUS (St.) Bp. (May 15) 


(3rd cent.) A convert to Christianity, 
afterwards a priest at Carthage, where his 




memory was held in veneration. In his old 
age he taught Christ's religion to St. Cyprian, 
who reverenced him as the " Father of his own 
new life." He had had a wife and children, 
of whom St. Cyprian is said to have taken 
charge. St. Jerome says that it was from him 
that St. Cyprian took the name Csecilius. 
St. Csecilius flourished in the first half of the 
third centurv. 
♦C^ESAREA (St.) V. (May 15) 

(Date unknown.) An Italian who, in defence 
of her virtue, took refuge in a cave near Otranto 
in the South of Italy, and appears thenceforth 
to have lived therein as a Recluse. The 
cave is now a place of popular pilgrimage. 
♦CyESARIA (St.) V. (Jan. 12) 

(6th cent.) The sister of St. Caesarius of 
Aries. She was Superior of a convent of nuns 
for whom her brother wrote a somewhat strict 
monastic Rule. She passed away about a.d. 
C^SARIUS of ARLES (St.) Bp. (Aug. 27) 

(6th cent.) " The first Ecclesiastic in the 
Gaul of his time " (Smith and Wace). Born 
at Chalon-sur-Saone in the year 470, he retired 
at the age of twenty to the famous monastery 
of the Isle of Lerins in the Mediterranean. 
Ten years later he became Archbishop of Aries, 
and presided over several Councils, among them 
that of Orange (a.d. 529), against the Semi- 
Pelagians. He is best known for his Liturgical 
reforms and for his efforts to propagate and 
perfect monachism. The Rules he wrote for 
monks and nuns are still extant. He also took 
a somewhat prominent part in the politics of 
the period, and more than once was banished 
by his opponents when in power. He died 
A.D. 542. 
OffiSARIUS and JULIAN (SS.) MM. (Nov. 1) 

(1st cent.) Caesarius, a deacon from Africa, 
while witnessing at Terracina a barbarous 
human sacrifice boldly proclaimed himself 
a Christian, and denounced the proceedings. 
He was thereupon seized by the heathen mob 
and thrown into the sea. Julian, a priest, 
shared his fate. They are probably Martyrs 
of the very beginnings of Christianity in Italy, 
though some contend that they are among those 
who died in the great persecution under Dio- 
cletian after the year 300. A church outside 
Rome, on the Appian Way, gives his title of 
St. Caesarius to one of the Cardinal Deacons. 
(Date unknown.) A group of seven Chris- 
tians, registered in the Martyrologies as having 
suffered at Damascus in Syria. But dates and 
all particulars have been lost. 
C^SARIUS (St.) M. (Nov. 3) 

CAESARIUS (St.) M. t (Dec. 28) 

(4th cent.) A Christian who suffered at 
Arabissa in Armenia under Galerius Maximus 
(A.D. 309 about). He was the father of Eu- 
doxius, the notorious Arian, nor had his own 
past life been irreproachable. But by his 
courage at the stake, to which he was nailed 
by the feet, he atoned for his past misconduct, 
in the eyes of his fellow-Christians, who rever- 
ently interred his half-charred remains. 
*C/EDMON (St.) (Feb. 10) 

(7th cent.) A farm-servant at Whitby Abbey 
under the great Abbess, St. Hilda, and later, 
one of the Lay-Brethren attached to the house. 
The little we know of him we owe to Venerable 
Bede. He was a man of singular simplicity, 
and of a piety such as to have merited to him 
a place among those popularly venerated as 
Saints. His memory is otherwise preserved 
as having probably been the first, or almost the 
first, among the Anglo-Saxons to write in verse. 
He confined himself exclusively to sacred sub- 
jects, and in particular put into verse the 
Books of Genesis and Exodus. The remains 
attributed to him undoubtedly reveal poetic 
genius. He died about A.D. 680. 

*C#3LLAINN (St.) V. (Feb. 3) 

(6th cent.) An Irish Saint of the race of 
Ciarr. The church of Tearmon Caelaine in 
Roscommon recalls her memory. 

(SS.) MM. (Feb. 28) 

(Date unknown.) Martyrs of uncertain date 
at Alexandria in Egypt. Some ancient MSS. 
read Cerulus for Cserealis. 
OffiREALIS (St.) M. (June 10) 

CffiREALIS and SALLUSTIA (SS.) MM. (Sept. 14) 

(3rd cent.) A Roman soldier and his wife, 

converted to Christianity by Pope St. Cornelius. 

They suffered martyrdom with him under the 

persecuting Emperor Decius, a.d. 250. 

C/ESARIUS (St.) M. (April 20) 

C/ESARIUS of NAZIANZUM (St.) (Feb. 25) 

(4th cent.) The brother of St. Gregory of 
Nazianzum and physician at the Imperial 
Court of Constantinople, where for a time he 
enjoyed the favour of even Julian the Apostate. 
But in the end, driven into exile on account of 
his Faith, he had to suffer in common with 
other Christians, until recalled to Court by 
Valens, by whom he was promoted to the 
questorship of Bithynia. It is said that he 
was preparing to retire into a monastery when 
death overtook him in A.d. 368 or 369. His 
funeral oration, preached by his holy brother, 
may be read in the works of the latter. 
C/ESIDIUS and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Aug. 31) 

(3rd cent.) Caesidius, said to have been 
the son of St. Rufinus, Bishop and Martyr, 
was a priest who with other Christians laid 
down his life in defence of his religion on the 
shores of Lake Fucina, sixty miles to the East 
of Rome, in one of the persecutions of the third 
century. But there is much uncertainty both 
as to the exact date and as to the particulars of 
their sufferings. 
*CAGNOALD (St.) Bp. (Sept. 6) 

(7th cent.) A brother of SS. Pharo and 

Burgondophora, trained by the famous Abbot 

St. Columbanus. He became Bishop of Laon 

(France), and died about a.d. 635. 

*CAIDOC and FRICOR (ADRIAN) (SS.) (April 1) 

(7th cent.) Two holy men of Irish origin, 
who out of a desire to spread the knowledge 
of the Gospel, journeyed to the country of 
the Morini early in the seventh century. They 
made many converts to Christianity, among 
whom was St. Ricarius, founder of the Abbey 
of Centula. Their relics, enshrined at Ponthieu, 
were held in great veneration. 
*CAILLIN (St.) Bp. (Nov. 13) 

(7th cent.) Associated with St. Maedhoc 

(Edan) of Ferns, and notable for a miracle by 

which he turned certain unbelieving Druids 

into stone. 

♦CAIMIN (CAMMIN) (St.) Abbot. (March 24) 

(7th cent.) An Irish Saint who embraced a 
life of great austerity on an island in Lough 
Derg, to which his reputation for sanctity 
attracted many disciples. Later in life he 
founded a monastery and church on the Island 
of the Seven Churches. He was a fellow- 
worker with St. Sennen. The Psalter of 
St. Caimin, copied with his own hand, still 

♦CAIRLON (CAORLAN) (St.) Bp. (March 24) 

(6th cent.) An Irish Abbot, said to have 
died and to have been restored to life by 
St. Dageus. Afterwards, when St. Cairlon 
had been made Archbishop of Cashel, St. Dageus 
placed himself and his monks under his rule. 
♦CAIRNECH (St.) (May 16) 

Otherwise St. CARANTOG, which see; 
CAIUS (St.) M. (Jan. 4) 

CAIUS (St.) M. (Feb. 28) 

CAIUS and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (March 4) 

(3rd cent.) St. Caius, an officer of the 



Imperial Palace, together with twenty-seven 
(some MSS. have thirty-seven) other Christians, 
is registered as having been thrown into the 
sea or into a river, for refusing to renounce 
their religion, either under Valerian (A.D. 254- 
259) or in the great persecution under Dio- 
cletian at the end of the century, but at what 
place is not recorded. 
CAIUS and ALEXANDER (SS.) MM. (March 16) 
(2nd cent.) Two Christians, put to death 
for the Faith at Apamea in Phrygia (Asia 
Minor) under the Emperor Marcus Aurelius 
(about a.d. 172). They had previously dis- 
tinguished themselves by their persistent 
refusal to have communion with the Cata- 
Phrygian heretics, otherwise known as Mon- 
tanists, one of the most widely spread sects 
of their time. 
CAIUS and CREMENTIUS (SS.) MM. (April 16) 
(4th cent.) Martyrs at Saragossa in Spain 
in the persecution under Diocletian, about 
a.d. 304. 
CAIUS of MELITENE (St.) M. (April 19) 


CAIUS (St.) Pope, M. (April 22) 

(3rd cent.) The successor (A.D. 283) of Pope 

St. Eutychian. He is said to have been by 

birth a Dalmatian, and related to the Emperor 

Diocletian. Though he was not put to death 

for the Faith, his many sufferings in the cause 

of religion have earned for him the title of 

Martyr. He died a.d. 296. The formal 

recognition of the six Orders, Ostiarius, Lector, 

Exorcist, Acolyte, Subdeacon and Deacon, 

as preliminary to the Priesthood, is attributed 

to him. 

CAIUS and LEO (SS.) MM. (June 30) 

(Date unknown.) Martyrs either in Africa 

or in Rome. Caius (or Cursinus) a priest, and 

Leo, a Subdeacon, are commemorated with 

Timotheus, Zoticus and others in ancient 

Martyrologies, but dates and particulars are 

now unattainable. 

CAIUS of SALERNO (St.) M. (Aug. 28) 


CAIUS of MILAN (St.) Bp. (Sept. 27) 

(1st cent.) A disciple of St. Barnabas the 

Apostle, who governed the Church of Milan 

for twenty-four years, and was distinguished 

for his zeal and piety. He baptised the Martyr 

St. Vitalis with his sons SS. Gervase and 

Protase. He passed away, probably A.D. 85. 

St. Charles Borromeo enshrined his relics in the 

Church of St. Francis at Milan (A.D. 1571). 

CAIUS (St.) M. (Oct. 3) 

CAIUS of CORINTH (St.) (Oct. 4) 



LUCIUS and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Oct. 4) 

(3rd cent.) Victims at Alexandria in Egypt 

of the persecution under Valerian (A.D. 257). 

Caius and Faustus are probably the Saints of 

those names commemorated with St. Dionysius 

of Alexandria, their Bishop, on Oct. 3. Euse- 

bius, a deacon, survived to become Bishop of 

Laodicea, and died a.d. 269. Chseremon, 

who had already suffered under Decius, was 

sent into exile. Of Lycius nothing certain is 


CAIUS (St.) M. (Oct. 21) 

CAIUS (St.) M. (Nov. 20) 


•CAJAN (St.) (Sept. 25) 

(5th cent.) A son or grandson of King 

Brychan of Brecknock. His church of Tre- 

gaidian in Anglesea perpetuates his memory. 

CAJETAN (St.) (Aug. 7) 

(16th cent.) Of the noble family of the 

Lords of Thienna, near Vicenza, in Lombardy. 

Born a.d. 1480, and from his youth upwards 

known as " The Saint," he renounced the 

dignities offered him in Rome in order to devote 

himself to the service of the sick and of the poor 

of Vicenza. Later, with Peter Caraffa (after- 
wards Pope Paul IV) he founded the Congrega- 
tion of Regular Clerks, called Theatines, from 
Theate (Chieti) in the Abruzzi, where Caraffa 
was Bishop. This Institute was one of the 
most prominent among the fruits of the revival 
of Christian piety in the sixteenth century, 
and distinguished by the absolute trust in 
Divine Providence which was its characteristic. 
It spread through Italy during the lifetime of 
the Founder, and exists to our own day. St. 
Cajetan died at Naples a.d. 1547. 
♦CALAIS (St.) Abbot. (July 1) 

Otherwise St. CARILEPHUS, which see. 
CALANICUS (St.) M. (Dec. 17) 


(May 10) 
(3rd cent.) A number of Roman Christians 
who perished during the reign of the Emperor 
Alexander Severus. The Pope of the time, 
St. Callistus, was the most distinguished victim ; 
but St. Calepodius, a priest, was the first to suffer. 
St. Palmatius, who was of consular rank, died 
with his wife and children and forty-two of his 
retainers, as did St. Simplicius, a Senator, with 
sixty-eight of his family and dependents. 
SS. Felix and Blanda, husband and wife, shared 
the lot of their fellow-believers. These Martyrs 
were not arraigned before judges and condemned 
after a regular trial ; but seem to have been 
victims of an outburst of fury on the part of 
the heathen mob. In the ninth century, six 
centuries after their death (a.d. 222-235), their 
relics were removed from the Catacombs and 
enshrined in the Church of Sta. Maria in Trase- 
CALIMERIUS (St.) Bp., M. (July 31 ) 

(2nd cent.) A Greek, educated in Rome by 
Pope St. Telesphorus, who, having joined the 
clergy of Milan, governed that Church as 
Bishop for more than fifty years, and suffered 
imprisonment, tortures, and exile under the 
Emperor Marcus Aurelius. St. Calimerius 
made innumerable converts to Christianity, 
devoting himself wholly to the service of his 
flock. Towards the close of the reign of Com- 
modus (a.d. 191) he was called upon to die 
for Christ, and was cast headlong into a deep 
well. He is buried under the High Altar of 
his church at Milan. 
(3rd cent.) Basilissa, a rich lady of Galatia 
in Asia Minor, was distinguished for her chari- 
table zeal in succouring the Christians impri- 
soned on account of their religion. Callinica 
(often written Callinicus) was her helper in her 
good works. In the end they were both 
apprehended and executed as Christians, some 
time in the third century, most probably in the 
persecution under Decius (a.d. 250). 
•CALLISTHENE (St.) V. (Oct. 4) 

CALLISTUS (St.) Bp., M. (Aug. 14) 

(6th cent.) A Bishop of Todi in Central 
Italy, distinguished for his zeal in repressing 
Arianism. In the fifth year of his Episcopate, 
having reproved the excesses of some noblemen 
of evil life, he was put to death by their servants 
(A.D. 528), and on that account honoured as a 
CALLISTUS (CALIXTUS) (St.) Pope, M. (Oct. 14) 
(3rd cent.) A Roman by birth, the successor 
of Pope St. Zephyrinus, whose Archdeacon or 
representative he had been. His five years of 
vigorous Pontificate were marked by many 
salutary measures : the moderating of the 
rigour of the penitential discipline ; the repres- 
sion of the Patripassians, Sabellians and other 
heretics ; the fixing of the Ember Day Fasts, 
&c. &c. He seems to have met with much 
opposition, and at length, probably in a riot 
or outburst of the heathen against the Christians, 
was flung headlong from the window of a high 




building in the Trastevere quarter (A.D. 223). 
He was buried in the Catacombs of St. Cale- 
podius, his contemporary, and his relics now 
repose together with those of that Saint in the 
Church of Santa Maria in Trastevere, close to 
the scene of his martyrdom. 

The document called the Philosophoumena, 
an anonymous production of the heretics of 
his time, written to besmirch the memory of 
the holy Pope, notwithstanding the credit 
given to it by Bunsen and by Protestant writers 
in general, has been amply refuted by Dollinger 
and others. 

(SS.) MM. 

(Date unknown.) Roman Martyrs, concern- 
ing whom dates and particulars are lost, but 
whose names are registered in all the best 
Western Martyrologies. 
CALOCERUS (St.) Bp. (Feb. 11) 

(2nd cent.) A disciple, as some assert, of 
St. James the Greater, the Apostle, and probably 
a Greek by birth. He attached himself to 
St. Apollinaris, first Bishop of Ravenna. 
Having efficiently aided the latter for many 
years in the administration of his Diocese, he 
became his successor. He died at an advanced 
age, about a.d. 130, under the Emperor Hadrian. 
CALLINICUS (St.) M. (July 29) 

(3rd cent.) A Christian who, at Gangrae, 
the chief town of Paphlagonia in Asia Minor, 
after having been scourged and put to the 
torture, was burned to death for the Faith. 
The precise date is unknown, but Metaphrastes 
gives full details of his martyrdom, and he is 
in great honour in the Eastern Church. 
CALLINICUS (St.) M. (Jan. 28) 

CALIXTUS (St.) Pope, M. (Oct. 14) 

Otherwise St. CALLISTUS, which see. 
CALLIOPA (St.) M. (June 8) 

(3rd cent.) An Eastern Martyr who was 
subjected to unheard-of tortures and afterwards 
beheaded. The Greek Menaea, while giving 
many details, are silent as to the place where 
she suffered. The probable date is the short 
reign of the Emperor Decius, about a.d. 250. 
CALLIOPIUS (St.) M. (April 7) 

(4th cent.) A Martyr who, under Diocletian, 
was crucified head downwards at Pompeiopolis 
in Cilicia (Asia Minor) about a.d. 303. 
CALLISTA (St.) M. (Sept. 2) 



(3rd cent.) A body of fifty African soldiers, 
put to death at Constantinople under the 
Emperor Diocletian at the close of the third 
century for the crime of being Christians. It is 
related of them that they were sewn up in 
sacks and cast into the sea. 

(SS.) MM. 

(3rd cent.) Nine Christians of Corinth, 
thrown into the sea during one of the persecu- 
tions of their time (probably in that of Decius, 
about A.D. 250). 
CALLISTUS (St.) M. (April 25) 

CALOCERUS (St.) M. (April 18) 

(2nd cent.) An official under the Emperor 
Hadrian at Brescia in Lombardy, who, having 
witnessed the courage with which SS. Faustinus 
and Jovita went to their death for Christ, and 
the miracles which ensued, was converted to 
Christianity and baptised, together with a 
great number of other Pagans. Arrested at 
Brescia in his turn as a Christian, he was there 
put to the torture, but was afterwards taken 
to Albenga in Liguria, and beheaded near that 
town. His relics are now at Chiavaz, not far 
from Turin. 

(SS.) MM. 

(3rd cent.) Two Christians in the service of 


iEmilianus, a man of Consular rank, and 
charged by him with the duty of distributing 
after his death his superfluous wealth among 
the poor. They appear to have passed into 
the service of the Emperor Decius, who under 
pretext of safeguarding the interests of Anatolia, 
daughter of iEmilian, imprisoned them and put 
them to the torture. In the end they were 
beheaded as Christians in the persecution of 
a.d. 250. Their remains were reverently 
interred by Anatolia in the Roman Cata- 

(5th cent.) A Greek who, with the blessing 
of the then Pope, retired to a hermitage near 
Girgenti in Sicily, and there for thirty-five 
years led a life of prayer and penance. He was 
renowned for the power of casting out devils, 
bestowed upon him by Almighty God. He died 
about the year 486, and his hermitage became a 
frequented place of pilgrimage. 

CAMERINUS (St.) M. (Aug. 21) 



(17th cent.) A native of the Abruzzi in 
Southern Italy, born a.d. 1550, who after some 
years of a worldly life, strove to enter the 
Franciscan Order, but ultimately found his 
vocation in the service of the sick. With this 
in view he formed a pious association, of which 
the members worked in the Hospital of the 
Incurables in Rome. This later developed into 
a Religious Order, and was approved as such 
in 1591. St. Camillus, who had been ordained 
priest by Thomas Goldwell of St. Asaph, the 
last of the old English Bishops, despite his own 
sufferings from a painful malady, persevered in 
the service of the sick and dying till his death 
in 1614 at the age of sixty-four. He was 
canonised a.d. 1746, and by Leo XIII declared 
a Patron Saint of the infirm. 

*CAMILLUS and OTHERS (Bl.) MM. (Oct. 12) 
(17th cent.) Blessed Camillus Costanzi was 
an Italian Jesuit, a missionary in Japan, where 
he was burned to death for the Faith of Christ 
(a.d. 1622), together with others — native 
converts, among them being two little children. 

*CAMIN of INNISKELTRA (St.) Abbot. (March 25) 
(7th cent.) An Irish Saint who founded a 
monastery on an island in Lough Derg. He 
was a learned man and wrote a Commentary 
on the Hebrew text of the Psalms. He died 
A.D. 653. 


(6th cent.) Catholics put to death as such 
by the Arian Lombards while ravaging Italy. 
The numbers are variously estimated, but 
amount to several hundreds. Concerning their 
claims to the honours proper to Martyrs, we 
have the favourable witness of Pope St. Gregory 
the Great, their contemporary. 

*CAMPIAN (EDMUND) (Bl.) M. (Dec. 1) 


CANDIDA (St.) M. (June 6) 


CANDIDA (St.) V.M. (Aug. 9) 

(Date unknown.) One of a group of Martyrs 
who suffered on the Ostian Way, outside the 
gates of Rome, in the ages of persecution, and 
whose relics were collected and enshrined in 
the Church of St. Praxedes by Pope St. Paschal 
I in the ninth century. In inscriptions, St. 
Candida is sometimes styled Virgin Martyr, 
sometimes simply Martyr. Nothing is known 
of her individually. 

CANDIDA THE ELDER (St.) (Sept. 4) 

(1st cent.) An aged woman who hospitably 
welcomed St. Peter the Apostle, when passing 
through Naples on his way to Rome. By him 
she was miraculously cured of a malady from 
which she was suffering. She herself was 
instrumental in the conversion of St. Asprenus, 
who afterwards became first Bishop of Naples, 
and who gave her honourable burial at her 
death, which happened about a.d. 78. 




(6th cent.) A holy woman of Naples who 
sacrificed herself persistingly in labouring to 
ensure the corporal and spiritual well-being of 
her husband and son, and whose sanctity 
Almighty God bore witness to by the many 
miracles wrought at her tomb, from which oil 
flows that imparts health to the sick. a.d. 586 
appears to have been the date of her death. 
CANDIDA (St.) V.M. (Sept. 20) 

(3rd cent.) Stated in the Roman Martyrology 
to have suffered at Carthage under the Emperor 
Maximinian Herculeus, Diocletian's colleague ; 
that is, towards the close of the third century. 
But there is well-founded doubt as to the 
authenticity of the record on which the entry, 
as regards the date, is based. For the con- 
troversy the Acta Sanctoru may be consulted. 
CANDIDA (St.) M. (Dec. 1) 


CANDIDUS of ROME (St.) M. (Feb. 2) 


CANDIDUS (St.) M. (March 9) 


(SS.) MM. 

(3rd cent.) Twenty-two African Christians 

who suffered either at Carthage or at Alexandria 

in Egypt, most probably in the persecution 

under the Emperors Valerian and Gallienus 

(a.d. 254-259). Particulars are lost. 

CANDIDUS (St.) M. (Sept. 22) 



CANDIDUS (St.) M. (Oct. 3) 

(Date unknown.) One of the many Roman 

Martyrs registered as having suffered or as 

having been interred at the place on the 

Esquiline Hill called the Ursus Pileatus. No 

particulars have survived. 

CANDIDUS (St.) M. (Dec. 15) 



KENNY) (St.) Abbot. (Oct. 11) 

(6th cent.) The Patron Saint of the city of 

Kilkenny, which is named after him. He was 

born in the North of Ireland, and with many 

other holy men was trained to the monastic 

life by St. Finnian of Cluain or Clonard, passing 

afterwards under the discipline of St. Cadoc of 

Wales. He preached throughout Ireland, and 

also in Scotland, where he was the first to build 

a church in the place now known as St. Andrews. 

In Ireland he founded several monasteries, 

among them that of Aghadoe, where he passed 

away towards the end of the sixth century at 

the age of eighty-four. 

CANION (St.) (Sept. 1) 

♦CANOG (CYNOG) (St.) M. (Oct. 7) 

(5th cent.) The eldest son of King Brychan 
of Brecknock. He met his death in an inroad 
of Barbarians at Merthyr-Cynog about a.d. 492. 
Several churches in Wales were dedicated to 
him. In Brittany he is known as St. Cenneur. 
(St.) V. 

(6th cent.) From her earliest years, St. 
Cannera dedicated her virginity to God, and 
lived in solitude near Bantry. Receiving a 
supernatural revelation of St. Senan's sanctity, 
she sought him out, and having received Holy 
Communion at his hands, placidly passed to a 
better life about a.d. 530. She was buried on 
St. Senan's island of Inniscarthy. 
CANTIANILLA (St.) M. (May 31) 

CANTIANUS (St.) M. (May 31) 

PROTUS (SS.) MM. (May 31) 

(3rd cent.) Two brothers and their sister 
of the noble Roman family of the Anicii, who, 
with their tutor Protus, were denounced as 

Christians and arrested at Aquileia, whither 
they had repaired to visit in his prison the 
holy priest St. Chrysogonus. They, like him, 
sealed the confession of their Faith with their 
blood (a.d. 290). A panegyric of these Martyrs 
preached by St. Maximus of Turin is printed 
among the works of St. Ambrose. 

(SS.) MM. 

(Date unknown.) Egyptian Martyrs of un- 
certain date. Cantedius and Cantidianus 
(whose names, however, are variously spelled) 
are believed to have been stoned to death. 
But nothing is really known concerning them 
or St. Sobel. 

(11th cent.) The son of Sweyn, King of 
Denmark, and great nephew of Canute, King of 
England. Succeeding to the Danish throne 
as Canute IV, he showed himself an able and 
warlike monarch. He thoroughly established 
the Christian religion in Denmark, and pro- 
pagated it through the Baltic Provinces of 
Courland and Livonia. He married Alice of 
Flanders and had by her a son, St. Charles the 
Good, Count of Flanders. One of his enter- 
prises, which, however, failed, was the fitting 
out of a fleet to free the Anglo-Saxons from 
the Norman yoke. Though beloved by his 
people, he was cruelly murdered in a church by 
a party of malcontents, headed by his own 
brother, Olaus (a.d. 1084). King Eric III, 
one of his successors, obtained from Rome the 
decree for his canonisation. 
"■CANUTE LAVARD (St.) King, M. (Jan. 7) 

(12th cent.) A nephew of St. Canute, King 
of Denmark, with whom he is sometimes 
confused. From being Duke of Schleswig, he 
became King of the Sclavi. He ruled justly 
and wisely, winning the love of his subjects. 
He was done to death by a kinsman of his, 
a pretender to his throne (a.d. 1133), and in 
Scandinavia is honoured as a Martyr. 
CAPITO (St.) Bp., M. (March 4) 

CAPITO (St.) M. (July 24) 



(4th cent.) A Cappadocian lady, with her 
handmaid, who suffered death as Christians 
under Diocletian a.d. 304. 

(4th cent.) A number of Asiatic Christians 
put to death for their religion by Galerius, 
colleague of the Emperor Diocletian (a.d. 303). 
As in other cases, the Ecclesiastical Chronicles 
put much stress on the frightful tortures to 
which they were subjected, to try their Faith 
previous to their execution. 
CAPRASIUS (St.) Abbot. (June 1) 

(5th cent.) Styled by Eucherius " a man of 
venerable gravity, the equal of the ancient 
Fathers." He with his brothers, SS. Honora- 
tus and Venantius, went from Gaul to Greece 
to study and to practise the monastic life. After 
the death of Venantius, Caprasius and Honora- 
tus returned to Gaul and founded the celebrated 
monastery of the Isle of Lerins. On the 
promotion of Honoratus to the See of Aries, 
Caprasius succeeded him as Abbot. He died 
A.D. 430. 
CAPRASIUS (St.) M. (Oct. 29) 

(4th cent.) A Christian of Agen in the South 
of France, who, to escape the fury of the 
persecution set on foot by Diocletian, or rather 
by Maximinian Herculeus, had concealed him- 
self in the neighbouring hills ; but on hearing 
of the courage of St. Faith at the stake, came 
forth and boldly confessed that he also was a 
Christian. With others he was beheaded 
a.d. 303, and his relics were later enshrined in 
a church dedicated in his honour. 
* CARADOC (St.) (April 13) 

(12th cent.) A Welshman of noble lineage 




who, after practising the Religious life in St. 
Teilo's monastery at Llandaff, retired into 
Pembrokeshire, where he and his fellow-monks 
suffered much in the English invasion under 
Henry I. He entered into his rest on Low 
Sunday. A.D. 1124. Many miracles were worked 
at his tomb in the Cathedral of St. David's. 
CARALIPPUS (St.) M. (April 28) 

NATH) (St.) (May 16) 

(5th cent.) A Welsh Prince who laboured 
under St. Patrick in the Evangelisation of 
Ireland in the fifth century. The two Saints, 
Cairnach (Carnath) and Carantog, are by some 
identified, by others looked upon as two distinct 
personages. One of them has left his name to 
Llangrannog (Cardigan). But it is difficult to 
disentangle the various traditions. 
♦CARANUS (St.) Bp. (Dec. 24) 

(7th cent.) A Saint commemorated in the 
Aberdeen Breviary. He belonged to the East 
of Scotland, and has been thought to be no 
other than the Corindus who died among the 
Picts, a.d. 669. 
CARAUNUS (CHERON) (St.) M. (May 28) 

(1st cent.) A Roman by birth who em- 
braced the Christian Faith in the Apostolic Age. 
The tradition is that he was ordained deacon, 
and having gone to Gaul as a missionary, 
suffered martyrdom near Chartres under 
Domitian (A.D. 98). 
(St.) Abbot. 

(6th cent.) A French monk, friend and 
companion of St. Avitus, and founder of a 
monastery of very strict observance in Maine. 
He died a.d. 540 or 542. His cult is chiefly 
at Blois. 
CARINA (St.) M. (Nov. 7) 

CARITAS (St.) V.M. (Aug. 1) 

Otherwise St. CHARITY. (See SS. FAITH, 
*CARNECH (St.) Abbot. (May 16) 

(6th cent.) By some thought to be identical 
with St. Carantog or Cairnech ; by others 
distinguished from him. In the latter case he 
would be the Irish Saint whom tradition alleges 
to have been Abbot or Bishop of some Ecclesi- 
astical establishment in the neighbourhood of 
Lough Foyle. 
♦CARNATH (CAIRNAC) (St.) Bp. (May 16) 

Otherwise St. CARANTAC, which see. 
*CARON (St.) (March 5) 

(Date unknown.) The Title Saint of Tregaron 
in Cardigan. Nothing is known about him. 
MM. (Oct. 14) 

(4th cent.) Three brothers who, with their 
sister, St. Fortunata, were among the Christians 
seized and put to death at Csesarea in Palestine 
under Diocletian (a.d. 303 or 304). Their relics 
were afterwards translated to Naples. 

(Aug. 7) 

(3rd cent.) Christian soldiers who were put 

to death for the Faith at Como in North Italy, 

under Maximinian Herculeus, Diocletian's 

colleague, at the close of the third century. 

CARPOPHORUS (St.) M. (Aug. 27) 

CARPOPHORUS (St.) M. (Nov. 8) 

(SS.) MM. 

(3rd cent.) A priest and his deacon, two 
among the many thousands who suffered death 
as Christians in the persecution organised by 
the Emperor Diocletian. The date of their 
martyrdom is placed by modern authorities at 
some year between A.D. 290 and A.D. 300. The 
place, whether in Rome itself, or at Spoleto, 
or even in Spain, is much disputed. 

THODORUS (SS.) MM. (April 13) 

(3rd cent.) A group of Martyrs of Pergamus 
in Asia Minor. Probably they suffered in the 
persecution under Decius (a.d. 250), though 
some ante-date them by a century to the time 
of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Carpus was 
the Bishop of Thyatira, Papylus, his deacon, 
Agathonica, the latter's sister, and Agathodorus, 
their servant. 

CARPUS (St.) (Oct. 13) 

(1st cent.) The Carpus of Troas on the 
Hellespont with whom St. Paul (1 Tim., iv. 13) 
says " he had left his cloak." Nothing about 
him is known with any certainty, though various 
Greek authors make him a Bishop, some of 
Berea, some of Berytus, some of Crete. 

*CARTHAGE THE ELDER (St.) Bp. (March 5) 
(6th cent.) The successor of St. Kieran in 
the See of Ossory. He is said to have been son 
or grandson of King iEngus, but we have no 
reliable account of his life. a.d. 540 is given 
by some as the year of his death. 

(7th cent.) This Saint, whose real name 
appears to have been Mochuda, was born in 
Kerry in the first half of the sixth century, 
and attached himself to St. Carthage of Ossory. 
After this teacher, he had as his Abbot St. 
Comgall of Benchor, and was soon himself 
placed at the head of a monastery in which he 
ruled over a thousand monks. His Abbey 
developed into the famous Bishopric and school 
of Lismore. He passed away at the age of 
ninety, about A.D. 638. 

AGAPIUS and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Nov. 2) 
(4th cent.) Ten Christians, soldiers in the 
army of the Emperor Licinius, burned to death 
at the stake at Sebaste in Armenia (a.d. 315 
about), for refusing to sacrifice with their pagan 
comrades to the Roman gods. 


(16th cent.) They are eighteen in number, 
namely, in the first place, John Houghton, 
Prior of the London Charterhouse, Robert 
Laurence, Prior of Beauvale in Nottingham- 
shire, Augustine Webster, Prior of Axholme in 
Lincolnshire, who were executed at Tyburn, 
May 4, 1538. Shortly afterwards, at York, 
eleven others of the brethren were done to 
death. They are John Rochester, James 
Walworth, John or Richard Bere, Thomas 
Johnson, Thomas Greenway or Green, all 
priests ; John Davies, deacon ; William Green- 
wood, Thomas Scriven, Robert Salt, Walter 
Pierson, Thomas Redyng, lay-brothers. Blessed 
William Exmew, Humphrey Middlemore and 
Sebastian Newdigate of the London Charter- 
house had been put to death long before (June 
18, 1535). Blessed William Home shared the 
captivity of the rest, but was spared to be 
brought to execution at a later period (Aug. 4, 
1540). These holy men of one accord laid down 
their lives rather than swerve at the behest 
of Henry VIII from the Faith of their Fathers. 

CASDOE (St.) M. (Sept. 29) 


CASIMIR of POLAND (St.) (March 4) 

(15th cent.) The second son of Casimir IV, 
King of Poland, distinguished from his boyhood 
for piety and charity to the poor. On coming 
to man's estate he refused the crown of Hungary, 
pressed upon him by his own father and by a 
powerful party among the Hungarians, dis- 
satisfied with their reigning monarch. He died 
(a.d. 1482) before reaching his twenty-fifth year. 
On his deathbed he asked that a copy of his 
well-known Hymn to Our Blessed Lady should 
be buried with him at Cracow. Many miracles 
were wrought at his tomb, and in 1552 his body 
was found to be still incorrupt. He was 
canonised by Pope Leo X. 

CASSIA (St.) M. (July 20) 




CASSIAN (St.) M. (March 26) 


CASSIAN of AUTUN (St.) Bp. (Aug. 5) 

(4th cent.) Probably an Egyptian by birth. 
Coming to Autun in France, lie attached himself 
to St. Reticius, the then Bishop, whom he 
eventually succeeded in the See. He governed 
the Diocese of Autun for about twenty years, 
and died a.d. 350. Many miracles, of which 
some have been put upon record by St. Gregory 
of Tours, preserved to him the affection of his 
people, who in his lifetime had been devoted 
to him. 

CASSIAN (St.) M. (Aug. 13) 

(3rd cent.) A Martyr of Imola in Central 
Italy, especially famous on account of the 
repulsive features of his Passion. He was a 
schoolmaster, and on being denounced as a 
Christian, was condemned to perish at the hands 
of his hundred pupils. These boys pierced him 
to death with their styli (steel pencils used for 
writing on wax). St. Cassian suffered in one of 
the persecutions of the third century, but in 
which cannot be assigned with any certainty. 

CASSIAN (St.) Bp., M. (Aug. 13) 

(4th cent.) A Bishop of Todi in Central 
Italy, successor in that See of St. Pontianus 
who had converted him to Christianity. He 
won the crown of martyrdom under Maximian 
Herculeus at the beginning of the fourth 
century ; but the traditions concerning him 
have been confused with those relating to the 
more famous St. Cassian of Imola, so that 
particulars cannot be now given with any 
confidence. He is still in great veneration at 
Todi, where his relics are enshrined with those 
of other local Martyrs. 

CASSIAN (St.) M. (Dec. 3) 

(3rd cent.) A celebrated African Martyr of 
Tangiers who suffered in the great persecution 
under Diocletian, or rather in the years im- 
mediately preceding (a.d. 298). His Acts, 
edited by Ruinart, have escaped interpolation 
and he is mentioned in one of the Hymns of 
the Christian poet Prudentius. He was the 
" exceptor " (clerk or recorder) of the court 
of the Praetorian Prefect, and during the trial 
of St. Marcellus the Martyr threw down his pen 
and declared himself a Christian, with the 
result that he was privileged to share the 
glorious fate of that Saint. 

CASSIANUS (St.) M. (Dec. 1) 


(SS.) MM. (May 15) 

(3rd cent.) In the year 260, Chrocas, the 
Pagan chief of the Alemanni, a tribe of Teutonic 
barbarians, overran Roman Gaul and put to 
the sword its inhabitants, already in no small 
part Christians. At Clermont in Auvergne 
no fewer than 6266 of these are said to have 
perished, and have ever since been honoured 
as Martyrs. Among them were Cassius, a 
priest, and Victorinus, one of his converts. 

CASSIUS of NARNI (St.) Bp. (June 29) 

(6th cent.) A holy prelate, Bishop of Narni, 
near Spoleto. In his lifetime he gave all he 
possessed to the poor. He let no day pass 
without celebrating Mass "with compunction 
and many tears." On June 29, 558 (the day 
he had himself foretold), he yielded up his soul 
to God at the moment when, having com- 
municated the assistants at the Holy Sacrifice, 
he was dismissing them with the Kiss of Peace. 
His shrine is in Narni Cathedral. 

CASSIUS (St.) M. (Aug. 7) 


(SS.) MM. 

(4th cent.) Christians put to death, as such, 
by the Emperor Maximian Herculeus, at Bonn 
in Germany, A.D. 303. 

CASTOR and DOROTHEUS (SS.) MM. (March 28) 

(Date unknown.) Two Christians put to 

death on account of their religion at Tarsus in 

Cilicia in one of the early persecutions. A 
third Menelampus is added by some authors. 
CASTOR and STEPHEN (SS.) MM. (April 27) 

(Date unknown.) Two Christians registered 
in the Martyrologies as having suffered martyr- 
dom at Tarsus in Cilicia. Dates and particulars 
are lost. But it does not appear that there are 
any substantial grounds for the identification 
of these Saints with the SS. Castor and Doro- 
theus of March 28, as is suggested by some 
modern authorities. At Tarsus there were 
many Martyrs, and Castor is quite a common 
name among Asiatic Greeks. 

(SS.) MM. 

(Date unknown.) African Martyrs of whom 
the names only have been handed down to our 
CASTORIUS (St.) M. (July 7 : Nov. 8) 

CASTRENSIS (St.) Bp. (Feb. 11) 

(5th cent.) One of the Catholic Bishops 
banished from Africa in the fifth century by 
the Arian Vandals. Landing in Italy, he 
became Bishop of Capua, or at least worked 
as a Bishop in that Diocese. Part of his relics 
are at Capua and part at Monreale in Sicily. 
There is much dispute as to precise dates. 
Some would have him to be identical with 
Priscus, Episcopus Castrensis, who died A.d. 459, 
and is venerated on Sept. 1. Others put his 
exile under Thrasimund between the years 496 
and 522. There was a Candidianus, Bishop 
of Castra, banished from Africa in the year 484. 
He would have been styled Episcopus Castrensis, 
and it is not impossible that he may be the 
St. " Castrensis " of the Martyrologies. 
CASTRENSIS (St.) (Sept. 1) 

CASTRITIAN (St.) Bp. (Dec. 1) 

(2nd cent.) The predecessor of St. Calimerus 
in the See of Milan. He was famous for his 
care of the poor and of travellers. He restored 
the Milanese Church ravaged by the persecutions 
under the Emperors Domitian and Trajan. 
He passed away, illustrious for his piety and for 
his miracles, a.d. 137, in the forty-second year 
of his Episcopate. 
CASTULUS (St.) M. (Jan. 12) 

CASTULUS (St.) M. (March 26) 

(3rd cent.) An officer or chamberlain of the 
palace in Rome of the Emperor Diocletian. 
For having sheltered some of his fellow - 
Christians, he was seized, put to the torture, 
and in the end buried alive (a.d. 288). 

(Date unknown.) Roman martyrs registered 

in the Martyrologies, but concerning whom 

neither dates nor particulars have come down 

to us. 

CASTUS and /EMILIUS (SS.) MM. (May 22) 

(3rd cent.) Two celebrated African Martyrs 
of the persecution of Decius (a.d. 250) who, 
having first given way when put to the torture, 
repented, and on being seized a second time, 
bravely won their crown. They were burned 
to death, their love of Christ, as their contem- 
porary St. Cyprian tells us, proving itself 
" stronger than fire." One of St. Augustine's 
sermons is a panegyric of these holy men. 
CASTUS and SECUNDINUS (SS.) Bps., (July 1) 


(Date unknown.) Two Saints much vener- 
ated in various churches of Southern Italy, 
and celebrated by several Mediaeval authors. 
The Martyrologies register them as of Sinuessa 
(Mondragone) near Caserta. St. Castus is often 
written St. Cassius. A Bishop Secundinus 
assisted at the Council of Sinuessa a.d. 304. 
Detailed accounts of them were written some 
fifteen hundred years ago, but the Bollandists 
and other modern authorities put little faith 
in their accuracy. 




CASTUS (St.) M. (Sept. 4) 


CASTUS (St.) M. (Oct. 6) 


CATALDUS (St.) Bp. (May 10) 

(7th cent.) The most illustrious of the 
several Irish Saints of that name. Born in 
Munster he became the disciple and successor 
of St. Carthage in the famous School of Lismore. 
He is believed to have been consecrated a Bishop 
in Ireland. But on his return from a pilgrimage 
to the Holy Land, the people of Taranto in 
Southern Italy constrained him to accept the 
government of tbeir Church. Many miracles 
are attributed to his intercession. He flourished 
early in the seventh century. 

CATHALDUS (CATHAL) (St.) Bp. (May 10) 

Otherwise St. CATALDUS, which see. 

CATHAN (CAT AN, CADAN) (St.) Bp. (May 17) 
(6th cent.) This Saint who flourished in the 
sixth or possibly in the seventh century appears 
to have been a Bishop in the Isle of Bute, 
often called after him Kil-cathan. He was, 
it is said, Irish by birth, and the uncle of St. 
Blane. Colgan says that he died after a.d. 560, 
and his tomb is shown at Tamlacht near London- 
derry. The Scots contend that he rests in the 
Isle of Bute. It is possible that there may 
have been two Saints of the name. 


(16th cent.) A Florentine maiden of the 
ancient family of the Ricci, born a.d. 1519, 
and who, at the age of fourteen, entered a 
convent of the Third Order of St. Dominic at 
Prato, near Florence, of which she after some 
years became Prioress. Humble and meek of 
heart, she was wonderful for her spirit of 
penance, and emulated in her life the austerities 
of the ancient solitaries. A marvellous meeting 
in vision of St. Philip Neri and St. Catharine is 
narrated of them. Three Cardinals, afterwards 
Popes, were among the thousands who flocked 
to Prato to ask the prayers of the poor nun. 
Her Heavenly Spouse called her to Himself, 
Feb. 2, 1589. She was canonised by Benedict 
XIV, A.D. 1746. 

CATHARINE of BOLOGNA (St.) V. (March 9) 
(15th cent.) Of a noble family of Bologna, 
this Saint, after living some years as a Franciscan 
Tertiary at Ferrara, became Abbess of a newly 
founded and very austere monastery of Poor 
Clares at Bologna. Her life may be said to 
have been passed in making intercession for 
the conversion of sinners and for the salvation 
of men. Endued with the gifts of prophecy 
and miracles, she bore her many trials with 
heroic patience and cheerfulness. She passed 
from this world March 9, 1463, at the age of 
fifty, and her holy body remains incorrupt 
to this day. She has left various ascetical 
writings of great value. Canonised in the 
eighteenth century, she is regarded as one of 
the Patron Saints of painters, in whose art 
she was skilled. 

CATHARINE of SWEDEN (St.) V. (March 22) 

(14th cent.) The daughter of Ulpho, Prince 
of Nericia, and of his wife, St. Bridget of 
Sweden, Catharine, betrothed to Egard, a young 
nobleman, persuaded him to join with her in 
making a vow of chastity. She accompanied 
her mother on many pilgrimages, and like her, 
everywhere showed herself zealous for God's 
glory and for the salvation of souls. After her 
mother's death in Rome she returned to Sweden, 
and died in fame of great sanctity, Abbess of 
Wadstena, a.d. 1381. Thirty years after her 
death, Ulpho, a Bridgettine Friar, wrote her life. 
Some ascetical works of her own are extant. 

CATHARINE of GENOA (St.) Widow. (March 22) 
(16th cent.) Catharine Fieschi, of a noble 
Genoese family, was married to Julian Adorno, 
of rank equal to her own. Misunderstood and 
disliked by her husband, she passed years of a 
wretched life, upheld only by her piety and by 
her trust in God. At length her prayers and 

her devotedness to him won Adorno back to a 
good life, closed by a holy death. Catharine 
then gave herself up to the service of the sick 
and of the poor, passing away at the age of 
sixty-three, Sept. 15, 1510. Her virtues and 
the supernatural heights of prayer to which it 
pleased Almighty God to raise her, together 
with the miracles wrought in favour of those 
who sought her intercession, led to her canonisa- 
tion by Clement XII (a.d. 1737). 

CATHARINE of SIENA (St.) V. (April 30) 

(14th cent.) Born at Siena in Tuscany 
(A.D. 1347) of a family of good repute, the 
Benincasa, Catharine was favoured with super- 
natural graces by Almighty God from her very 
childhood. At the age of eighteen she received 
the habit of the Third Order of St. Dominic, 
and thenceforth lived a wonderful life of prayer 
and penance, crowned by God with the gift 
of the Stigmata, as was that of St. Francis of 
Assisi. She was indefatigable in her service of 
the poor, especially of the plague-stricken, 
but her zeal was chiefly directed to obtaining 
the conversion of sinners and to securing the 
peace of the Church in Italy, her fatherland. 
By her visit to Avignon, she was instrumental 
in bringing about the return of the Popes to 
Rome, and later on, laboured, though in vain, 
to avert the Great Schism between the Faithful 
and the adherents of the rival Pope of Avignon. 
She died in Rome, April 30, a.d. 1380, and was 
canonised in 1461. Her body rests in the 
Minerva Church in Rome, of which city she is 
reckoned one of the Patron Saints. Her 
" Dialogue " and other writings will always be 
a treasure-house of mystic lore to the prayerful. 
Countless miracles have been wrought by her 
intercession, and personal devotion to her is 
widespread tliroughout the Church. 

CATHARINE (St.) V.M. (Nov. 25) 

(4th cent.) A rich and noble as well as 
cultured and intellectually gifted maiden of 
Alexandria in Egypt, who, contemning the 
overtures of the tyrant Maximinus Daza, was 
after much persecution sent into exile. On 
her return the tradition is that she was put to 
death (a.d. 310) after vain attempts to torture 
her into submission to heathenism, by means 
of an engine fitted with a spiked wheel. Her 
body was discovered by the Christians in Egypt 
and reverently interred among them. But the 
tradition goes on to recount how in the eighth 
century angels conveyed it to the top of Mount 
Sinai, where it is still the object of great venera- 
tion. On account of her skill and success in 
overthrowing in a public discussion the argu- 
ments of the Pagan Sages of Alexandria, St. 
Catharine is recognised as the Patron Saint of 
Christian philosophers. But very little is in 
reality known about her life. A few lines in 
Eusebius seem to be a chief basis of tradition 
concerning her, or, at least, a witness to its 

CATHOLINUS (St.) M. (July 15) 

Otherwise St. CATU LINUS, which see. 


(July 15) 
(Date unknown.) Carthaginian Martyrs. Of 
St. Catulinus (a deacon) we have a Panegyric in 
one of the Sermons of St. Augustine ; but 
beyond the fact that their bodies were enshrined 
in the famous Basilica of Fausta at Carthage, 
we have no particulars concerning him or his 

CATUS (St.) M. (Jan. 19) 


♦CAWRDAF (St.) (Dec. 5) 

(6th cent.) The son and successor of Caradog, 

chieftain of Brecknock and Hereford. He 

ended his life as a monk under St. Illtyd. He 

died about a.d. 560. 


In many names this syllable is often written 
CAE, or CH, or KE, &c. 



CEADDA (St.) Bp. (March 2) 

Otherwise St. CHAD, which see. 
♦CEADWALLA (CADWALLA) (St.) (April 20) 


(7th cent.) A King of Wessex, who, while yet 
a Pagan, advanced indeed greatly the limits of 
the territories under his rule ; but showed 
himself not less cruel and crafty than other 
conquerors of his race and time. At length, 
touched by Divine grace, he resolved to become 
a Christian, and journeyed to Rome, where he 
was baptised by Pope St. Sergius, and dying, 
while yet wearing the white robe of a neophyte 
(a.d. 689), was on that account numbered among 
the Saints. 
♦CEALLACH (KELLACH) (St.) Bp. (May 1) 

(6th cent.) A disciple of St. Kiernac of 

Clonmacnoise, who became Bishop of Killala, 

and ended his life as a hermit. The exact date 

of his death is uncertain. 

♦CEARAN (St.) Abbot. (June 14) 

(8th cent.) An Irish Saint, Abbot of Belach- 
Cluin, and on account of the holiness of his life 
surnamed " The Devout." He died a.d. 870. 
CECILIA (St.) V.M. (Nov. 22) 

Otherwise St. CiECILIA, which see. 
♦CEDD (St.) Bp. (June 7) 

(7th cent.) The brother of St. Chad, and 
himself Bishop of London. After a sojourn 
in the monastery of Lindisfarne and much 
mission work in the North of England, Oswy, 
King of Northumbria, sent him to the East 
Saxons at the petition of Sigebert, their king, 
and he may rightly be styled the Apostle of the 
English metropolis. Like other holy prelates 
of his time, St. Cedd retired in his old age to a 
monastery he had founded at Lestingay in 
Yorkshire, where he died a.d. 664. He had a 
special Office in the old English Breviaries, 
usually on March 2. 
CEILLACH (St.) Bp. (April 6) 

Otherwise St. CELSUS, which see. 
♦CEITHO (St.) (Nov. 1) 

(6th cent.) One of five brothers, Saints of 
the great Welsh family of Cunedda. A church 
at Pumpsant was dedicated to the five brothers. 
That at Llangeith (Cardigan) perpetuates the 
memory of St. Ceitho in particular. 
*CELE CHRISTI (St.) Bp. (March 3) 

(8th cent.) St. Cele Christi, otherwise 
Christicola (worshipper of Christ), for many 
years led an eremitical life ; but ultimately was 
forced to accept a Bishopric in Leinster. The 
Annals of Ulster give a.d. 728 as the date of 
his death. 
CELERINA (St.) M. (Feb. 3) 

CELERINUS (St.) M. (Feb. 3) 

(3rd cent.) An African Christian who, 
without shedding his blood, earned the title of 
Martyr on account of the sufferings he endured 
during the persecution under Decius (a.d. 250), 
he being then on a visit to Rome. Set at 
liberty, he returned to Carthage, his native city, 
and was there ordained deacon by St. Cyprian. 
He is mentioned with praise by the contem- 
porary Pope, St. Cornelius ; and St. Augustine 
speaks of a church at Carthage which bore his 
CELESTINE I (St.) Pope. (April 6) 

(5th cent.) A Roman priest who succeeded 
St. Boniface I in St. Peter's Chair (a.d. 422). 
His zeal was remarkable. He deposed a Bishop 
in Africa, sternly repressed abuses elsewhere, 
sent SS. Palladius and Patrick as missionaries 
to the Scots and Irish, and St. Germanus 
against the Pelagian heretics in Britain, and 
developed the Roman Liturgy. Above all, he 
(a.d. 430) condemned the heresy of Nestorius, 
and by his Legates presided over the great 
Council of Ephesus (a.d. 431). He died in the 
following year, and was buried in the cemetery 
or catacomb of St. Priscilla, whence his relics 
were afterwards removed to the church of St. 

CELESTINE (St.) M. (May 2) 

CELESTINE V (St.) Pope. (May 19) 

Otherwise St. PETER CELESTINE, which 

(St.) Bp. 

(9th cent.) An Archbishop of Armagh, 
possibly before his consecration Abbot of Iona 
and founder of the Abbey of Kells. Colgan 
enumerates no less than thirty-three Celtic 
Saints bearing such names as Ceillach or 
*CELLOCH (St.) Abbot. (March 26) 

Otherwise St. MOCHELLOC, which see. 
CELSUS of ANTIOCH (St.) M. (Jan. 9) 

CELSUS (CEILLACH) (St.) Bp. (April 6) 

(12th cent.) An Archbishop of Armagh, 
renowned throughout Ireland for his piety 
and learning. Supported by a Synod of fifty 
Bishops and several hundred priests, he, every- 
where in the island, restored Church discipline. 
He died April 4, 1129, at Ard-Patrick in 
Munster, in the fiftieth year of his age, and was 
buried at Lismore. When dying he sent his 
pastoral staff to his disciple, St. Malachias, 
then Bishop of Connor, which led to the election 
of that holy man to the Primatial See. St. 
Bernard eulogises St. Celsus in the life he wrote 
of St. Malachy. 
CELSUS (St.) M. (July 28) 

CELSUS and CLEMENT (SS.) MM. (Nov. 21) 

(Date unknown.) Roman Martyrs of whom 
the names only have come down to us. 
CENSURINUS (St.) Bp. (June 10) 

(5th cent.) The successor of St. Germanus 
(A.D. 448) in the See of Auxerre (France), and 
the inheritor of his zeal and virtues. He died 
after an Episcopate of thirty-eight years 
(A.D. 486), and was buried in the church of 
St. Germanus, which he himself had built. 
CENTOLLA and HELENA (SS.) MM. (Aug. 17) 

(Date uncertain.) Spanish Martyrs who 

suffered near Burgos. Details of their Passion 

are given, but without dates or means of 

testing their reliability. 

*CEOLFRID (St.) Abbot. (Sept. 25) 

(8th cent.) Abbot of Jarrow and of Wear- 
mouth, where he worthily filled the place of his 
master, St. Benedict Biscop. Ceolfrid is 
famous as the teacher of the Venerable Bede, 
who has written his life. He was learned and 
a persevering student, as well as a man of 
wonderful holiness of life. He died on a 
pilgrimage to Rome (A.d. 716), at Langres in 
France, whence his sacred remains were after- 
wards restored to Jarrow. 
♦CEOLLACH (St.) Bp. (Oct. 6) 

(7th cent.) An Irish Saint who for a short 
time governed as Bishop the great Diocese of 
the Mercians or Mid- Angles. Thence he retired 
to Iona, but returned to Ireland to die in his 
native country. The exact date is uncertain. 
*CEOLWULPH (St.) (Jan. 18) 

(8th cent.) The successor of Osric as King of 
Northumbria. He is the prince to whom 
Venerable Bede dedicated his Ecclesiastical 
History. After some years, resigning his crown, 
he became a monk at Lindisfarne, dying there 
A.D. 764. Many miracles were wrought at his 

(St.) V. 

(7th cent.) A saintly maiden, born in 
Tipperary, who governed two very fervent 
convents of nuns, one in Kilheary and the other 
in Tech Telle. 
CERBONIUS (St.) Bp. (Oct. 10 ) 

(6th cent.) A Bishop of Populonia (Piom- 
bino) in Tuscany, eulogised by St. Gregory the 
Great. He had come from Africa and been 
welcomed by the Bishop Florentius, whom he 
succeeded. For giving shelter to some Roman 




soldiers, Totila, the Barbarian chieftain, con- 
demned him to be torn in pieces by a bear, 
which, however, miraculously restrained, only 
licked his feet. Driven by heretics from Piom- 
bino, he died in the Isle of Elba before the 
year 580. 
CERBONIUS (St.) Bp. (Oct. 10) 

(Date unknown.) A Bishop of Verona, 

praised by his successors for his zeal and piety, 

and who probably lived before A.D. 400. We 

have no definite particulars about him. 

CESLAS (St.) (July 20) 

(13th cent.) A Polish Saint who received, 
together with St. Hyacinth, the habit of the 
Order of St. Dominic from the hands of the 
holy founder himself. He acted as Spiritual 
Director to the Duchess St. Hedwige, besides 
rendering in other ways important services 
to the Church. The successful resistance of the 
citizens of Breslau in Silesia, where he resided, 
to the Mongols in their great invasion of 1240, 
is attributed to his prayers and miracles. He 
went to his reward in July, 1242. 
*CETTIN (CETHACH) (St.) Bp. (June 16) 

(5th cent.) A disciple of St. Patrick, con- 
secrated Bishop to assist him in his Apostolic 
work. His shrine at Oran seems to have 
subsisted until the end of the eighteenth century. 
*CEWYDD (St.) (July 1) 

(6th cent.) A Welsh Saint who flourished in 

Saint's names beginning with CH should also 

be looked for as commencing CA, CO, or K, the 

spelling being frequently very uncertain and 


CHAD (CEADDA) (St.) Bp. (March 2) 

(7th cent.) An Anglo-Saxon, brother of 
St. Cedd, Bishop of London. He was educated 
at Lindisfarne and in Ireland. He governed 
for some years the monastery of Lestingay in 
Yorkshire, acquiring thereby a great reputation 
for ability and for holiness of life. Through a 
mistake occasioned by the prolonged absence 
of St. Wilfrid in France, St. Chad was con- 
secrated Archbishop of York in his place ; but 
on the Saint's return passed to the Bishopric 
of the Mercians, of which he fixed the See at 
Lichfield. He died two years later in the great 
pestilence of A.D. 673, leaving an imperishable 
memory for zeal and devoted ness. A portion 
of his Sacred Belies are venerated in Birming- 
ham Cathedral, which is dedicated to him. 
CHiEREMON (St.) M. (Oct. 4) 

CH^REMON and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Dec. 22) 

(3rd cent.) Chseremon, Bishop of Nilopolis, 
had reached a very advanced age when, in the 
Decian persecution (A.D. 250), he was forced 
from Egypt and compelled to take refuge in the 
mountains about Sinai, where he was done to 
death by the savage heathens of the desert. 
St. Dionysius of Alexandria states that he was 
the leader in their flight of a number of Chris- 
tians of his flock, of whom the greater part were 
immolated with him. 

(4th cent.) Forty-nine Christians put to 
death on account of their religion in the great 
persecution under Diocletian (a.d. 304). They 
are styled the " Martyrs of Chalcedon." They 
appear to have been the choir of singers of the 
great church of Chalcedon, and suffered in 
company with or a few days after the celebrated 
Virgin- Martyr, Euphemia. 
♦CHAMOND (ANNEMOND) (St.) Bp., M. (Sept. 28) 

(7th cent.) An Archbishop of Lyons, of 
noble family, brought up at the Court of King 
Clovis II. He governed his Diocese with zeal 
and success, but in the end fell a victim to the 
machinations of Ebroin, Mayor of the Palace, 
who caused him to be assassinated (A.D. 657). 
Among those who took part in the ceremony 
of the enshrining of the Relics of this holy 
Martyr was St. Wilfrid of York. 

CHARISIUS (St.) M. (April 16) 

CHARITINA (St.) V.M. (Oct. 5) 

(4th cent.) A Christian who, under Dio- 
cletian (A.D. 304), probably at Amasa on the 
Black Sea, after enduring incredible tortures, 
breathed forth her soul in the torture chamber, 
while absorbed in prayer. The similarity of 
name and of many of the details of martyrdom 
have led some moderns to confuse St. Charitina 
with St. Catharine of Alexandria, but all 
tradition is against their view. 
CHARITON (St.) M. (Sept. 3) 

CHARITY (St.) V.M. (Aug. 1) 

Otherwise St. CHARITAS or AGAPE. 

♦CHARLEMAGNE (Bl.) Emperor. (Jan. 28) 

(9th cent.) The famous Charles the Great, 
son of Pepin the Short, born in 742, a successful 
warrior, who, conquering the Lombards and 
Saxons, and securing to the Popes their temporal 
kingdom, was God's instrument for the advance- 
ment of Christianity. He was zealous for 
Church discipline and for the spread of learning. 
He cared for the poor and was eminently pious, 
meditating much on the Holy Scriptures. 
Pope St. Leo III crowned him Emperor of 
Rome and the West, on Christmas Day, A.D. 
800. He died at Aix-la-Chapelle, Jan. 28, 
A.D. 814, and in some churches has been honoured 
as a Saint. 

(SS.) MM. 

(3rd cent.) Martyrs at Magnesia in Asia 
Minor in the persecution under Septimius 
Severus (a.d. 203). St. Charalampias was a 
priest. With him suffered two Christian 
soldiers and three women. 
♦CHARLES THE GOOD (St.) M. (March 2) 

(12th cent.) An Earl of Flanders, son of 
St. Canute, King of Denmark, and a perfect 
model of a Christian ruler. His government 
was wise and kindly, and he was adored by his 
subjects. His boundless charity to the poor 
earned him the title of " The Good." He was 
murdered by certain Governors of towns whose 
oppression of their people he had refused to 
tolerate. His martyrdom came to pass in the 
church of St. Donatian at Bruges, A.D. 1124. 

(Bl.) MM. 

(17th cent.) Twelve holy Martyrs (a.d. 1622) 
of the Society of Jesus at Nangazaki in Japan, 
in which country Bl. Charles had laboured for 
twenty years as a missionary. With them 
suffered many native Christians, among whom 
were even children. 
CHARLES BORROMEO (St.) Bp. (Nov. 4) 

(16th cent.) Of an ancient Lombard family, 
born near Milan (A.D. 1538). When only a 
youth rich Ecclesiastical preferment was 
bestowed upon him ; and at the age of twenty- 
three he was made Archbishop of Milan and 
Cardinal, by his uncle, Pope Pius IV. In an 
age of lax discipline he was a model of austere 
virtue, living a life of penance and prayer, 
zealously visiting his Diocese and scrupulously 
employing his revenues for the good of the 
Church and of the poor. Much of the success 
of the Council of Trent is due to his indefatigable 
labours in the cause of reform. Evildoers on 
one occasion all but assassinated him. His 
devotedness to his flock during the Great 
Plague of 1576 made him almost worshipped 
by the Milanese. He went to his reward, 
Nov. 4, 1584 ; and his body was enshrined 
under the High Altar of his Cathedral. He was 
canonised A.D. 1610. 
CHEF (St.) Abbot. (Oct. 29) 

which see. 
CHELIDONIA (St.) V. (Oct. 13) 

(12th cent.) Born at Ciculum in the Abruzzi, 
she early fled into the mountains above Tivoli, 



near Subiaco, where she found shelter in a cave. 
From Cuno, Cardinal of Praeneste, she received 
the Benedictine habit in the Abbey Church of 
St. Scholastica, but continued her solitary life 
of prayer and penance to her death (a.d. 1138), 
when her soul was seen ascending to Heaven 
by several persons, including Pope Eugenius 
III, then at Segni. Her body now reposes in 
the church of St. Scholastica at Subiaco. 

CHELIDONIUS (St.) M. (March 3) 


*CHELY (St.) Bp. (Oct. 25) 

Otherwise St. HILARY of MENDE, which see. 

♦CHERON (St.) M. (May 28) 

Otherwise St. CARAUNUS, which see. 

CHILIAN (St.) Bp., M. (July 8) 

Otherwise St. KILIAN, which see. 

♦CHILLIEN (CHILLEN) (St.) (Nov. 13) 

(7th cent.) A native of Ireland and kinsman 
of St. Fiaker, who became a missionary in 
Artois, where he ended his days in the seventh 
century. His body was enshrined at Aubigny, 
near Arras. His name is often written Killian. 

CHIONIA (St.) M. (April 3) 



Names so beginning are often spelled CL or KL. 


Names so beginning are often spelled CR. 

CHRISTETA(St.)M. (Oct. 27) 


♦CHRISTIANA (St.) V. (July 24) 

(7th cent.) Said to have been the daughter 
of an Anglo-Saxon king. She crossed over to 
Flanders and there lived so holy a life that 
after her death she was at once venerated as 
a Saint. She is the Patron Saint of the town 
of Termonde in Belgium. 

CHRISTIANA (St.) V. (Dec. 15) 

(4th cent.) A Christian maiden who, taken 
captive by the Pagan Iberi, dwellers between 
the Caspian and the Black Sea, and reduced to 
slavery, kept with singular fidelity the precepts 
of her religion. Having by her miracles con- 
verted the Royal Family, the king sent ambas- 
sadors to Constantine, the first Christian 
Emperor, asking for priests to complete her 
work ; and they on their arrival had little 
difficulty in bringing the whole nation under 
the yoke of Christ. As is plain, this Saint 
flourished in the fourth century ; but her very 
name is unknown, Christiana (the Christian) 
being merely that given her by the Iberi. 

♦CHRISTIANUS (St.) Abbot. (March 18) 

(12th cent.) Such reliable information as 
we have regarding this Saint says that he was 
the first Abbot of the Cistercian Order in 
Ireland, and that he was a collateral descendant 
of St. Malachy. He is alleged to have acted 
as Papal Legate at the Council of Kells (a.d. 

♦CHRISTIANUS (St.) Bp. (June 12) 

(12th cent.) Croistan O'Morgair, brother to 
St. Malachy of Armagh. He was made Bishop 
of Clogher (a.d. 1126) and obtained several 
favours from the Holy See for his Diocese. He 
died a.d. 1138. 

♦CHRISTICOLA (St.) Bp. (March 3) 

Otherwise St. CELE CHRISTI, which see. 

CHRISTINA (St.) V.M. (March 13) 

(Date unknown.) A Persian Martyr who, 
from the Greek Menology, appears to have been 
scourged to death. Nothing further is known 
of her, nor can even an approximate date be 

CHRISTINA (St.) V.M. (July 24) 

(Date unknown.) A Roman maiden who, 
believing in Christ, is said to have broken up 
her father's idols of gold and silver, and given 
the proceeds of their sale to the poor, to have 
been on that account scourged by him, and being 
brought before the magistrate, to have bravely 
endured unheard-of tortures before being put 
to death. The place of her Passion is certainly 
the Lacus Vulsinus (Lago di Bolsena) in Tuscany 

not Tyre in the East, as has been conjectured ; 
but its date is unknown. Husenbeth gives no 
less than eleven emblems distinguishing St. 
Christina's pictures and statues from those of 
other Saints. Arrows carried in her hand are 
the most usual. 

CHRISTINUS (St.) M. (Nov. 12) 


♦CHRISTINA (St.) V. (July 24) 

(13th cent.) A Belgian Saint who lived in 
the neighbourhood of the town of St. Trond. 
Many strange legends are in circulation about 
her ; but she appears to have been favoured 
with many supernatural visions and to have 
worked many miracles both in life and after 
her death (a.d. 1224), which took place in a 
convent in the vicinity. Her shrine is in a 
church outside St. Trond. 

(St.) M. (July 25) 

(3rd cent.) A convert to Christianity, 
baptised by St. Babylas of Antioch, and put to 
death for the Faith in the persecution ordered 
by the Emperor Decius (a.d. 250). St. Chris- 
topher suffered somewhere in the Province of 
Lycia in Asia Minor. He was a popular Saint 
during the Middle Ages, and around his memory 
have grown up many legends, the most beautiful 
of which is that of his carrying an unknown child 
across a ford, and being borne down by its 
weight, despite his own gigantic stature and 
great strength ; for the child was Christ, carry- 
ing in His Hands the weight of the whole world. 
A belief that whoso looked upon the face of 
St. Christopher should not that day be struck 
down by sudden death, led to the frequent 
picturing of St. Christopher (the Christ-Bearer) 
in churches, over city-gates, &c. The Greeks 
keep his Feast on May 9. 

CHRISTOPHER (St.) M. (Aug. 20) 


Otherwise St. CHRISTOPHER, which see. 

CHRODEGANG (St.) Bp. (March 6) 

(8th cent.) A noble Frank, Councillor and 
Chancellor of Charles Martel, the famous 
champion of Christendom and victor of Poitiers. 
After the death of Charles, St. Chrodegang 
became Bishop of Metz. He met and escorted 
Pope Stephen III when the latter visited 
France, and undertook for him a mission to the 
king of the Lombards. His zeal for Church 
discipline was remarkable and bore much fruit. 
The wise Rule he drew up for the government 
of the Canons Regular would of itself serve to 
perpetuate his memory. He died March 6, 
A.D. 766. 

CHROMATIUS (St.) Bp. (Dec. 2) 

(5th cent.) The successor of St. Valerian 
(a.d. 387) in the See of Aquileia near Venice. 
He was a zealous Pastor of souls, and is styled 
by St. Jerome, who dedicated to him several 
of his workSj " a most learned and most holy 
man." He is eulogised likewise by St. John 
Chrysostom, his friend and contemporary, 
whom he defended and supported. He passed 
away a.d. 406. Of his numerous works only 
a part of his Commentary on St. Matthew has 
come down to us. 

CHRONIDAS (St.) M. (March 27) 


♦CHROMATIUS (St.) (Aug. 11) 

(3rd cent.) The father of St. Tiburtius the 
Martyr (Aug. 11). He was converted to 
Christianity by St. Tranquillinus, who was 
brought before Chromatius at a time when the 
latter was discharging the functions of Prefect 
of Rome. Though St. Chromatius did not 
himself win the crown of martyrdom he was 
looked upon by the ancients as a Saint. The 
reluctance of the primitive Roman Church to 
canonise any save those who had actually shed 
their blood for Christ very possibly accounts 
for the omission of his name in the Roman 




*CHRONAN (St.) Abbot, (April 28) 

Otherwise St. CRONAN, which see. 

(3rd cent.) Chrysanthus, an Egyptian, with 
his wife, Darias, a Greek, were distinguished in 
Rome for their zealous profession and practice 
of the Christian Religion. This led to their 
being arrested and put to a cruel death, under 
the Emperors Numerian and Carinus (a.d. 283). 

CHRYSOGONUS (St.) M. (Nov. 24) 

(4th cent.) A zealous Roman priest, the 
spiritual guide and helper of St. Anastasia in 
her work of comforting the Christian prisoners 
awaiting sentence in accordance with the 
persecuting edicts of the Emperor Diocletian. 
The Emperor ordered Chrysogonus to be 
brought before his own tribunal, either at 
Nicomedia, or, as others say, at Aquileia, and 
sentenced him to be put to the torture and 
beheaded (a.d. 304). His name, inserted with 
that of St. Anastasia in the Canon of the Mass, 
is a convincing proof of the special honour in 
which his memory was held in the early Church. 

CHRYSOLIUS (St.) Bp., M. (Feb. 7) 

(4th cent.) An Armenian Christian who 
devoted himself to missionary work in the 
north-east of Gaul, where, it is said, he was 
consecrated Bishop. He had left Armenia in 
safety, notwithstanding the persecution under 
Diocletian then raging, but won the crown of 
Martyrdom in Flanders. His relics are vener- 
ated at Bruges. 

CHRYSOPHORUS (St.) M. (April 20) 


CHRYSOSTOM (St.) Bp., Doctor of (Jan. 27) 
the Church. 

CHRYSOLETUS (St.) M. (April 12) 


CHUNIGUNDIS (St.) V. (March 3) 

(11th cent.) The virgin- wife of St. Henry, 
Emperor of Germany, whom she espoused with 
the pact that their union should only be that 
of brother and sister. Her life from childhood 
was one of prayer, penance and alms-deeds. 
Among other wonders related of her is that of 
her having passed unscathed through the ordeal 
of walking barefoot over a red-hot iron plough- 
share. Surviving her husband, she gave all 
she had to the poor, and retired into a Bene- 
dictine monastery she had founded, where she 
died (a.d. 1040). Her relics are enshrined with 
those of St. Henry in the Cathedral of Bamberg. 

CHUNIALD (St.) (Sept. 24) 

(7th cent.) One of the Scottish or Irish 

missionaries, companions of St. Rupert of 

Salzburg, who evangelised South Germany in 

the seventh century. 

*CIAN (St.) (Dec. 11) 

(6th cent.) A Welsh Saint, a soldier who 
ended his life as a hermit in Carnarvonshire. 
He is sometimes described as the servant of 
St. Peris, which, if true, would aid in fixing the 
century in which that Saint flourished. 

*CIANAN (KENAN) (St.) Bp. (Nov. 24) 

(5th cent.) One of the fifty hostages given 
to the Irish King Leoghaire, and released at 
the instance of St. Kyran. After passing some 
time in the monastery of St. Martin at Tours, 
he returned to Ireland and devoted himself to 
missionary work. He is said to have been 
consecrated a Bishop. He died Nov. 24, 
A.D. 489. 

*CIARAN (St.) Bp. (March 5) 

Otherwise St. KIERAN, which see. 

*CIARIN (St.) Abbot. (Sept. 9) 

(6th cent.) An Irish Saint, Abbot of Clon- 

macnoise, renowned for his charity and for the 

working of miracles. He passed away Sept. 9, 

A.D. 548. 

CICELY (St.) V.M. (Nov. 22) 

Otherwise St. CiECILIA, which see. 

CILINIA (St.) (Oct. 21) 

(5th cent.) The mother of St. Principius, 
Bishop of Soissons, and of St. Remigius, Bishop 

of Rheims, and Apostle of the Franks. She 
died at Laon some time after a.d. 458, in fame 
of great holiness, and is registered as a Saint in 
the Western Martyrologies. 

*CILLENE (St.) Abbot. (July 3) 

(8th cent.) An Irish Saint who migrated to 
Iona, and was there elected Abbot (a.d. 726) 
on account of his singular holiness. 

*CINNIA (St.) V. (Feb. 1) 

(5th cent.) A princess of the Kingdom of 
Ulster, who becoming a Christian received the 
veil from St. Patrick and was placed in a 
monastery under the care of the Abbess Cathu- 
beris. She converted many of her Pagan 
fellow-countrymen and was renowned for 
miracles. She passed away towards the close 
of the fifth century. 

CINDEUS (St.) M. (July 11) 

(4th cent.) A priest in Pamphylia (Asia 
Minor), who confessed Christ in the persecution 
under Diocletian (a.d. 300 about). After 
enduring torture, he was burned at the stake, 
and passed away with words of prayer and 
praise on his lips. 

CISELLUS (St.) M. (Aug. 21) 


*CIWA (St.) V. (Feb. 8) 

Otherwise St. KIGWE, which see. 

♦CLAIR (St.) M. (Nov. 4) 

Otherwise St. CLARUS, which see. 

CLARA of RIMINI (St.) Widow. (Feb. 10) 

(14th cent.) A noble lady of Rimini, dis- 
tinguished by the holiness of her life, which was 
one of great penance. In her widowhood she 
retired to a convent she had founded, where 
she passed thirty-seven years till her holy 
death (a.d. 1326). 

CLARE (CLARA) (St.) V. (Aug. 12) 

(13th cent.) A maiden of Assisi, daughter 
of a knight, who was the first woman to embrace 
the life of utter poverty and unremitting aus- 
terity taught by St. Francis, the founder of 
the Order of Friars Minor. Consecrated to 
God by the Seraphic Patriarch, she governed 
for forty-two years, in the Fear of God, the 
first convent of Franciscan Sisters, insisting to 
the end on the full observance of the Rule. 
The one favour she ever asked of the Holy See 
was that the convent might always remain 
without worldly goods of any kind. She 
survived St. Francis, whose faithful Counsellor 
she had been, dying in the year 1253, and was 
canonised two years afterwards. St. Clare 
is represented with a monstrance in her hand 
in memory of her having in this attitude 
miraculously saved her convent from assault 
and pillage. 

CLARE of MONTEFALCO (St.) V. (Aug. 18) 

(14th cent.) Clare of the Cross, a nun of the 
Order of the Hermits of St. Augustine, con- 
secrated herself to God from her youth in a 
convent of her native city, of which later she 
was chosen Abbess. Her life was one of ecstatic 
prayer and rigorous penance. Filled with an 
ardent longing for perfection, she had for her 
distinctive devotion that to the Passion of 
Christ. To a Sister, marvelling at her patience, 
she is reported to have said : "If thou seekest 
the Cross of Christ, take my heart ; in it thou 
wilt find my Suffering Lord." In effect, when 
she had departed from this world (Aug. 18, 
A.D. 1308), a Crucifix was found depicted on 
the flesh of her heart. Her name was inserted 
in the Roman Martyrology by Clement XII 
in the eighteenth century. 

CLARENTIUS (St.) Bp. (April 26) 

(7th cent.) The successor of St. ^Etherius 

in the See of Vienne (France), described in the 

Martyrology of that Church as a Saint. He 

died about a.d. 620. 

CLARUS (St.) Bp. (Oct. 10) 

(Date uncertain.) The first Bishop of Nantes, 

sent as missionary into Armorica (Brittany) 

either by St. Peter the Apostle himself, as was 

the old belief, or certainly not later than by 



one of the Popes of the third century. Certain 
dedications of churches in Cornwall and in Wales 
to St. Clair almost certainly refer to this Saint. 
CLARUS (CLAIR) (St.) M. (Nov. 4) 

(Date uncertain.) Traditionally described as 
an Englishman of noble birth, born at Rochester, 
who after having been ordained priest, passed 
into Normandy, where in a hermitage not far 
from Rouen he lived a saintly life crowned by 
a martyr's death, he having been assassinated 
at the instigation of a high-born lady whose 
advances he had repulsed. It is impossible to 
assign to him any date. The limits given by 
the English Menology, A.D. 666-A.D. 894, must 
suffice. The insertion of his name in the 
Roman Martyrology is due to Usuardus (9th 
century). St. Clair was much venerated in 
the Middle Ages. Towns in France bear his 
name, which gave rise to such English patrony- 
mics as Sinclair and the like. It seems that 
there was another St. Clarus who also nourished 
in Normandy in the Middle Ages, and may 
perhaps be the Saint registered in the Roman 
Martyrology ; but the history of the one and 
the other is now so confused that we forbear 
to note him separately. 
CLARUS (St.) (Nov. 8) 

(4th cent.) A wealthy citizen of Tours in 
France, who renounced his prospects in the 
world to place himself under the guidance of 
the famous Bishop St. Martin. Admitted by 
him into the monastery of Marmoutier and raised 
to the priesthood, he built himself a small cell 
in the vicinity, and in a short time reached a 
high degree of Christian and Religious perfec- 
tion. He passed away in the odour of sanctity 
about A.D. 397. St. Paulinus of Nola, to whom 
he seems to have been personally known, 
composed two poetical epitaphs for his tomb. 
CLASSICUS (St.) M. (Feb. 18) 

CLATEUS (St.) Bp., M. (June 4) 

(1st cent.) The first (or possibly the second) 
Bishop of Brescia in Lombardy. He won the 
crown of martyrdom under Nero, A.D. 64. 
Nothing more is known of him, nor do his 
Relics appear to be anywhere in public venera- 
CLAUDIA (St.) M. (March 2) 

CLAUDIA (St.) V.M. (May 18) 

♦CLAUDIA (St.) Widow. (Aug. 7) 

(1st cent.) A British tradition is to the 
effect that one of the daughters of King Carac- 
tacus, taken with him prisoner to Rome in the 
time of the Emperor Claudius, became a 
Christian, and took the name Claudia in Bap- 
tism ; further, that she married the Senator 
Pudens, and is the Claudia mentioned with him 
by St. Paul (2 Tim., iv. 21) ; that she was the 
mother of St. Praxedes and St. Pudentiana ; 
and that she died at an advanced age in the 
second century. 
CLAUDIANUS (St.) M. (Feb. 26) 

CLAUDIANUS (St.) M. (Feb. 26) 

CLAUDIANUS (St.) M. (March 6) 

CLAUDIUS (St.) M. (Feb. 18) 

CLAUDIUS (St.) M. (April 26) 

CLAUDIUS (St.) M (June 3) 

(St.) Bp. 

(6th cent.) Born at Salins, a.d. 484, and at 
the age of twenty made a Canon of Besancon. 
In a.d. 516 he was chosen to fill that See, 
which he governed with zeal and success for 
some seven years. He then retired to the 
monastery of St. Eugendus (St. Oyend), or 
Condat, in the Jura Mountains, and there he 

showed himself a model of Evangelical perfec- 
tion. He died about a.d. 582. His body was 
discovered in the year 1243 to be still incorrupt. 
There is some controversy as to the year of his 
birth, but there is no doubt that he survived to 
an extreme old age. 

(July 9) 
(3rd cent.) Five Christians, of whom Clau- 
dius is styled a Notary and Nicostratus an 
Assistant Prefect, described in the very un- 
trustworthy Acts of St. Sebastian as having 
suffered martyrdom at the same time as that 
Saint (A.D. 288 about). They were seized while 
engaged in burying the bodies of Martyrs, 
put to the torture, and finally drowned. But it 
is very doubtfid whether they are not identical 
with the five Saints of the same names, styled 
Statuaries, and honoured on Nov. 8 with the 
Four Crowned Martyrs. 
(SS.) MM. (July 21) 

(3rd cent.) A group of eight or (as others 
say) of twenty-three Martyrs, who suffered 
with St. Julia at Troyes in Gaul, under Aurelian 
(a.d. 273). Their bodies are enshrined in the 
monastery of Jouarre, near Meaux. Claudius, 
an officer in the Imperial army, is said to have 
been a former suitor for the hand of St. Julia. 
THEONILLA (SS.) MM. (Aug. 23) 

(3rd cent.) Martyrs of the persecution under 
Diocletian (A.d. 285) at Mgea, in Cilicia. 
Claudius, Asterius and Neon, brothers, were 
crucified ; Domvina (Domnina) was scourged 
to death ; Theonilla in fine, an aged widow, 
expired on the rack. 
MM. (Oct. 30) 

(3rd cent.) The sons of the Centurion, St. 
Marcellus. In the persecution under Diocletian 
at Leon in Spain (about a.d. 298) they were put 
to death as Christians. Some writers make 
them to have been not only brothers, but 
twelve in number. 
MM. (Nov. 8) 

These are among the Holy Crowned Martyrs, 
which see ; as also the Martyrs of the same names 
commemorated on July 9. 
WITH OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Dec. 3) 

(3rd cent.) Roman Martyrs under the 
Emperor Numerian, A.d. 283. Claudius, a 
tribune in the army, was cast into the Tiber 
with a heavy stone round his neck. Seventy 
Christian soldiers were then beheaded with 
Jason and Maurus, his two sons. Hilaria his 
wife, apprehended while burying the bodies 
of her children, shared their fate. 
STEPHEN (SS.) MM. (Dec. 3) 

(Date unknown.) African Martyrs, con- 
cerning whom nothing save their names has 
come down to us. 
♦CLEAR (CLEER) (St.) Bp. (Oct. 10) 

Otherwise St. CLARUS, or it may be, St. 
CLETHER, which see. 

Otherwise St. CLETHER, which see. 
♦CLEDWYN (St.) (Nov. 1) 

(5th cent.) The Patron Saint of Llandle- 
dwyn (Caermarthen), alleged to have been the 
eldest son of the famous King Brychan, and to 
have succeeded him as ruler of a part of his 
CLEMENT (St.) Bp. M. (Jan. 23) 

(4th cent.) A Bishop of Ancyra in Galatia 
(Asia Minor), who was put to death tinder 
Diocletian and Maximinian (A.D. 303). He is 
described in his Acts as having suffered persecu- 
tion for twenty-eight years. His relics, taken 
to Constantinople in the sixth century, were 
brought to Western Europe by the Crusaders. 

e 65 



(19th cent.) Born a.d. 1770 in Moravia and 
religiously brought up by his pious mother, he 
in his early manhood embraced the religious 
life in the Congregation of the Most Holy 
Redeemer, and was the instrument chosen by 
Almighty God for propagating that Institute 
in Poland and neighbouring countries. He 
spared himself in nothing, so that thereby he 
could be of service to those in spiritual or 
temporal need. He died at Vienna, a.d. 1820. 
Pope Pius VII, then reigning, styled him 
" An Apostolic man, the glory of the clergy of 
Vienna, and a pillar of the Church." 

CLEMENT (St.) M. (Sept. 10) 


CLEMENT (St.) M. (Nov. 21) 


CLEMENT (St.) Pope, M. (Nov. 23) 

(1st cent.) A Roman by birth, converted 
to Christianity either by St. Peter or by St. 
Paul. He accompanied the latter, who styles 
him " his fellow-labourer " (Phil. iv. 3), on some 
of his missionary journeys. He followed (or 
perhaps preceded) St. Cletus in St. Peter's 
Chair, and governed the Church for about ten 
years. His noble Epistle to the Corinthians is 
one of the most precious monuments of the 
Sub-Apostolic Age. He passed away under 
Trajan (a.d. 100), and, as constant tradition 
holds, died an exile and Martyr in the Crimea. 
The graceful story of his having been cast into 
the Black Sea with an anchor round his neck, 
and of the shrine built for him beneath the 
waves by Angels, is well known. His relics 
are now in Rome in the famous Basilica dedi- 
cated in his honour, and which gives his title 

TO i\ \i\^T(\\x\f\\ 


(SS.) MM. (Nov. 14) 

(Date unknown.) Martyrs of Heraclea in 

Thrace, of uncertain date, and concerning whom 

no more than their names have come down to 


CLEOMENES (St.) M. (Dec. 23) 


MM. (March 3) 

(3rd cent.) These Saints belong to a group 
of forty or fifty Martyrs, victims of the persecu- 
tion under Diocletian. They were put to death 
on account of their religion in the Province of 
Pontus on the Black Sea, towards the close of 
the third century. The greater number seem 
to have been soldiers in the Imperial army ; 
but several were crucified, the punishment 
reserved to slaves. 
CLEOPHAS (St.) M. (Sept. 28) 

(1st cent.) One of the two disciples of the 
Way to Emmaus (Luke, xxiv.), who is said to 
have been murdered by the Jews in the very 
same house where he gave hospitality to Our 
Lord on that first Easter Sunday It has been 
maintained, but without great probability, that 
this Cleophas is one and the same with Cleophas, 
the father of the Apostle, St. James the Less 
(Matt. x. 3). According to Hegesippus, he 
would thus have been a brother of St. Joseph. 
CLERUS (St.) M. (Jan. 7) 

(4th cent.) A Syrian deacon, said to have 
been seven times put to the torture before being 
beheaded as a Christian. He was martyred 
at Antioch at the beginning of the fourth 
century, but whether under Diocletian or under 
the Emperor Licinius, his successor, is uncertain. 


(6th cent.) Latinised Clitanus. One of the 
Saints descended from King Brychan of Breck- 
nock, or at least of his clan. He is said to have 
been a disciple of St. Brynach and to have 
died about a.d. 520. Several dedications of 
churches (for instance, St. Cleer, near Liskeard), 
perpetuate his memory. 

Another Cledog or Clydog (Cleodius) is 


commemorated on Aug. 19. He is alleged 

to have died a Martyr in Herefordshire, a.d. 


CLETUS (St.) Pope, M. (April 26) 

(1st cent.) A Roman of Patrician birth who 

succeeded St. Linus in St. Peter's Chair (a.d. 76), 

and died a.d. 83, under Domitian. To him is 

attributed the dividing of the city of Rome 

into parishes. It may be taken as proved that 

St. Cletus is not (as in modern times has been 

asserted) one and the same with St. Anacletus. 

The latter succeeded to, the former preceded, 

St. Clement in the Pontificate. 

CLICERIUS (St.) Bp. (Sept. 20) 

(5th cent.) Probably a native of Milan. 

He was Bishop of that See for a few years in 

the first half of the fifth century, and died about 

A.D. 438. Beyond the fact of his having been 

venerated as a Saint from his own age to the 

present day, nothing is known of him. 

CLINIUS (St.) (March 30) 

(Date unknown.) A Greek, a Benedictine 

monk of Monte Cassino, who was made Superior 

of the dependent monastery of St. Peter near 

Pontecorvo, where his relics are venerated. 

In what century he flourished is uncertain. 

CLODOALDUS (CLOUD) (St.) (Sept. 7) 

(6th cent.) The third son of Clodomir, 

King of Orleans, and grandson of Clovis and of 

St. Clotilde, by the latter of whom he was 

brought up. Having lived for some time as a 

disciple of the hermit St. Severinus, he was 

ordained priest and gathered many followers, 

who took up their abode with him at a spot 

in the neighbourhood of Paris, which has 

retained the name of Saint Cloud. He died 

A.D. 560 at the age of fortv. 

CLODULPHUS (CLOU) (St.) Bp. (June 8) 

(7th cent.) He was the son of St. Arnulph 

(minister of King Clotaire II, and later Bishop 

of Metz) and born A.D. 605. Brought up at 

Court, he had a brilliant future before him, but 

preferring the service of the Church, he was 

elected Bishop of Metz (a.d. 656) and discharged 

with wonderful zeal and charity his pastoral 

duties. He was distinguished above all for his 

care of the poor. He died a.d. 696, at the age 

of ninety-one years, and was buried in his church 

at Metz. In the tenth century a great part of 

his relics were translated to the Abbey of 

Lay, near Nancy. 

CLOTILDE (St.) Queen, Widow. (June 3) 

(6th cent.) The daughter of Chilperic, King 

of Burgundy, and the wife of Clovis, first 

Christian King of the Franks, thus becoming 

the ancestress of the Merovingian monarchs of 

France. She espoused Clovis whilst he was 

still a Pagan, and was the means of leading 

him to the knowledge of the true Faith, which 

he embraced after his miraculous victory at 

Soissons over the Alamanni (A.D. 496). After 

the death of her husband, St. Clotilde retired 

to Tours, to the tomb of St. Martin, devoting 

herself to works of charity and piety until her 

holy death, A.D. 545. She was buried by the 

side of Clovis in the church of St. Genevieve at 

Paris. Her name is found written Crotildes, 

Croctild, Clotichilda, Hlotild, &c. 

*CLOTSENDIS (St.) V. (June 30) 

(8th cent.) The daughter of St. Rictrudis 

and her successor as Abbess of Marchiennes in 

Belgium She died about a.d. 700. 

CLOU (St.) Bp. (June 8) 

Otherwise St. CLODULPHUS, which see. 
CLOUD (St.) (Sept. 7) 

Otherwise St. CLODOALDUS, which sec. 

*CLUANUS (St.) Abbot. (Jan. 1) 

(6th cent.) An Irish Abbot, otherwise called 

Mochua or Moncan, who founded many churches 

and monasteries, and survived to close upon 

his hundredth year. 

*CLYDOG (St.) (Oct. 23) 

Otherwise St. CLETHER, which see. 

Otherwise St. CLETHER, which see. 



*COCCA (CUCCA, COX) (St.) V. (June 6) 

(Date unknown.) The ancient church of 
Kilcox (County Meath) is dedicated in her 
honour. No other information is obtainable. 
*COCHA (CCECHA) (St.) V. (June 29) 

(6th cent.) Said to have cared for St. 
Kieran of Saighir in his infancy. She was 
afterwards Abbess of Ros-Benchuir. 

(SS.) MM. (March 10) 

(3rd cent.) Greek Martyrs, beheaded at 
Corinth, under the Emperor Valerian (a.d. 258). 
Previously to this, Codratus, then a child, 
appears to have been driven into the woods 
to escape from the persecution under Decius 
(a.d. 250). 
CODRATUS (St.) M. (March 26) 

Otherwise St. QUADRATUS, which see. 
CC3LESTINE (St.) Pope. (May 19) 

CC2LIAN (C-ffiLIANUS) (St.) M. (Dec. 15) 

*CCEMGEN (St.) Abbot. (June 3) 

Otherwise St. KEVIN, which see. 
*COGITOSUS (St.) (April 18) 

(8th cent.) Little is known about him. He 
appears to have been a monk at Kildare, and 
to have flourished at latest in the eighth century. 
If the tradition representing him as the author 
of the well-known Life of St. Brigid be trust- 
worthy, we are indebted to him for much 
interesting information regarding that Saint 
and her times. 
COINTHA (QUINTA) (St.) (Feb. 8) 

(3rd cent.) An Egyptian lady (some say a 
young maiden), seized as a Christian at the out- 
set of the Decian persecution (a.d. 249), fastened 
to the tail of a horse and dragged through the 
streets of Alexandria till her holy soul forsook 
her mangled body. 
♦COLAN (St.) (May 21) 

The Cornish form of the name of the Welsh 
Saint, COLLEN or GOLLEN, which see. 
COLETTE (St.) V. (March 6) 

(15th cent.) Colette Boilet, a carpenter's 
daughter, born in Picardy (France) (A.D. 1380), 
served God from her childhood in solitude. 
Her time was wholly taken up in prayer and 
in her ministrations to the sick and poor. After 
passing some years among the Beguines, she 
found her vocation in reviving among the Poor 
Clares the primitive and austere spirit of 
St. Francis. Like him, her chief devotion was 
to Our Lord's Passion and her supreme attrac- 
tion to the practice of holy poverty. Her 
reform quickly spread through the West of 
Europe, and is still flourishing. St. Colette, 
with St. Vincent Ferrer, had a share in putting 
an end to the great Schism of the West. Among 
the miracles she wrought was the raising of a 
dead man to life. She died at Ghent a.d. 1447, 
and was formally canonised by Pope Pius VII 
in the year 1807. 
*COLGAN (St.) Abbot. (Feb. 20) 

(8th cent.) A famous Abbot of Clonmac- 
noisc, surnamed " The Wise " and " The chief 
Scribe of the Scots." He was the friend of 
Alcuin, and universally venerated even during 
his lifetime. Some prayers he composed are 
still extant. He died about a.d. 796. 
♦COLMAN (St.) Bp. (Jan. 23) 

(8th cent.) A monk in the celebrated mona- 
stery of Lismore, in the government of which 
he succeeded St. Hierlug (Zailug), a.d. 698. 
Under St. Colman's rule a vast number of 
disciples flocked to Lismore, and he became the 
spiritual father of numerous holv men and 
illustrious prelates. He died A.D. 702. 
♦COLMAN of LINDISFARNE (St.) Bp. (Feb. 18) 

(7th cent.) The Third Bishop of Lindis- 
fame (the original seat of the Bishopric of 
Durham). Like his predecessors, St. Aidan 
and St. Finan, St. Colman was a monk of 
St. Columba's monastery of Iona.*He was a 

man of austere and zealous life, and ever held 

in high repute of sanctity. His reluctance to 

yield to the Roman tradition fixing the date of 

Easter led to the famous Synod of Whitby, 

held in presence of King Oswy. He afterwards 

resigned his See and returned to Iona, whence he 

proceeded to the West of Ireland, where he 

founded two great monasteries. He died 

A.D. 676. 

*COLMAN (St.) (March 5) 

(5th cent.) A disciple of St. Patrick, famous 

for the rigour of his abstinence of all kinds. 

He died in the lifetime of his holy master, and 

was by him buried at Armagh. 

♦COLMAN (St.) Bp. (May 15) 

(6th cent.) Also known as St. Columban 

Mac Va Larghise, a disciple of St. Columba 

and of St. Fintan of Clonenagh. He founded 

a monastery at Oughaval. To St. Columba 

in Scotland a heavenly vision revealed the 

hour of the entering of St. Colman into eternal 


♦COLMAN of DROMORE (St.) Bp. (June 7) 

(7th cent.) The first Bishop of Dromore in 

Ulster, a disciple of St. Albeus of Emly, and 

friend of St. Macanisius of Connor. This St. 

Colman is said to have been the teacher of 

St. Finnian of Clonard. He closed a long and 

fruitful Episcopate by a holy death, about 

a.d. 610. 

♦COLMAN (St.) Abbot. (June 16) 

(6th cent.) A holy deacon to whom St. 

Columbkill confided the church and monastery 

built by him on Lambay Island. 

COLMAN (COLOMANNUS) (St.) M. (July 8) 

♦COLMAN (St.) Abbot, (Sept, 26) 

(7th cent.) An Irish Saint who founded in 
Meath the monastery of Land-Elo (Lin-All i), 
and was closely associated with St. Columba. 
a.d. 610 is given as the year of his 
♦COLMAN (St.) M. (Oct, 23) 

(11th cent.) Either a Scot or an Irishman, 
who, going on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, 
was seized by evildoers in the neighbourhood 
of Vienna in Austria, tortured and hanged 
(a.d. 1012). Venerated as a Martyr, many 
miracles were wrought through his intercession. 
He is honoured as one of the Tutelary Saints 
of Aiistrifl 
♦COLMAN (St.) Abbot. (Oct. 27) 

(7th cent.) An Irish Saint, Abbot of Senboth- 
Fola in the Diocese of Ferns, and associated 
with St. Maidoc, Bishop of that See. He died 
about A.D. 632. 
♦COLMAN (St.) Bp. (Oct. 17) 

(6th cent.) Like St. Colman of Dromore, 
a disciple of St. Ailbhe of Emly. He became 
Bishop or Abbot of Kilroot, near Carrickfergus. 
His festival is among those included in the 
Kalendar of the old Aberdeen Breviary. 
♦COLMAN of KILMACDUAGH (St.) Bp. (Oct. 29) 
(7th cent.) The son of the chieftain Duacus, 
whence the name of the Episcopal See founded 
by the holy man. Towards the close of his life 
St. Colman retired into a hermitage, where he 
passed away about a.d. 630. 
♦COLMAN of CLOYNE (St.) Bp. (Nov. 24) 

(7th cent.) Born in Cork (A.D. 522), he was 
educated by St. Jarlath, and acquired fame at 
the Court of Cashel as a bard, that is, as a poet 
and minstrel. Later, counselled thereto by 
St. Brendan and St. Ita, he embraced the 
monastic life and founded the Church of Cloyne, 
whence after many years of successful Apostol- 
ate, he passed to his eternal reward, at the 
beginning of the seventh century. 
♦COLMAN (St.) Abbot. (Dec. 12) 

(7th cent.) A holy Irish Abbot of Glenda- 
loogh, who died A.D. 659, and is mentioned in 
the Irish Kalendars. 
♦COLMOC (MACHOLMOC) (St.) Bp. (June 6) 

Otherwise St. COLMAN of DROMORE, which 





(St.) Abbot. (June 9) 

(6th cent.) Of the blood of Irish chieftains, 
born in Donegal (Dec. 7, a.d. 521), Columba 
was destined to be the founder of a hundred 
monasteries and the Apostle of Caledonia. 
From boyhood devoted to the study of Holy 
Scripture and day-by-day advancing in sanctity 
of life, he was ordained priest at the age of 
twenty-five. After founding Derry, Durrow 
and other religious houses, he with twelve 
disciples, crossed in the year 563 to Scotland, 
and landed in the Island of I or Hy (now called 
Iona), where he built the world-famed monastery 
which was for two centuries the nursery of 
Bishops and Saints. For thirty-four years 
Columba travelled about evangelising the 
Highlands of Scotland. At last, weighed down 
by age and infirmities, he died kneeling before 
the Altar (June 9, 597), and was buried at Iona. 
But in the ninth century his relics were trans- 
lated to Down in Ulster, and laid by the side 
of those of St. Patrick. St. Adamnan, one of 
his successors at Iona, has left us an important 
and interesting Life of St. Columba. 
COLUMBA (St.) V.M. (Sept. 17) 

(9th cent.) A Spanish nun, whose monastery, 
near Cordova, having been destroyed by the 
Moorish invaders, took refuge with her sisters 
in the city. But afterwards, burning with the 
desire to die for Christ, she of her own accord 
presented herself before the Cadi and reproached 
him publicly with his adherence to the False 
Prophet, Mohammed. She paid for her boldness 
with her life. She was beheaded (giving a gold 
piece to her excutioner) and her body thrown 
into the Guadalquivir (a.d. 853). It was 
rescued and honourably interred by St. Eulogius, 
himself afterwards crowned with martyrdom. 
♦COLUMBA (St.) V.M. (Nov. 13) 

(Date uncertain.) The Patron Saint of two 

parishes in Cornwall. She is said to have been 

a Christian Virgin put to death by a heathen 

King of Cornwall. 

*COLUMBA (St.) Abbot. (Dec. 12) 

(6th cent.) A native of Leinster and disciple 
of St. Finnian, who became a great master of 
the spiritual life and governed the monastery 
of Tyrdaglas in Munster till his holy death, 
A.D. 548. 
COLUMBA (St.) V.M. (Dec. 31) 

(3rd cent.) A Christian Virgin put to death 
at Sens in Burgundy under the Emperor 
Aurelian (a.d. 273). Terrible tortures, as in 
the case of so many Martyrs, were inflicted upon 
her before her head was struck off. Her relics, 
venerated at Sens, were scattered by the Hugue- 
nots in the sixteenth century. 
COLUMBANUS (St.) Abbot. (Nov. 21) 

(7th cent.) Born in Leinster about a.d. 
545, he learned the monastic life under St. 
Comgall in the latter's famous monastery of 
Benchor. Thence, with several companions, 
he proceeded to Britain and Gaul. His first 
great foundation was that of the Abbey of 
Luxeuil, over which he presided for twenty- five 
years, writing there his Rule for Monks, of 
which the characteristic is its extreme severity. 
In disfavour with Queen Brunechilde, he 
departed from her dominions and, leaving his 
disciple St. Gall in Switzerland, where he had 
built some monasteries, crossed the Alps and 
settled at Bobbio in the North of Italy He 
died there a.d. 615. He was a man of great 
ability, as his writings show, and rendered 
many services to the Church, but his mistaken 
zeal for the Celtic date of Easter and the ill- 
advised letter he wrote to Pope St. Boniface IV 
against Pope Vigilius,and upholding the so-called 
" Three Chapters " rejected by the Church, 
has unfortunately served as a weapon against 
her in the hands of Protestants. 
COMBS (St.) Abbot. (June 9) 

A corrupt form of the name of St. COLUMBA, 
or COLUMBKILL, which see. 


♦COMGALL (St.) Abbot. (May 10) 

(6th cent.) After being trained by St. 
Fintan, this Irish Saint became Founder and 
first Abbot of the famous monastery of Ben- 
Chor, at the end of the sixth century. He wrote 
a celebrated but very severe Rule for monks. 
He is said to have lived some time in Wales or 
Cornwall. He died A.D. 601. SS. Columbanus 
and Gallus were among his disciples. 
*COMGAN (St.) Abbot. ' (Oct. 13) 

(8th cent.; An Irish prince who, with his 
nephew St. Fillan, crossed over into Scotland, 
where he embraced the monastic life and lived 
most holily for many years. Several churches 
dedicated in his honour attest the veneration- 
in which he has always been held. His relics 
were enshrined at Iona. 
*COMINUS (St.) Abbot. (June 12) 

(5th cent, probably.) There may have been 
more Saints than one of this name, confusion 
between whom has occasioned the contradictory 
particulars we have in the scattered traditions. 
One S. Cominus is Patron of Ardcavan. By 
some he is represented as brother of St. Attracta 
(5th cent.) ; by others to have lived hundreds 
of years later. 
CONCESSA (St.) M. (April 8) 

(Date unknown.) A Martyr anciently vener- 
ated at Carthage, of whom however no account 
has come down to our times. 
CONCESSUS (St.) M. (April 9) 

CONCOBDIA (St.) M. (Aug. 13) 

CONCORDIUS (St.) M. (Jan. 1) 

(2nd cent.) A Martyr at Spoleto (Central 
Italy), under the Emperor Marcus Aurelius. 
He was a priest, was put upon the rack, and 
underwent other tortures before being beheaded 
(A.D. 175). 
*CONALD (CHUNIALD) (St.) (Sept. 24) 

(7th cent.) One of the zealous band of 
missionaries led by St. Rupert to the Apostolate 
of Southern Germany. 
*CONALL (CONALD, COSL) (St.) Abbot. (May 22) 
(7th cent.) Abbot of the monastery of Innis- 
Coel (Donegal), where there is a holy well called 
after him. 
*CONGAN (St.) (Oct. 13) 

Otherwise St. COMGAN, which see. 

*CONON (St.) Bp. (Jan. 26) 

(7th cent.) Traditionally held to have been 

Bishop of the Isle of Man, of which he completed 

the conversion to Christianity. He died about 

A.D. 648. 

CONCORDIUS (T.) M. (Sept. 2) 

CONCORDIUS (St.) M. (Dec. 16) 

♦CONDEDUS (CONDE) (St.) (Oct. 20) 

(7th cent.) An English Hermit who lived 
in France in great reputation of sanctity, and 
died in his cell in an island in the Seine about 
A.D. 685. 
CONINDRUS (St.) Bp. (Dec. 28) 


*CONLETH (St.) Bp. (May 3) 

(6th cent.) The Patron Saint (with St. 

Bridget) of Kildare, of which Sec he was first 

Bishop. He is celebrated as having ministered 

in the things of the spirit to the " Mary of 

Ireland and her nuns. He was also renowned 

for his skill in the copying and illuminating of 

manuscripts. A.D. 529 is given as the date of 

his death. 

♦CONNAT (COMNATAN) (St.) V. (Jan. 1) 

(6th cent.) Abbess of St. Bridget's convent 

in Kildare. She died A.D. 590. Her name 

appears in the Martyrologies of Donegal and of 


♦CONOGAN (GWEN) (St.) Bp. (Oct. 16) 

(5th cent.) The successor of St. Corentin in 

the See of Quimper (Brittany). His memory 

is still held in great veneration. His Celtic 

name has been Latinised into Albinus. 



CONON (St.) M. (Feb. 26) 


CONON (St.) M. (March 6) 

(3rd cent.) A poor gardener, a Christian from 
Nazareth in Galilee, who, in Pamphylia (Asia 
Minor) or, as others say, in the Island of Cyprus, 
suffered a barbarous martyrdom (A.D. 250). 
Nails were driven through his ankles, and he 
was forced to run before a chariot till he fell 
dying to be crushed by its wheels. 

CONON and his SON (SS.) MM. (May 29) 

(3rd cent.) St. Conon suffered at Iconium in 
Asia Minor under the Emperor Aurelian (A.D. 
275). He with his little son, twelve years of 
age, was roasted before a slow fire and then 
racked to death. 

CONRAD (St.) Bp. (Nov. 26) 

(10th cent.) Bishop of Constance in Switzer- 
land, to which dignity he was raised A.D. 934 
on account of the great repute for ability and 
holiness of life in which he was held. His 
zeal and charity as Bishop made him grow yet 
more in popular esteem. His piety led him to 
make thrice the pilgrimage to the Holy Land. 
He died A.D. 976 t and was buried in the Church 
of St. Maurice, one of those built by himself. 
Many miracles followed, and he was canonised 
by Pope Calistus II (A.D. 1120). 

*CONRAN (St.) Bp. (Feb. 14) 

(7th cent.) A holy Bishop of the Orkney 

Islands, a man of austere life and a zealous 

Pastor of souls, formerly in great veneration 

in the North of Scotland. 

CONSORTIA (St.) V. (June 22) 

(6th cent.) A noble lady of exemplary life, 
who being greatly persecuted by suitors, with- 
drew into a convent, built by herself and largely 
endowed by King Clotaire, out of gratitude for 
her having miraculously healed his dying 
daughter. She died about A.D. 570. Very little 
trust can be put in the extant accounts of this 
Saint, and it is not unlikely that she flourished 
at an earlier date than that given above. 

CONSTANCE (St.) M. (Sept. 19) 


♦CONSTANT (St.) M. (Nov. 18) 

(8th cent.) An Irish Saint of Lagherne. 
He died A.D. 777 under circumstances which 
led to his being venerated as a Martyr. Many 
miracles are recorded as having been wrought 
by him. 

•CONSTANTLY (St.) V. (Jan. 28) 

(4th cent.) The daughter of Constantine the 
Great, who, healed of a mortal infirmity at the 
tomb of St. Agnes, built there a church, and was 
herself converted to Christianity. She is said 
to have lived thenceforth at the same place with 
other maidens, and after her death to have been 
honoured as a Saint. 

(2nd cent.) St. Constantine, first Bi3hop of 
Perugia in Central Italy, together with numerous 
Christians of his flock, is stated to have been 
put to death on account of his religion under 
the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, about A.D. 178. 
The detailed Acts of the Saint, accessible at 
Perugia, are unfortunately far from reliable. 

♦CONSTANTINE (St.) M. (March 11) 

(6th cent.) The English Martyrology des- 
cribes him as a Cornish prince who resigned his 
crown, founded a monastery at Govan on the 
Clyde, converted the district of Cantyre, and 
at length gave his life for the Faith, about 
A.D. 576. Whether he was the King Con- 
stantine ferociously inveighed against by St. 
Gildas as at some period of his life the most 
wicked of tyrants, or another prince of the same 
name, must be left an open question. The 
approved Scottish Lections speak of him as 
having been before his conversion " immersed 
in worldly cares and defiled by vices." 

CONSTANTINE (St.) (March 11) 

(Date unknown.) A Saint of Carthage in 
Africa, whose Acts have been lost. It is not 
•even known in what century he flourished. 

♦CONSTANTINE (St.) King, M. (April 2) 

(9th cent.) Constantine II, King of Scot- 
land, was slain in a battle against heathen 
invaders of his country (a.d. 874), and was 
thenceforth locally honoured as a Martyr. 
He was buried at Iona. 

CONSTANTINE (St.) Bp. (April 12) 

(6th cent.) All we know of him is that he 

subscribed the Acts of the celebrated Council 

of Epaon (A.D. 517) and that, he had then only 

recently been made a Bishop. 

CONSTANTINE (St.) (July 27) 

tvfiicli sec 

(5th cent.) The community of monks of the 
monastery of St. Dius at Constantinople, in 
whose choir by their Rule the Psalmody was 
continuous by night as by day. At the time 
of the Acacian Schism they remained faithful 
to the Holy See, and in consequence many of 
them were cast into prison and others put to 
death (a.d. 485). They have always been 
numbered among the Martyrs to the truths 
of the Faith. 

(4th cent.) The sufferers at Constantinople 
in the cause of Catholicism under the Arian 
Emperor Constantius. Many, during the years 
A.D. 351 to a.d. 359, were driven into banish- 
ment ; others were branded on the forehead ; 
of others the goods were confiscated ; and many 
were actually put to death. 

(9th cent.) The Martyrs known as the 
Abrahamite Monks, from the name of the 
monastery in which they lived their Religious 
life. They withstood the Iconoclast Emperor 
Theophilus and were on that account punished 
with exile and death (a.d. 832). Unfortunately, 
authentic details of their sufferings are no 
longer obtainable, the accounts extant being 
clearly of late date and untrustworthy. 

CONSTANTIUS (St.) M. (Aug. 26) 


CONSTANTIUS (St.) Bp. (Sept. 1) 

(5th cent.) His name is found among those 
of the Prelates who were present at a Roman 
Council (a.d. 465) held under the Pontificate 
of Pope St. Hilary. He was famous for his gift 
of prophecy and other supernatural graces. 
He is mentioned by Pope St. Gregory the Great 
in his Dialogues, and his Life was written by 
Peter the Deacon, of Monte Cassino. 

CONSTANTIUS (St.) (Sept. 23) 

(6th cent.) A Saint held in great veneration 
by the people of Ancona, where his relics are 
treasured and where he was Mansionarius 
(resident chaplain or perhaps Sacristan) of the 
ancient church of St. Stephen. He flourished 
in the latter part of the sixth century. 

CONSTANTIUS (St.) (Nov. 30) 

(5th cent.) A Roman priest who vigorously 
and successfully refuted the Pelagian heretics, 
dangerous in his time on account of their 
approach to rationalistic teachings. He had 
to endure no little opposition and even positive 
persecution at their hands. The singular 
piety of his life, attested by miracles, led to 
his being registered in the ancient lists as a 

CONSTANTIUS (St.) M. (Dec. 12) 


♦CONVOYON (St.) Abbot. (June 5) 

(9th cent.) A Breton Saint, founder and first 

Abbot of Redon ; a man of great energy and 

piety. He died a.d. 868, and is much venerated 

in Brittany. 

♦CONWALL (CONVAL) (St.) (Sept. 28) 

(7th cent.) An Irish priest, disciple of St. 

Kentigern, who died in Scotland about a.d. 630. 

Some accounts connect him otherwise with 

St. Kentigern of Glasgow. 

COPRES (St.) M. (July 9) 





♦CORBICAN (St.) (June 26) 

(8th cent.) A Saint said to have been of 

Irish birth, who lived a holy life as a solitary 

in the Low Countries, instructing and helping the 

peasants. No accurate dates are forthcoming. 

CORBINIAN (St.) Bp. (Sept. 8) 

(8th cent.) A French Saint who, after passing 
fourteen years in a hermit's cell, gathered dis- 
ciples around him and built a monastery. 
Coming to Rome as a pilgrim, St. Gregory II, 
the then Pope, consecrated him Bishop, and 
sent him to evangelise Bavaria. He fixed his 
See at Freissingen, where, after a long and 
fruitful Episcopate, he died a.d. 730. A 
detailed account of his life and of the miracles 
which illustrated his sanctity has come down to 
us from the pen of Alibert, his third successor 
at Freissingen. 

*CORBMAC (St.) Abbot. (June 21) 

(6th cent.) A disciple of St. Columbkill, 
placed by him over the monastery he had 
founded at Durrow. 

CORDULA (St.) V.M. (Oct. 22) 

(5th cent.) One of the numerous companions 
at Cologne of St. Ursula, who, witnessing the 
sufferings and massacre of the rest, lost heart 
and lay hid till all was over. But on the next 
day, ashamed and repentant of her cowardice, 
she showed herself openly and received the 
crown of martyrdom, last of them all. The 
date, a.d. 453 may be given. 

COREBUS (St.) M. (April 18) 

(2nd cent.) A Prefect of Messina in Sicily 
who, converted to Christianity by St. Eleu- 
therius, was put to death on account of his 
religion under the Emperor Hadrian (a.d. 

♦CORENTIN (St.) Bp. (Dec. 12) 

(5th cent.) The son of a British chieftain, 
who crossing over to Armorica or Bretagne, 
became the first Bishop of Quimper, and after 
a long and distinguished Episcopate passed 
away late in the fifth century. He signed the 
Decrees of the Council of Angers (a.d. 453), 
but the exact date of his death is uncertain. 

CORFU (MARTYRS OF). (April 29) 

(1st cent.) Seven criminals converted to 
Christianity and to a good life by St. Jason 
(or Mnason) a disciple of Our Lord (Acts xxi. 
16). Their names are given as Saturninus, 
Inischolus, Faustianus, Januarius, Massalius, 
Euphrasius and Mannonius. They are said 
to have been put to death as Christians in the 
Island of Corfu, about a.d. 100, and are known 
as " The Seven Robber-Saints." 

*CORMAC (St.) Bp. (Sept. 14) 

(10th cent.) Probably the first Bishop of 
Cashel. The " Psalter of Cashel," compiled 
by him, is still extant. He is likewise known as 
King of Munster, and was slain in battle 
(A.D. 908). 

*CORMAC (St.) Abbot. (Dec. 12) 

(6th cent.) An Irish Abbot of great sanctity, 
friend of St. Columbkill. Nothing more is 
known with certainty about him. 

CORNELIA (St.) M. (March 31) 


CORNELIUS (St.) Bp. (Feb. 2) 

(First cent.) The centurion of the Italic 
cohort, baptised at Csesarea in Palestine, by the 
Apostle St. Peter, about whom see the Acts of 
the Apostles (ch. x.). Tradition makes of him 
the first Bishop of Csesarea ; and as such he is 
described in the Roman Martyrology. Meta- 
phrastes gives the legendary details of his 
Apostolate. The year of the first century in 
which he passed away is not recorded. 

♦CORNELIUS (St.) Bp. (June 4) 

(12th cent.) An Irish Saint of the Augus- 
tinian Order and Archbishop of Armagh. He 
died at Chambery in Savoy on his return from 
a pilgrimage to Rome (a.d. 1176), and is still 
there held in great veneration. 

CORNELIUS (St.) Pope, M. (Sept. 14) 

(3rd cent.) A Roman, the successor in St. 


Peter's Chair of St. Fabian, during the Decian 
persecution (a.d. 250), in which his predecessor 
perished. St. Cornelius upheld the Roman 
tradition of benignity in dealing with " fallen 
Christians " ; and this even against the great 
authority of St. Cyprian of Carthage, part of 
his correspondence with whom is still extant. 
He overcame the Rigorist Anti-Pope Novatian, 
but was banished by the Imperial authorities 
to Civita Vecchia (Centumcellce), where he 
eventually suffered martyrdom. His body, 
brought back to Rome, was interred in the 
Catacombs in the family crypt of the Cornelii 
(A.D. 255). 

CORNELIUS (St.) M. (Dec. 31) 


CORONA (St.) M. (May 14) 


COSMAS and DAMIAN (SS.) MM. (Sept. 27) 

(4th cent.) Two brothers, by profession 
physicians, who on principle refused to accept 
any remuneration for their services. Arabs 
by birth, they lived at iEgea in Cilicia (Asia 
Minor) where, arrested as Christians, they were 
put to the torture and in the end beheaded in 
the persecution under Diocletian (a.d. 303 
about). With them suffered their other three 
brothers, Anthimus, Leontius and Euprepius. 
Their relics were brought to Rome, where an 
important church was dedicated in their honour. 
Their memory has always been in great venera- 
tion in the East and in the West. Two other 
pairs of brothers of the same name have place 
in the Menologies of the Greeks. 

*COTTAM (THOMAS) (Bl.) M. (May 30) 



(SS.) MM. 

(Date unknown.) Cappadocian Martyrs 
whose Acts are unfortunately lost. St. Cottidus 
is described as a deacon. 

*COWAIR (CYWAIR) (St.) V. (July 11) 

(Date unknown.) The Patron Saint of Llan- 

gower (Merioneth). We have no account of her. 

CRATON and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Feb. 15) 

(3rd cent.) Craton, a philosopher and 
Professor of Rhetoric, converted to Christianity 
by St. Valentine, Bishop of Teramo, suffered 
martyrdom in Rome shortly after that holy 
man (a.d. 273). His wife and children, with 
many of his household, were executed at the 
same time, likewise on account of their religion. 

*CREDAN (St.) Abbot. (Aug. 19) 

(8th cent.) The Abbot of Evesham in the 
time of King Offa of Mercia. He died in fame 
of sanctity about A.d. 781. August 19 is 
assigned as his Festival in various Church 
Calendars, but we know little or nothing con- 
cerning him. 

CREMENTIUS (St.) M. (April 16) 


CRESCENS (St.) M. (March 10) 


CRESCENS (St.) M. (April 15) 

(Date unknown.) A Martyr of Myra in 

Lycia (Asia Minor) who perished at the stake, 

but in what year is not known. The Greeks 

keep his Feast on April 13. 

LADIUS (SS.) MM. (May 28) 

(3rd cent.) Zealous Roman Christians who, 
for preaching the Gospel, were scourged and 
afterwards burned to death (a.d. 244 about). 
The St. Helladius, Bishop and Martyr, com- 
memorated on the same or preceding day, 
appears to be other than the St. Helladius here 

CRESCENS (St.) M. (July 18) 

One of the martyred children of St. SYM- 
PHOROSA, which see. 

CRESCENS (St.) M. (Oct. 1) 


CRESCENS (St.) Bp., M. (June 27) 

(1st cent.) The disciple of St. Paul mentioned 

by him (2 Tim. iv. 10) as having gone into 



Galatia. He is stated to have been appointed 
Bishop either of the Galatians or of Chalcedon. 
Tradition goes on to tell us of his Apostolate of 
Dauphin6 in Gaul, and again of his having 
founded the See of Mentz in Germany. How- 
ever, he appears to have returned in the end to 
the East. The Roman Martyrology adds that 
he suffered martyrdom under Trajan (a.d. 100 
about). The Feast of the Translation of his 
relics would appear to have been kept on 
Dec. 29. 
CRESCENS (St.; Bp. (Nov. 28) 

CRESCENTIA (St.) V.M. (June 15) 

CRESCENTIANA (St.) M. (May 5) 

(5th cent.) Beyond the fact that as early 
as the time of Pope Symmachus (a.d. 498-514) 
a church in Rome was dedicated to her, nothing 
is now known of this Saint. 
CRESCENTIANUS (St.) M. (May 31) 

(2nd cent.) A Christian who suffered death 
for Christ at Sassari in the Island of Sardinia 
at the same time as SS. Gabinus and Crispulus, 
in the reign of the Emperor Hadrian (A.D. 130 
about). He is still in great veneration there. 
(St.) M. 

(3rd cent.) A Roman soldier, a veteran, 
who retired to lead a hermit's life in a solitary 
place near Citta di Castello (Tiphernum) in the 
Apennine Mountains, but who, delated as a 
Christian, was put to the torture and beheaded 
(a.d. 287). He is often represented by artists 
as clad in a deacon's dalmatic, though in all 
probability he remained all his life a layman. 
CRESCENTIANUS (St.) M. (Julv 2) 

CRESCENTIANUS (St.) M. (Aug. 12) 



ERALIS (SS.) MM. (Sept. 14) 

(3rd cent.) African Martyrs, alleged to have 

suffered at the same time and place as the great 

St. Cyprian (A.D. 258). 

CRESCENTIANUS (St.) M. (Nov. 24) 

(4th cent.) A Christian who suffered in 

company with SS. Cyriacus, Largus and 

Smaragdus, expiring on the rack in their sight 

at Rome under the tyrant Maxentius (A.D. 309). 

We learn this much from the Acts of Pope 

St. Marcellus. A Translation of the Relics of 

St. Crescentianus in the ninth century is 


CRESCENTIANUS (St.) Bp. (Nov. 28) 

CRESCENTIO (St.) M. (Sept. 17) 

CRESCENTIUS (St.) (April 19) 

(5th cent.) A Subdeacon of Florence, dis- 
ciple of St. Zenobius, Bishop of that city. 
He flourished in fame of great holiness at the 
end of the fourth and beginning of the fifth 
CRESCENTIUS (St.) M. (Sept. 14) 

(4th cent.) A boy only eleven years of age, 
the son of St. Euthymius, who, brought from 
Perugia to Rome, bravely confessed Christ 
during the great persecution under Diocletian, 
and was spared neither torture nor death. 
He was beheaded, and probably with him his 
mother also (a.d. 300). 
CRESCENTIUS (St.) M. (Dec. 12) 

CRESCENTIUS (St.) M. (Dec. 29) 

CRESCENTIUS (St.) Bp. (Dec. 29) 

Otherwise St. CRESCENS (June 27) which see. 
CRESCONIUS (St.) Bp. M. (Nov. 28) 


♦CREWENNA (St.) (Feb. 1) 

(5th cent.) A companion of St. Breaca from 

Ireland to Cornwall. Beyond the place-name 

Crowan, near St. Erth, no record remains of 

this Saint. 

♦CRISPIN of VITERBO (Bl.) (May 23) 

(18th cent.) An Italian Franciscan lay- 
brother in the Capuchin convent of Viterbo, 
favoured with many supernatural gifts by 
Almighty God. He died, aged eighty-two, 
May 19, 1750, and his body remains incorrupt 
to this day. 

(3rd cent.) Shoemakers by trade, victims of 
the great persecution under Diocletian. They 
were beheaded because of their religion at 
Soissons in France, a.d. 287. They were in 
great popular veneration throughout the 
Middle Ages (see in this connection Shakspeare's 
Henry V, Act. IV, Scene II) ; but the adop- 
tion of the Roman Calendar in which Oct. 25 
(their day), is occupied by the Feast of the 
Martyrs SS. Chrysanthus and Darias, has caused 
the liturgical keeping of their festival to fall into 
desuetude. They are the recognised Patron 
Saints of shoemakers, and are often represented 
with the tools of their trade or with strips of 
leather in their hands. Some of their relics 
are in Rome, and a noble church was erected 
at Soissons in their honour. 
CRISPIN (St.) Bp. M. (Nov. 19) 

(4th cent.) A Bishop of Ecija (Astiage) in 
Andalusia (Spain), beheaded as a Christian 
under the persecuting Emperor Maximian 
Herculeus at the beginning of the fourth 
century. St. Crispin is honoured with a special 
office in the old Spanish or Mozarabic Breviary 
and Missal. 
CRISPIN (St.) M. (Dec. 3) 

CRISPIN (St.) M. (Dec. 5) 

CRISPINA (St.) V.M. (Dec. 5) 

(4th cent.) One of the most famous of the 
African Martyrs of the Early Church. We have 
still her Panegyric preached by the great 
St. Augustine. She was a wealthy matron of 
high birth, who, preferring her Faith to all 
worldly goods, cheerfully laid down her life for 
Christ. Having been put to the torture and 
forced to undergo the most shameful indignities, 
she was beheaded at Thebeste in Numidia (a.d. 
CRISPIN of PAVIA (St.) Bp. (Jan. 7) 

(5th cent.) More than one holy Prelate of 
this name in ancient times illustrated the See 
of Pavia in Lombardy. One of them in the 
first half of the third century governed it for 
thirty-five years, ever solicitous not only for 
the spiritual advancement of his flock, but also 
for the temporal well-being of the city. It was 
probably in his honour that the Feast of Jan. 7 
was first instituted, though the entry in the 
Roman Martyrology is commonly understood 
to commemorate another Bishop St. Crispin 
who subscribed (a.d. 451) the Acts of the 
Council of Milan in support of Pope St. Leo 
the Great, and who was the immediate pre- 
decessor of St. Epiphanius. 
CRISPULUS (St.) M. (May 30) 



(First cent.) Martyrs believed to have suf- 
fered under Nero in the Apostolic Age, and 
probably in Rome. Baronius, however, fol- 
lowing Rabanus Maurus, assigns them to Spain. 
No account of them is extant. 
CRISPUS (St.) M. (Aug. 18) 

CRISPUS and CAIUS (SS.) MM. (Oct. 4) 

(1st cent.) Saints of the Apostolic Age, the 
two whom alone St. Paul baptised at Corinth 
(1 Cor. i. 13). Crispus was ruler of the syna- 
gogue in that city (Acts xviii. 8). Caius in all 
likelihood is the same as the person whom the 
Apostle styles " my host " (Rom. xvi. 23), 
and also (which is the opinion of Origen and of 
Venerable Bede) the " dearly beloved Gains 
(Caius) " to whom St. John addressed his 




Third Epistle. A well-supported tradition has 
it that Crispus became the first Bishop of the 
Island of iEgina, and Caius similarly first 
Bishop of Thessalonica. 
♦CRISTIOLUS (St.) (Nov. 3) 

(7th cent.) A Welsh Saint, brother of St. 
Sidian and founder of churches in Pembroke- 
shire and in Anglesey. 
*CROIDAN, MEDAN and DAGAN (SS.) (June 4) 

(6th cent.) Three disciples of St. PETROC, 
vofxxch sss 
*CRONAN (St.) Abbot. (April 28) 

(7th cent.) Born in Munster, St. Cronan 
founded several Religious Houses in various 
parts of Ireland, chief among them that of 
Roscrea. He had many disciples and worked 
many miracles. He died about A.D. 640. 
♦CRONAN THE WISE (St.) Bp. (Feb. 9) 

(8th cent.) The striking characteristic of 
this St. Cronan was his zeal, ability and success 
in the regulating of Ecclesiastical discipline. 
He drew up many sets of disciplinary laws, 
from which he came to be styled " Cronan of 
the Nones." He was probably a Bishop of 
Lismore, and identical with the holy Prelate 
known there as St. Roman. He must have 
flourished early in the eighth century. 
*CRONAN BEG (St.) Bp. (Jan. 7) 

(7th cent.) A Bishop of ancient iEndrum 
(Down), mentioned in connection with the 
Paschal Controversy in A.D. 640. 
♦CRONANUS (St.) (June 3) 

(7th cent.) A disciple of St. Kevin, renowned 
for his austere life and singular virtue. 
CRONIDES (CHRONIDES) (St.) M. (March 27) 

CROTATES (St.) M. (April 21) 

CROTILDES (St.) Queen. Widow. ( 3) 

The name of St. CLOTILDE of France is thus 
spelled in the old editions of the Roman Martyr- 
♦CRUMMINE (St.) Bp. (June 28) 

(5th cent.) A disciple of St. Patrick, placed 
by him over the Church of Leccuine. 
CTESIPHON (St.) Bp. (May 15) 

♦CUARAN (CURVINUS) (St.) Bp. (Feb. 9) 

(7th cent.) An Irish Saint, sur named like 
some others, " The Wise," who concealed his 
Episcopal dignity in order to embrace the 
Religious Life as a simple monk at Iona, where, 
however, he was eventually recognised by St. 
Columba. He died probably some years after 
A.D. 700. 
*CUBY (CYBY) (St.) Bp. (Nov. 8) 

(6th cent.) A Cornish Saint, a cousin of 
St. David of Wales. Consecrated Bishop, 
he with ten disciples settled near Tregony, 
but later passed some time in Ireland. In 
the end he came to Wales and founded a 
monastery near Holyhead. He is the Patron 
Saint of Llangybi (Monmouth) and of Llangibi 
(Carnarvon). The exact date of his death is 
not known. 
CUCUPHAT (St.) M. (July 25) 

(4th cent.) An African Christian who, 
having crossed into Spain, was put to death on 
account of his religion near Barcelona, in the 
time of Diocletian at the close of the third or 
beginning of the fourth century. The Christian 
poet Prudentius mentions St. Cucuphat in his 
Hymns,and he is in great veneration in Catalonia. 
Part of his relics have been translated to Paris. 
His name is variously written Cucuphas, Cougat, 
Quiquefat, Gulnefort, &c. 
CULMATIUS (St.) M. (June 19) 

*CUMGAR (CUNGAR, CYNGAR) (St.) (Nov. 2) 


(6th cent.) A son of Geraint, Prince of 
Devon, and founder of monasteries at Badg- 
worth, Congresbury (Somerset) and at Llan- 
genys (Glamorgan). He lived in the sixth 
century, and is one and the same with St. 


Docuinus or Doguinus. This seems to be the 
name which was later corrupted into Oue and 
Kew. St. Cumgar was buried at Congresbury, 
to which town he has given his name. The 
compilers of the English Menology hold that 
St. Cumgar flourished in the eighth century 
in the time of King Ina of Wessex. 

*CUMINE THE WHITE (St.) Abbot. (Oct. 6) 

(7th cent.) An Abbot of Iona, of Irish 
descent, who wrote a Life of St. Columba. 
He died A.D. 669. 

*CUMMIAN FADA (St.) Abbot. (Nov. 12) 

(7th cent.) A Columbian monk, Abbot of 
the monastery of Kilcummin (King's County). 
In the disputes about the date of Easter he 
was a strenuous upholder of the Roman system 
of calculation. He died A.D. 662. Some think 
that he is identical with St. Cummian, Bishop 
of Clonfert. 

*CUMMIANUS (CUMIAN) (St.) Bp. (Aug. 19) 

(7th cent.) An Irish Bishop who resigned his 
See in order to retire to the monastery founded 
by St. Columbanus at Bobbio in the North of 
Italy, where he lived and died in great fame of 
sanctity. He was an energetic advocate of the 
Roman date of Easter. He died, according to 
some, A.D. 661 ; to others, A.D. 682. 

*CUNEGUNDA (St.) V. (July 24) 

Otherwise St. KINGA, which see. 

CUNEGUNDES (St.) V. (March 3) 

Otherwise St. CHUNEGUNDIS, which see. 

♦CUNERA (St.) V. (June 12) 

(Date uncertain.) A Saint venerated more 

particularly in Germany, but said to have been 

of British birth. The traditions relating to 

her are unreliable. 

CUNIBERT (St.) Bp. (Nov. 12) 

(7th cent.) A nobly-born Frank brought up 
at the Court of King Dagobert I, who, from 
being Archdeacon of Treves, was (a.d. 633) 
elected Archbishop of Cologne. Not only did 
his virtues render him the idol of his flock, but 
his statesmanlike ability and prudence led to 
his enjoying the favour and confidence of King 
Dagobert and of the two monarchs who suc- 
ceeded him, all of whom he served as chief 
minister. He died A.D. 664. A stately church 
at Cologne is dedicated in his honour. 

*CUNO (CONRAD) (St.) Bp., M. (June 1) 

(11th cent.) An Archbishop of Treves in 
the time of the Emperor Henry IV. He met his 
death while defending the rights of his Church 
(A.D. 1066) and was at once acclaimed as a 
Martyr by his devoted people. 

CURCODOMUS (St.) (May 4) 

(3rd cent.) A deacon who by command of 

the Pope of the time (possibly St. Xystus II) 

attended St. Peregrinus, first Bishop of Auxerre, 

on his Apostolic Mission into Gaul in the third 

century or earlier. His tomb was the scene 

of many miracles, and his memory has ever been 

locally in Burgundy in great honour. 

CURE D'ARS (Bl.) (Sept. 3) 


•CURIG (St.) Bp. (June 16) 

(6th cent.) Stated to have been Bishop of 
Llanbadarn in Wales, in which country several 
churches are dedicated in his honour. There is, 
however, great difficulty in tracing his history 
and even in distinguishing him from other 
Saints bearing names resembling his. 

*CURITAN (St.) Bp. (March 14) 

Otherwise St. BONIFACE, which see. 

CURONTIUS (St.) Bp., M. (Sept. 12) 

(3rd cent.) A Bishop of Iconium in Lycaonia 

(Asia Minor), put to death for the Faith during 

the persecution under Valerian (A.D. 258, about). 

*CURY (St.) (Dec. 12) 

(5th cent.) Also called Corentin. A native 

of Brittany, who settled in Cornwall, where he 

became a zealous missionary. He died A.D. 401. 

CUTHBERT (St.) Bp. (March 20) 

(7th cent.) Born at Melrose on the river 

Tweed, St. Cuthbert in his youth tended his 

father's sheep until, having in a vision at the 



moment of the death of St. Aidan seen that 
Saint mounting in glory to Heaven, he embraced 
the monastic life. As guestmaster of Melrose 
Abbey, while courteous and affable to all, he 
was specially solicitous for poor wayfarers, and 
on one occasion entertained an Angel in the 
guise of a beggar. He governed for some time 
the Monastery of Lindisfarne or Holy Island, 
off the coast of Northumberland, which he 
reluctantly quitted to become Bishop of that 
See, later transferred to Durham. Though 
always a lover of prayer and solitude, he 
distinguished himself by his beneficent influence 
on public affairs, and enjoyed the confidence 
of the princes of his time. The miracles he 
wrought earned him the title of the Thau- 
maturgus (Wonder-worker) of Britain. To- 
wards the close of the second year of his Epis- 
copate he retired to the little Isle of Fame 
(nine miles from Lindisfarne), and there passed 
away March 20, a.d. 687. His shrine at 
Durham was one of the most frequented in 
Catholic England, and more than four centuries 
after his death his body was found to be still 
incorrupt. It was hidden at the time of the 
so-called Reformation, and is believed to be yet 
resting in some obscure recess of Durham 

C* i\ t" Yl P ( 1 1*1,1 

♦CUTHBERT MAYNE (Bl.) M. (Nov. 29) 

(16th cent.) Blessed Cuthbert Mayne was 
the first of the Seminary priests ordained 
abroad to give his life in England for Christ. 
Born in Devonshire, he had been educated as 
a Protestant, but was converted to the True 
Faith while studying at Oxford. He was 
ordained priest at Douai, and then began to 
labour as a missionary priest in Cornwall ; but 
before a year had elapsed, was arrested, tried 
and condemned to death, for the crime of having 
said Mass. He suffered near Launceston, 
A.D. 1577. 
♦CUTHBURGA (St.) (Aug. 31) 

(8th cent.) A sister of King Ina of Wessex, 
betrothed to Oswy of Northumbria, but with his 
consent released from her obligation and admit- 
ted to the Religious Life. She was trained 
thereto by St. Hildelid at Barking Abbey. She 
afterwards founded the great Abbey of Wim- 
borne in Dorsetshire, where her sister St. 
Quenburga was associated with her. Wimborne 
was the school in which SS. Lioba, Thecla and 
other great and saintly women prepared for their 
lives of Christian devotedness and usefulness. 
St. Cuthburga passed away a.d. 724 or there- 
abouts, and her festival is marked in several 
Liturgical Calendars. 
♦CUTHMAN (St.) (Feb. 8) 

(8th cent.) A South of England Saint who 
lived a holy life as a shepherd near Steyning in 
Sussex, of which place the old church is dedicated 
in his honour. 
CUTIAS (St.) M. (Feb. 18) 

CYBAR (St.) Abbot. (July 1) 

Otherwise St. EPARCHIUS, which see. 
*CYBY (St.) Bp. (Nov. 5) 

Otherwise St. CUBY, which see. 
•CYNDEYRN (St.) Bp. (Jan. 13) 

Otherwise St. KENTIGERN, which see. 

♦CYNFRAN (St.) (Nov. 11) 

(5th cent.) A Welsh Saint, one of the sons 

of the chieftain Brychan of Brecknock, and 

founder of a church in Carnarvonshire. There 

is also a St. Cynfran's Well. 

•CYNIDR (KENEDRUS) (St.) Abbot. (April 27) 

Otherwise St. ENODER, which see. 
♦CYNOG (St.) M. (Oct. 7) 

Otherwise St. CANOG, which see. 
•CYNWL (St.) (April 30) 

(6th cent.) The brother of St. Deiniol, 
first Bishop of Bangor. He lived an austere 
life in North Wales, and after his death churches 
were dedicated in his honour. 
CYBARD (St.) Abbot. (July 1) 

Otherwise St. EPARCHIUS, which see. 

*CYNFARCH (St.) (Sept. 8) 

Otherwise St. KINGSMARK, which see. 
*CYNLIO (St.) (July 17) 

(5th cent.) A Welsh Saint, as it would appear 

of the fifth century. Several churches are 

dedicated in his honour, but we have no reliable 

account of him. 

CYPRIAN (St.) M. (March 10) 

CYPRIAN (St.) M. (July 11) 

CYPRIAN (St.) Bp., M. (Sept. 14) 

(3rd cent.) Thascius Csecilius Cyprian, a 
cultured and wealthy Carthaginian, after teach- 
ing with distinction Philosophy and Rhetoric, 
was converted to Christianity (it is believed 
comparatively late in life). He was soon 
raised to the priesthood and a year after was 
consecrated Bishop of Carthage (a.d. 248). 
Cheerful and courteous to every one, his charity 
and piety speedily won all hearts. But it was 
by his writings, of which even the literary merit 
is very great, that he has chiefly served the 
Church. He was linked in bonds of cordial 
sympathy and friendship with the Martyr-Pope, 
St. Cornelius, and in his own books bears explicit 
and striking witness to the necessary Oneness 
of the Church founded on the Rock of Peter. 
His conviction appears the more from his bold- 
ness and insistency in maintaining his own 
erroneous views on the validity of Baptism 
conferred by heretics, to which he sought in 
vain to draw Pope St. Stephen. His treatise 
on Lapsed or Fallen Christians is a noble sum- 
mary of the merciful doctrine of Rome in regard 
to sinners. St. Cyprian by a prudent retreat 
escaped the persecution of Christians under 
Decius (a.d. 250). He won his crown under 
Valerian (a.d. 258), when he was beheaded in 
presence of his sorrowing flock. For a vivid 
description of the Martyrdom of St. Cyprian, 
see his Life by his disciple Pontius. With him 
in his triumph were associated SS. Crescentianus, 
Victor, Generalis, Rosula, and other Christians 
of Carthage. 
CYPRIAN and JUSTINA (SS.) MM. (Sept. 26) 

(4th cent.) Cyprian, from leading a life of 
sin and making his livelihood as a necromancer 
and astrologer, was converted to Christianity 
by the virgin St. Justina, whom he had thought 
to lead astray. In the persecution under 
Diocletian they were both arrested and taken 
to the Imperial residence at Nicomedia (Asia 
Minor) and there condemned and beheaded 
on account of their religion (a.d. 300 about). 
Their relics are now enshrined in Rome in the 
Baptistery of the Church of St. John Lateran. 
CYPRIAN (St.) M. (Oct. 12) 

CYPRIAN (St.) Abbot. (Dec. 9) 

(6th cent.) A monk of P6rigueux (France) 
who ended a holy life as a hermit on the banks 
of the Dordogne (a.d. 586). St. Gregory of 
Tours speaks of the many miracles wrought by 
him both in life and after death. 
CYR (St.) M. (June 16) 

Otherwise St. QUIRICUS, which see. 
CYRA (St.) (Aug. 3) 

CYRENIA and JULIANA (SS.) MM. (Nov. 1) 

(4th cent.) Two Christian women burned to 

death for their religion at Tarsus in Asia Minor, 

in the last great persecution under the Roman 

Emperors (a.d. 306). 

CYRIA (St.) M. (June 5) 


These names, common to many Saints, are 
often found written QUIRIACUS, QUIRIACA, 
&c, or again, for them are substituted the equi- 
valent Latin forms, DOMINICUS, DOMINICA, 
<fec. Less frequently, the forms KYRIAOUS, 
KIRIACUS, &c, are met with. 
CYRIACA (St.) M. (March 20) 





CYRIACA and OTHERS (SS.) VV.MM. (May 19) 

(4th cent.) Six Christian maidens who 

perished at the stake, at Nicomedia, the Imperial 

residence, under Maximinian Galerius (a.d. 307). 

CYRIACA (DOMINICA) (St.) M. (Aug. 21) 

(3rd cent.) A wealthy Roman widow who 

sheltered the persecuted Christians and to whose 

house St. Laurence, the deacon and Martyr, was 

accustomed to repair to distribute his alms. 

Her courageous charity cost her her life. She 

was scourged to death as a Christian (a.d. 249). 

The Roman Church of St. Mary in Domnica 

perpetuates her name. 

CYRIACUS (St.) M. (Jan. 31) 

CYRIACUS (St.) M. (Feb. 8) 

(SS.) MM. (Aug. 8) 

(4th cent.) A group of more than twenty 
Christians, among the victims in Rome of the 
great persecution under the Emperors Dio- 
cletian and Maximian Herculeus (a.d. 303). 
They were beheaded after having been put to 
the torture. St. Cyriacus, who was a deacon, 
gave his name to a famous church, seat or title 
of a Cardinal deacon. On its falling in the 
fifteenth century into ruin, its privileges, with 
the relics enshrined in it, were transferred to the 
church called Santa Maria in Via Lata. 
CYRIACUS and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (April 7) 

(Date unknown.) Eleven Christians regis- 
tered in the Martyrologies as having suffered 
at Nicomedia in Asia Minor. But the date and 
all particulars have been long since lost. 
CYRIACUS (St.) M. (May 2) 

CYRIACUS and JULITTA (SS.) MM. (June 16) 

CYRIACUS "(QUIRIACUS) (St.) Bp., M. (May 4) 

(4th cent.) Most probably a Bishop of 

Ancona (Italy) who, while making his pilgrimage 

to the Holy Land, perished in the persecution 

of Julian the Apostate (a.d. 362/. But many 

assert that he was a Bishop of Jerusalem, put 

to death under Hadrian (A.D. 117-138). In 

reality nothing certain is now known about him. 

His relics are venerated at Ancona. 

CYRIACUS and PAULA (SS.) MM. (June 18) 

(4th cent.) Two Christians, stoned to death 

at Malaga in Spain during the persecution under 

Diocletian (a.d. 305 about). St. Paula is 

registered as a Virgin Martyr, but no details are 

extant of either of these Martyrs. 

CYRIACUS (St.) M. (June 5) 

CYRIACUS (St.) M. (June 20) 


(Date unknown.) African Martyrs registered 
in the Martyrologies, but whose Acts have been 
CYRIACUS (St.) M. (June 24) 

CYRIACUS (St.) M. (July 15) 


(Dec. 19) 
(4th cent.) Some of the numberless Chris- 
tians who suffered at Nicomedia, the residence 
of the Emperor Diocletian (a.d. 303). No 
particulars are extant. 
CYRIL and METHODIUS (SS.) Bps. (March 9) 
(9th cent.) Two brothers, the Apostles of 
the Sclavonians or Slavs, born in Greece and 
educated at Constantinople. They were sent 
by the Patriarch St. Ignatius as missionaries 
to the Bulgarians, which people, following the 
example of their king, speedily embraced 
Christianity (a.d. 861-865). Cyril had previ- 
ously preached in Southern Russia. They 
pursued their work in Moravia and Dalmatia. 

On their coming to Rome to render an account 
of their mission, Pope Hadrian II consecrated 
them Bishops. Cyril, however, died there, 
leaving Methodius to continue alone their 
Apostolate, which he did with marvellous success 
in Moravia, Bohemia, Poland and the neigh- 
bouring countries. To him is attributed the 
Slav alphabet, into which tongue he translated 
the Holy Scriptures. He died in Moravia at an 
advanced age at the close of the ninth century. 
The relics of the two brothers are venerated 
in the church of San Clemente in Rome, and 
Pope Leo XIII ordered their festival to be 
solemnly kept throughout the Christian world 
on July 7. 

CYRIL of JERUSALEM (St.) Bp., (March 18) 

Doctor of the Church. 

(4th cent.) Born near Jerusalem a.d. 315. 
He was ordained priest a.d. 345, and became 
Patriarch in 350. Driven by the Arians from 
his See he returned to Jerusalem under Julian, 
and was an eye-witness of the futile attempt 
of the Apostate Emperor to rebuild the Temple. 
After enduring a second banishment lasting 
eleven years, he passed away in peace at Jeru- 
salem (A.D. 386). His Catecheses or simple 
expositions of Catholic doctrine are most 
valuable. Especially luminous is his clear 
teaching of the Faith on the subject of the 
Holy Eucharist. He was numbered by Pope 
Leo XIII among the Doctors of the Church. 

CYRIL (St.) M. (March 20) 

See SS. PAUL, CYRIL, &c. 

CYRIL (St.) M. (March 29) 

(4th cent.) A Palestinian deacon, martyred 
under Julian the Apostate (A.D. 362). Accord- 
ing to Theodoret, his body was frightfully 
mutilated before the executioner put an end to 
his sufferings. 

CYRIL (St.) Bp., M. (July 9) 

(3rd cent.) An aged prelate, Bishop of 
Gortyna in the Island of Crete, tortured and 
beheaded in the Decian persecution (a.d. 250). 

CYRIL of ALEXANDRIA (St.) Bp., (Jan. 28) 

Doctor of the Church. 

(5th cent.) By birth an Egyptian, and nep- 
hew of St. Theophilus, whom he succeeded 
(A.D. 412) in the Patriarchate of Alexandria. 
From the outset he showed himself a zealous 
champion of the Catholic Faith. He was 
unsparing in his efforts to eradicate the last 
vestiges of Paganism, but that he was an abettor 
of the murder of Hypatia, the girl-philosopher, 
is, in the words of a Protestant writer, " an 
unsupported calumny." He wrote Com- 
mentaries on the Holy Scriptures and other 
notable works, but his chief glory is his success- 
ful overthrowing of the subtle heresy of Nestorius 
(who taught that Christ was not truly God, 
but a mere man, the instrument of the Godhead, 
that is, that in Him there axe two Persons), 
condemned in the great Council of Ephesus 
(A.D. 431), which was presided over by St. Cyril 
as Legate of Pope St. Celestine. In this 
Council Our Lady's title of Theotokos (Mother 
of God) was formally recognised. Intrigues 
at Constantinople led to St. Cyril's imprison- 
ment, but liberated, in consequence of the strong 
action of the Pope, he returned to Alexandria, 
and there passed away in peace, Jan. 28, 444. 
Leo XIII proclaimed him a Doctor of the Church 
and assigned Feb. 9 as his Festival Day. 

CYRIL (St.) M. (March 4) 




MAMILLUS (SS.) MM. (March 8) 

(Date unknown.) African Martyrs (Cyril 

is described as a Bishop), registered in all the 

ancient lists, but of whom nothing is now 


CYRIL (St.) Bp. (July 22) 

(3rd cent.) The successor of Timseus (a.d. 

280) in the Patriarchate of Antioch. He was 

conspicuous both for piety and for learning. 



Like other prelates of his age, he had much to 
endure from the enemies of Christianity, but 
appears to have passed away in peace about 
a.d. 300. 


and MENANDER (SS.) MM. (Aug. 1) 

(Date unknown.) Martyrs of one of the early 

centuries, registered in the Martyrologies as of 

Philadelphia in Arabia. 

CYRIL (St.) M. (Oct. 2) 


CYRIL (St.) M. (Oct. 28) 


CYRILLA (St.) M. (July 5) 

(4th cent.) An aged Christian widow of 
Cyrene (Africa) who, with others, was put to 
death in that place, for refusing to sacrifice to 
idols. She appears to have expired in the 
torture chamber, and so not to have been 
beheaded, as was usual in the official persecu- 
tions of the early centuries (a.d. 300 about). 

CYRILLA (St.) V.M. (Oct. 28) 

(3rd cent.) The daughter of St. Tryphonia 
and a sharer in the good works of that holy 
Roman widow. She was put to death as a 
Christian under the Emperor Claudius II 
(A.D. 268-270). 

(SS.) MM. 

(4th cent.) Martyrs at Cyzicus on the 
Hellespont, under the Emperor Licinius (a.d. 
320). They were soldiers in the Imperial army 
and preferred to die rather than to share in the 
idolatrous sacrifices at which the troops were 
compelled to assist. St. Theogenes in parti- 
cular has from early times been in great venera- 
tion both in the East and in the West. 

CYRINUS (St.) M. (April 26) 

(3rd cent.) A Roman Martyr under Dio- 
cletian of whom mention is made in the Acts 
of St. Marcellinus, Pope and Martyr. 

CYRINUS (St.) M. (May 10) 


CYRINUS (St.) M. (June 12) 


MM. (Feb. 14) 

(Date uncertain.) Bede and all the Martyr- 
ologies commemorate these Saints as having 
suffered at Alexandria in Egypt. St. Cyrio 
was a priest, St. Bassian a Lector, St. Agatho 
an Exorcist, and St. Moses a layman. It would 
appear that on Feb. 14 the Church of Alexandria 
celebrated, besides, the Martyrdom of a great 
number of Christians, probably done to death 
in a single massacre, distinguishing them into 
various groups according to the nature of the 
sufferings they endured. St. Cyrio and his 
companions as above perished at the stake. 
St. Bassus {which see) with many others were 
drowned, SS. Dionysius and Ammonius {which 
see) were beheaded. 

CYRION and CANDIDA (SS.) MM. (March 9) 

The two most conspicuous among the famous 

CYRUS and JOHN (SS.) MM. (Jan. 31) 

(4th cent.) Martyrs of the last stages of the 
great persecution under Diocletian and his 
colleagues (a.d. 312). Cyrus, an Egyptian 
physician, and John, a Syrian, were devoting 
themselves to good works (some say in the 
monastic state of life) when they were seized, 
condemned as Christians, and beheaded at 
Alexandria. Their remains were subsequently 
translated to Rome. Metaphrastes has a prolix 
description of their trial and Passion. 

CYRUS of CARTHAGE (St.) Bp. (July 14) 

(Date unknown.) Who this Saint may have 
been is quite uncertain. St. Possidius in his 
Life of St. Augustine speaks of the holy Doctor's 
Sermon on the Feast of St. Cyrus, Bishop of 
Carthage ; but it is not unlikely that the name 
may be a mistake for that of St. Cyprian. 

CYTHINUS (St.) M. (July 17) 

One of the SCILLITAN MARTYRS, which see. 


*DABIUS (DAVIUS) (St.) (July 22) 

(Date uncertain.) Butler describes him as an 
Irish priest who worked in Scotland, where his 
name appears as title of churches. He may be 
identical with St. Movean or Biteus, disciple of 
St. Patrick. According to Smith and Wace, 
more to him than to St. David of Wales are the 
Celtic dedications under that name to be as- 
DACIANUS (St.) M. (June 4) 

DACIUS (St.) M. (Nov. 1) 


DELAS (SS.) MM. (Sept. 29) 

(4th cent.) St. Dadas, a noble Persian, 
Casdoe, his wife, and Gabdelas, probably their 
son, together with Sapor, a near relative of the 
King, were of the number of the many Christians 
who suffered martyrdom under Sapor II 
(A.D. 310-363). They underwent terrible tor- 
tures before finally being put to the sword. 
DADAS (St.) M. (April 13) 

DAFROSA (AFFROSA) (St.) M. (Jan. 4) 

(4th cent.) The wife of Fabian (Flavian) 
also a Martyr, and the mother of SS. Bibiana 
and Demetria, VV.MM. After the death of 
her husband some writers say that she herself 
was decapitated (a.d. 363). Others with better 
reason that she was exiled and succeeded in 
converting to Christianity and animating to 
martyrdom a certain Faustus who pretended 
to her hand, and who may be the Saint of that 
name venerated with others on June 24. But 
it is admitted that the Acts of St. Bibiana are 
untrustworthy, and that she and the other 
Saints referred to therein may have flourished 
a century earlier than the date given. The 
name Dafrosa is often written, and more 
correctly Daphrosa. 
*DAGAN (St.) M. (Aug. 27) 

Otherwise St. DECUMAN, which see. 
*DAG^EUS (St.) Bp. (Aug. 18) 

(6th cent.) An Irish Bishop at Iniskin near 
Dundalk. He ministered at the deathbed of 
St. Mochteus. He died about a.d. 560. 

(St.) M. (Jan. 29) 

(6th cent.) A kinsman of St. Edan of Ferns, 
born in Connaught and a great scholar who, 
through his application to study, became blind. 
He wrote a poem in honour of St. Columba, 
called Ambra Chohiim Kille which was only 
published after St. Columba's death. The 
legend averring that on its publication Dalian's 
sight was restored to him is found in several 
authors. St. Dalian was murdered at Trisccel 
by pirates (a.d. 598), and his head thrown into 
the sea. It was recovered and miraculously 
reunited to his body. 
DALMATIUS (St.) Bp., M. (Dec. 5) 

(4th cent.) A former Missionary in Gaul who 
was for one year Bishop of Pavia in Lombardy, 
where he laid down his life for the Faith during 
the persecution under Maximian Herculeus 
(A.D. 304). 
DAMASUS (St.) Pope. (Dec. 11) 

(4th cent.) " An incomparable man " (so 
St. Jerome styles him), " the Virgin Doctor of 
the Virgin Church." Of Spanish extraction, 
but born in Rome, he attended Pope Liberius 
in exile, and was in constant communion with 
St. Athanasius. He succeeded Liberius (a.d. 
366), but had to struggle against an Anti-Pope, 
Ursinus, whose rebellion was finally crushed, 
not without bloodshed, by the Emperor Valen- 
tinian. St. Damasus held Councils in Rome 
against the Arians and Apollinarians. A 
cultured man (as is seen from Ids verses) he was 
the great patron of St. Jerome, who under his 
direction re-translated into Latin or revised 




the current versions of Holy Scripture. St. 
Damasus is famous for having restored and 
beautified in Rome the tombs of the holy 
Martyrs. His share in the development of tJae 
Roman Liturgy, mainly by the introduction 
of certain elements borrowed from the Eastern 
Rites, was considerable. He died nearly eighty 
years old, A.D. 364, and was buried in one of 
the two important churches he had built in 
honour of St. Laurence the Martyr. 

DAMIAN (St.) M. (Feb. 12) 

(Date unknown.) According to the Bol- 
landists there are two Saints, Damian, whose 
Feasts are kept on Feb. 12 • one, a soldier 
who gave his life for his religion in Africa, 
probably at Alexandria, the other, a Roman 
Martyr, whose body was found in the cemetery 
of St. Callistus, and afterwards taken to Sala- 
manca in Spain. But dates and particulars 
are altogether wanting. 

*DAMHNADE (St.) V. (June 13) 

(Date uncertain.) An Irish Virgin famed 
for miracles and greatly venerated in Cavan, 
Fermanagh, &c. Colgan identifies her with 
St. Dympna, the Martyr of Gael in Belgium, 
but he can scarcely be right, as neither can be 
iEngus, who makes her out to have been 
sister to St. Fursey. Nothing is really known 
of her life or date. 

DAMIAN (St.) Bp. (April 12) 

(8th cent.) Of noble birth and early dis- 
tinguished for learning and piety, he was 
(a.d. 680) consecrated Bishop of Pavia in 
Lombardy. He strenuously opposed the Mono- 
thelites, heretics of the time who taught that 
in Christ there was no human will. He acted 
successfully as peacemaker between the Byzan- 
tine Emperor and the Lombards, his fellow- 
countrymen. But he is chiefly in honour for 
his devotedness to the sick and to the poor, 
to whom he ministered personally in a year of 
plague. By his kiss he is said to have healed 
a leper. He went to his reward (A.D. 710), 
and was buried in his Cathedral. 

DAMIAN (St.) M. (Sept. 27) 


DAMIAN (St.) M. (Feb. 16) 


DANIEL (St.) M. (Jan. 3) 

(2nd cent.) St. Daniel, a deacon, said to 
have been of Jewish extraction, aided St. 
Prosdocimus, first Bishop of Padua, in his 
Apostolate of the North-East of Italy. An 
eloquent preacher, he was seized and tortured 
to death in the Fourth General Persecution 
(A.D. 168). His body was miraculously dis- 
covered many centuries later and found in- 
corrupt. His Festival is kept on Jan. 3, that 
being the anniversary of the Translation of his 
Relics in the year 1064. 

DANIEL and VERDA (SS.) MM. (Feb. 21) 

(4th cent.) Persian Martyrs, greatly honoured 
in the East, who suffered under King Sapor II 
(A.D. 344). 

DANIEL (St.) M. (July 10) 


♦DANIEL (St.) (March 31) 

(15th cent.) A Camaldolese monk at Venice, 
a German by birth. He was murdered by 
robbers (A.D. 1411). He was a man of almost 
continuous prayer ; and while still in the world 
remarkable for the sacrifice he made of all his 
property in order to alleviate the misery of the 

DANIEL (St.) Prophet. (July 21) 

(5th cent. B.C.) One of the Four Great 
Prophets, and the inspired writer of the book 
under his name in Holy Scripture, of which the 
Church recognises some sections whose Divine 
origin was unknown to the Jews. Besides 
what is therein narrated, tradition holds that 
the holy Prophet did not return into Judaea 
with his fellow-countrymen, but remained in 
Persia, where he died, a centenarian. The 

Roman Martyrology indicates Babylon as the 
place of his death, but his tomb is still shown 
at Susa. His relics, translated to Alexandria, 
are now venerated at Venice. The Greeks keep 
his Feast on Dec. 17, together with that of the 
Three Children cast into the fiery furnace 
(Dan. iii.). 
*DANIEL (St.) Bp. (Sept. 11) 

(6th cent.) Consecrated first Bishop of 
Bangor by St. Dubritius, he governed his See 
with zeal and success. After his death (a.d. 
545) the Cathedral at Bangor and other churches 
were dedicated in his honour. He was buried 
in the Isle of Bardsey. His Festival is variously 
kept on Nov. 23 and Dec. 1. 


(Oct. 13) 

(13th cent.) St. Daniel, Provincial in 
Calabria of the newly-founded Franciscan 
Order, was sent by St. Francis of Assisi, with 
six of his brethren to preach Christianity to the 
African Mohammedans. They landed at Ceuta 
in Morocco and at once applied themselves to 
their holy work ; but arrested after a few days 
and at first treated as madmen, they were 
finally sentenced to be beheaded (a.d. 1221). 
Their bodies, torn to pieces by the populace, 
were collected by Christians and later carried 
over to Spain. 

(5th cent.) One of the most famous of the 
Pillar-Saints of the fifth century. He entered 
a monastery near Samosata on the Upper 
Euphrates, but travelling with his Abbot 
came to know the celebrated St. Simon Stylites 
who did penance on the top of a pillar near 
Antioch. St. Daniel, resolved on imitating 
him, and encouraged by him, embraced the 
same strange form of austere life at a spot 
a few miles outside the walls of Constantinople. 
He lived thirty years on his pillar, whereon he 
was ordained priest and used to say Mass. 
Thereon also, honoured by the Greek Emperor 
and the idol of the people whose sick he mira- 
culously healed, he passed away a.d. 492, 
four score years old. 
*DARERCA (St.) Widow. (March 22) 

(5th cent.) St. Patrick's sister. Her name, 
derived from the Irish Diar-sheare, signifying 
constant or firm love, denotes her characteristic 
in God's service. At what date in the fifth 
century she died is not known. She is reputed 
to have left many sons, some of whom became 
DARIAS (St.) M. (Oct. 25) 


(SS.) MM. (Dec. 19) 

(Date unknown.) Of these Martyrs, the old 

Martyrologies make mention as having suffered 

at Nicsea, but nothing is extant concerning 


♦DARLUGDACHA (St.) V. (Feb. 1) 

(6th cent.) The successor of St. Brigid and 
second Abbess of Kildare. She died a.d. 524. 
The legend of her journeying in Scotland seems 
devoid of evidence. 

(SS.) MM. (Oct. 21) 

(4th cent.) Fifteen Christian soldiers who 
suffered under Diocletian (a.d. 303 about) at 
Nicomedia, the Imperial residence on the 
Black Sea. After undergoing appalling tortures 
they were taken out in boats and cast into the 
DASIUS (St.) Bp., M. (Nov. 20) 

(4th cent.) At Dorostorum in Mysia (Asia 
Minor) this holy Bishop, as in duty bound, set 
his face and authority against the shameless 
immorality practised in the Saturnalia and other 
heathen festivals. His zeal cost him his life, 
and he won the crown of martyrdom under 
Diocletian in the first years of the fourth 



DATHIUS (DATUS) (St.) Bp. (July 3) 

(2nd cent.) An Archbishop of Ravenna, the 
miraculous appearance of a dove hovering over 
whose head had led to his election. He faith- 
fully discharged his duty to his flock during the 
respite to persecution under Commodus and 
entered into rest about A.D. 190. 
DATIVA (St.) V.M. (Dec. 6) 

DATIUS (St.) Bp. (Jan. 14) 

(6th cent.) Of the illustrious family of the 
Alliati, he, because of his piety and learning, 
was appointed Archbishop of Milan. He was of 
invaluable assistance to Pope Vigilius in the 
dispute about the " Three Chapters." In A.D. 
551 he took part in the Council of Constantinople 
and in the condemnation of the Patriarch Men- 
nas. In consequence he was ill-treated by the 
Emperor Justinian. He died A.D. 552, a few 
months after his return to his See. St. Gregory 
the Great speaks of him in terms of honour 
and esteem, and many miracles are attributed 
to his intercession. He is said to have ordered 
to be written the History of the Church of 
Milan known as the " Historia Datiana. 

(SS.) MM. (Jan. 27) 

(5th or 6th cent.) African Martyrs who 
suffered under the Vandals. These barbarians 
under Genseric invaded Africa (A.D. 427), the 
Roman Provinces having been betrayed to them 
by Count Boniface, the Governor, who, after- 
wards penitent, vainly sought to stay their 
progress. Hippona, the city of St. Augustine, 
fell in the year 431, that next after the death 
of the holy Doctor ; and Carthage was taken 
A.D. 437. The Vandals professed Arianism 
and persecuted the Catholics cruelly and 
persistently. The persecution, begun in 427, 
became more sanguinary under King Hunneric 
(477-485) and cannot be said to have ceased 
before a.d. 534, when the famous leader Belis- 
sarius recovered for the Emperor Justinian the 
Roman Provinces of Africa and extinguished 
the Vandal Kingdom. Of the earlier phases of 
the persecution we have particulars from the 
pen of the contemporary historian, Victor 
Vitensis. Procopius may also be referred to. 

The time, precise place, and circumstances of 
the martyrdom of St. Datius and his fellow- 
sufferers are unknown. 

OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Jan. 27) 

(Date unknown.) These holy men, thirty 
in number, are usually described as having 
suffered for Christ in Africa in the third century, 
but Surius believes that they were victims 
of the Vandal persecution, two hundred years 
later. Another and perhaps very tenable 
opinion holds that they were martyred in 
Galicia in the north-west of Spain, and as early 
as a.d. 95. No particulars are known. 
DATIVUS (St.) M. (Feb. 11) 

DATIVUS (St.) Bp. M. (Sept. 10) 

♦DAVID (St.) Bp. (March 1) 

(6th cent.) The Patron Saint of Wales and 
perhaps the most illustrious of the ancient 
British Bishops. His life by Giraldus Cambrcn- 
sis is very unreliable, and the traditions con- 
cerning him are the subject of much merited 
criticism. The Breviary approved lessons 
describe him as born of noble parents in South 
Wales and educated by St. Paulinus, the disciple 
of St. Germanus of Auxerre. Later, he was a 
strenuous opposer of the Pelagian heresy, and 
the founder of the See of St. David's or Menevia. 
Thither, when appointed successor of St. 
Dubritius, he transferred the chief Welsh 
Bishopric from Caorleon. He is said to have 
been zealous for good discipline among both 
clergy and laity, and to have presided over the 
Synod of Brewi. The middle of the sixth cen- 
tury is rightly given as the time of his death, 

that of a.d. 601, adopted by Haddan and 
Stubbs from the Annales Cambrenses being 
clearly impossible. In art St. David is often 
represented preaching on a hill with a dove 
resting on his shoulder. 

DAVID (St.) Hermit. (June 26) 

(5th cent.) A Saint held in great veneration 
in the Patriarchate of Constantinople, whither 
he is reported to have come from his native 
Mesopotamia. From his youth upwards a 
contemplative, he was raised by Almighty God 
to a high degree of prayer, and privileged to 
work miracles. He settled in a solitary place 
outside Thessalonica, where he served God for 
seventy years. He flourished probably in the 
fifth century, though there is much uncertainty 
as to this. His relics were translated to Pavia 
in a.d. 1054. 

*DAVID (St.) Abbot. (July 15) 

(10th cent.) An Englishman of noble birth 
who followed St. Sigfried into Sweden and there 
governed with zeal a monastery of Benedictine 
monks. He died at a great age, and many 
miracles have been worked at his intercession. 

DAVID (St.) King. Prophet. (Dec. 29) 

(10th cent. B.C.) In the First and Second 
Books of Kings, and in Parallepomenon, or 
Chronicles, are related all the facts which God 
has been pleased to reveal to us concerning this 
man " after His own Heart." The Book of 
Psalms almost in its entirety is by Holy Church 
attributed to him, " the sweet singer in Israel." 
The tomb of David was recognised in Jerusalem 
as late as the second century of our iEra, when 
Hadrian destroyed, or rather attempted to 
destroy it, as it is still pointed out. Josephus 
narrates the miracles worked thereat, especially 
on the occasion of the pillage attempted by 
Herod. Eusebius refers to the endeavours of 
Vespasian to uproot the House of David, of 
whom the descendants were in his time in great 
consideration among the Jews. The Greeks 
keep the Feast of St. David together with all 
the other Saints, ancestors of Our Blessed Lord, 
on Dec. 19. The reason of the choice of Dec. 29 
by the Latins lies probably in their traditional 
reluctance to celebrate the Offices of Saints 
during the week preceding Christmas Day. 

DAVINUS (St.) (June 3) 

(11th cent.) A native of Armenia who selling 
all that he had and giving its price to the poor 
set out on a pilgrimage to Rome and to St. 
James of Compostella in Spain. On his journey 
he was hospitably entertained by a noble matron 
of Lucca in Tuscany. But, attacked there by 
a fatal malady, he succumbed June 3, A.D. 1051, 
and was buried in a church of that town. His 
spirit of prayer and penance earned him the 
honour and reputation of a Saint. His cultus 
was approved (it would seem) by Pope Alex- 
ander III. 

DECOROSUS (St.) Bp. (Feb. 15) 

(7th cent.) For thirty years Bishop of Capua 
in Southern Italy, St. Decorosus was one of the 
Prelates who assisted at and signed the Acts 
of the Council of Rome under Pope St. Agatho 
(a.d. 680). In high repute of sanctity, he died 
suddenly before the altar of his church (A.D. 695). 

*DAVY (JOHN) (Bl.) M. (May 4) 


*DAY (DYE) (St.) Abbot. (Jan. 18) 

(Date uncertain.) This Saint, otherwise 
unknown, to whom a Cornish church is dedi- 
cated, may possibly be St. DEICOLUS, Abbot, 
which see. 

♦DAVID (GLEB) (St.) (July 24) 


♦DEGADH (St.) (Aug. 18) 

Otherwise St. DAGiEUS, ivhich see. 

♦DE (St.) Bp. (Jan. 31) 

The Breton form of the name of St. iEDAN or 
EDAN of FERNS, which see. 

♦DECLAN (St.) Bp. (July 24) 

(6th cent.) A disciple of St. Colman who 

became Bishop of Ardmore, and, like so many 




other sixth century Prelates of his time, illus- 
trated the Church of Ireland by his ability and 
sanctity of life. 
♦DECUMAN (DAGAN) (St.) M. (Aug. 27) 

(8th cent.) A Welsh Saint who lived a holy 

life as a hermit in Somersetshire, where he was 

murdered (a.d. 716). No reliable particulars 

concerning him have come down to us. 

DEEL (DEILLE) (St.) (Jan. 18) 

Otherwise St. DEICOLA (DICHUL), which 


(7th cent.) Irish by birth, he, with St. 
Gallus, followed St. Columbanus into Gaul and 
took part in the foundation of the Abbey of 
Luxeuil. But when his master was driven into 
Switzerland and Italy, Deicola, remaining 
behind, founded another monastery at Lure 
in the Vosges mountains, where he died in great 
fame of sanctity at an advanced age (A.D. 621). 
♦DEIFER (St.) Abbot. 

(6th cent.) A Welsh Saint, founder of Bod- 
fari in Flintshire. 
♦DEINIOL (St.) (Sept. 11) 

Welsh form of the name St. DANIEL, which 
DELPHINUS (St.) Bp. (Dec. 24) 

(5th cent.) A Bishop of Bordeaux in France, 
held in high esteem by St. Ambrose and other 
holy men of his time. He baptised St. Paulinus 
of Nola, whose Epistles addressed to St. Del- 
phinus are touching in their expressions of 
gratitude and veneration. St. Delphinus as- 
sisted at the Spanish Council of Saragossa 
(A.D. 380), against the Priscillianist heretics, 
whom later he again condemned in a Synod of 
his own (A.D. 385). The year 403 is given as 
that of his death. 
DEMETRIA (St.) V.M. (June 21) 

(4th cent.) Sister of St. Bibiana and daughter 
of SS. Flavian and Dafrosa. She was martyred 
in Borne under Julian the Apostate (a.d. 363), 
or rather, after having bravely confessed her 
Faith in Christ, fell dead at the feet of the 
judge. However, as elsewhere noted, there is 
much uncertainty as to dates and details in 
regard to all the facts regarding St. Bibiana 
and the Saints connected with her. The relics 
of SS. Bibiana and Demetria are enshrined in 
the church in Rome dedicated in honour of the 
former from ancient times. It was restored by 
Pope Urban VIII in the seventeenth century. 

OTHERS (SS.) MM. (April 9) 

(Date unknown.) Baronius notes these 
Martyrs as having suffered in Borne ; but he 
cannot support his statement by any good proof. 
The older manuscripts register them, using the 
phrase : " Rome and elsewhere." No parti- 
culars concerning any of them have come down 
to our time. 
DEMETRIUS (St.) M. (Aug. 14) 

(Date unknown.) The Roman and other 
Martyrologies describe him as an African 
Martyr, and in support of this, Baronius appeals 
to ancient manuscripts ; but nothing is known 
with any certainty about him. 
DEMETRIUS (DIMITRI) (St.) M. (Oct. 8) 

(4th cent.) Born and educated at Thes- 
salonica where he exercised the profession of 
Rhetor or Public Speaker, he made many 
converts to Christianity. Some say that he 
became a high Officer of State and even a 
Proconsul ; but this is hardly probable. Ar- 
rested as a Christian and brought before Dio- 
cletian's colleague, Galerius Maximianus, he 
appears to have been stabbed to death without 
the formality attending a legal execution. This 
was in one of the first years of the fourth 
century. His relics are in great veneration in 
the East, and a magnificent Basilica was soon 
after his martyrdom erected over his tomb 
at Thessalonica. The Greek Emperor Michael 
IV obtained a notable victory over the Bul- 


garians through his intercession. On account 
of the many miracles that have taken place at 
his shrine St. Demetrius has always been in 
great honour in the East, and his name is 
frequently given in Baptism to children. His 
Feast is there kept on Oct. 26. The Acts 
of St. Demetrius as published by Surius are 
manifestly interpolated and cannot be relied 
upon for details. 

OTHERS (S.S.) MM. (Nov. 10) 

(Date unknown.) A band of twenty-two 
Martyrs registered as having suffered at Antioch 
in Syria. St. Demetrius is described as a 
Bishop and St. Anianus as his deacon. Nothing 
whatever is now known of their date or lives. 

(Date unknown.) Old Roman manuscripts 

describe these Saints as Christians, who were 

put to death at Ostia at the mouth of the Tiber. 

Nothing more has come down to us about them. 

DEMETRIUS (St.) M. (Nov. 29) 


(SS.) MM. (Dec. 22) 

(Date unknown.) They are stated to have 
suffered at Ostia at the mouth of the Tiber ; 
but all dates and particulars have been long 
since lost. It is possible that these SS. Deme- 
trius and Honoratus (though the names are 
very common) may be identical with the Saints 
of the same names venerated on Nov. 21. 
DENIS (St.). 

The French abbreviation of the name DION Y- 
SIUS, which see. 

(SS.) MM. (July 31) 

(Date unknown.) Baronius describes these 
Martyrs as having suffered at Synnada in 
Phrygia ; but the Bollandists think it more 
likely that they were African Martyrs, which 
was also the judgment of Venerable Bede. 
Nothing beyond their names has come down 
to us. 
DEODATUS (DIEUDONNE) (St.) Bp. (June 19) 

(7th cent.) A Bishop of Nevers in France 

who resigned his See and embraced the life of 

a hermit. He passed away A.D. 679, leaving 

his name to the town of St. Di6. 

♦DENTLIN (DENAIN) (St.) (March 16) 

(7th cent.) The little son of St. Vincent of 
Soignies and St. Waltrude, brother of SS. 
Landric, Aldetrude and Madelberta. Though 
only seven years old when he died, he is in 
Belgium with them venerated as a Saint. A 
church in the Duchy of Cleves is dedicated in 
his honour. 

(6th cent.) A Welsh Saint, a soldier, and 
afterwards a hermit at Llanderfel in Merioneth- 
shire. He was greatly venerated by the Catholic 
DEOGRATIAS (St.) Bp. (March 12) 

(5th cent.) Consecrated to the See of Car- 
thage, A.D. 456, after it had remained vacant 
for fourteen years on account of the devastating 
persecution of the Vandal Arians who had driven 
his predecessor St. Quodvultdeus into exile. 
Genseric, the Vandal King, from the plunder 
of Rome and Italy, having brought many 
Romans of every condition of life prisoners 
to Carthage, St. Deogratias sold all that he or 
his Church possessed, even the Sacred Vessels 
of the Altar, to buy them back to liberty. He 
moreover fed them and housed them, day and 
night visiting the sick among them. But being 
already very old he did not resist long the many 
calls on his endurance, and after only one year 
of such strenuous pastoral labours, died a.d. 457. 
Victor Vitensis, the historian, writing a century 
later, enlarges on his merits and holiness. 
DERPHUTA (St.) M. (March 20) 

*DERUVIANUS (St.) M. (May 14) 

Otherwise St. DYFAN, which see. 



DESIDERIUS (St.) Bp., M. (Feb. 11) 

(7th cent.) A French Saint, born at Autun 
and educated at Vienne, who became succes- 
sively Archdeacon and Bishop of the latter 
city. The powerful Queen Brunehaut, mother 
of the weak Thierry III, had him exiled and 
deposed by a Synod, but four years afterwards, 
fearing his sanctity and popularity, allowed 
him to return. On his continuing to urge the 
reform of the morals of the depraved Court, 
Brunehaut hired three assassins, who put the 
holy Bishop to death, while he was visiting his 
Diocese in the twelfth year of his Episcopate 
(May 23, A.D. 608, or, according to some his- 
torians, a.d. 612), at a place since called St. 
Didier (the French form of the name Desiderius) 
de Chalarone. His relics were enshrined at 
Vienne (a.d. 620). St. Desiderius was for his 
age a distinguished classical scholar. He is 
one of the Bishops to whose protection St. 
Gregory the Great recommended St. Augustine 
and his companions journeying on their mission 
to preach Christianity to the Anglo-Saxons 
of Britain. 

DESIDERIUS (St.) M. (March 25) 


*DERWA (St.) M. 

(Date uncertain.) The Patron Saint of 
Menadarva (Merthyr-Dava — The Martyr Derwa) 
in Cornwall, near Camborne. Nothing is now 
known about this Saint. Possibly he is no 
other than St. Dyfan (Damian or Deruvianus), 
one of the Missionaries sent to Britain in the 
second century by Pope St. Eleutherius. 

(St.) Bp., M. (May 23) 

(Date uncertain.) The traditions concerning 
this Saint, who was Bishop of Langres in France, 
are so conflicting that it is now believed that 
there were two or more of the same name 
connected with Langres. Surius assigns to 
St. Desiderius a date in the third century ; 
and the compilers of the Gallia Christiana one 
in the fourth ; while the common opinion fixes 
his Martyrdom on May 23, A.D. 411. All agree 
that, being Bishop of Langres in North- Eastern 
Gaul, during a raid of Teutonic barbarians, he 
boldly sought out their chieftain to beg mercy 
for his flock, but was forthwith himself struck 
down, his blood staining the Book of the Gospels 
he held in his hand. With him perished very 
many of his faithful people. Numerous 
churches are dedicated in his honour, and from 
him the town of St. Dizier takes its name. 

DESIDERIUS (St.) M. (Sept. 19) 


♦DEUSDEDIT (St.) Bp. (July 14) 

(7th cent.) The successor of St. Honorius 
in the See of Canterbury, over which he presided 
with zeal and charity for over ten years, passing 
away a victim of the great Pestilence of a.d. 

DEUSDEDIT (St.) (Aug. 10) 

(6th cent.) A poor shoemaker in Rome, 
contemporary of St. Gregory the Great (in the 
latter half of the sixth century), of whom the 
holy Pope relates that he worked hard all the 
week at his trade and on each Saturday gave 
to the poor all his earnings beyond what was 
necessary for bare sustenance for himself. 

DEUSDEDIT (St.) Abbot, M. (Oct. 9) 

(9th cent.) The fifteenth Abbot of the great 
monastery of Monte Cassino, conspicuous for 
learning and holiness of life. He was especially 
liberal as an almsgiver. While on a journey 
he was seized and held to ransom by a robber 
baron, but so maltreated that he died in his 
prison (a.d. 834). Many miracles were wrought 
at his tomb. 

DEUSDEDIT (ADEODATUS) (St.) Pope. (Nov. 8) 
(7th cent.) The successor of St. Boniface IV 
(a.d. 615). He ruled the Church for three 
years. Though little is known of the details 
of his Pontificate, his self-sacrificing devotedness 
to his flock during a year of pestilence endeared 

him to his people and ensured the veneration 
of his memory. He is said to have been the 
first Pope to append to his Decrees the leaden 
seals or Bullae from which the word Bull, 
describing them, has been derived. 

DEUSDEDIT of BRESCIA (St.) Bp. (Dec. 10) 

(7th cent.) The last of the canonised Bishops 
of Brescia in Lombardy. He was a strenuous 
opposer of the Monothelite heretics (those who 
denied to Christ a Human Will), and took part 
in the Councils summoned in his time in Italy 
to deal with them. He died some time between 
A.D. 679 and A.D. 700. 

*DEVEREUX (St.) Bp. (Nov. 14) 

Otherwise St. DUBRITIUS, which see. 

(St.; Bp. 

(6th cent.) A native of the North of Scotland 
who in his old age associated himself with the 
missionary work of SS. Columba and Machar, 
and evangelised Caithness. He certainly flour- 
ished in the sixth century, and is reputed to 
have been consecrated a Bishop. 

*DEVOTA (St.) V.M. (Jan. 27) 

(4th cent.) A Christian maiden in Corsica 
who expired on the rack during the persecution 
under the Emperor Diocletian (a.d. 303). Her 
remains were brought by a priest who knew 
her to Monaco on the Riviera, of which town 
she is venerated as the Patron Saint. 

*DEWI (St.) Bp. (March 1) 

Otherwise St. DAVID of WALES, which see. 

DIACONUS (St.) M. (March 14) 

(6th cent.) So described on account of the 
office (that of deacon) he held in the Church of 
the Marsi in Central Italy. St. Gregory relates 
of him that together with two monks he was 
put to death by the Lombards what time they 
were ravaging Italy in the sixth century. 


(6th cent.) Remarkable from his earliest 
years for sanctity, Diarmaid became spiritual 
director and teacher to St. Kiernan of Clon- 
macnois, and later founded a monastery on 
Innis-Clotran Island. 

*DEYNIOLEN (St.) (Nov. 22) 

(7th cent.) He is also known as St. Deyniol 
the Younger, and was Abbot of Bangor at the 
time of the slaughter of his monks and destruc- 
tion of their monastery by King Ethelfrid of 
Northumbria after the Battle of Chester (a.d. 
616). The Saint appears to have escaped the 
massacre and to have lived on till about A.d. 

*DICHU (St.) (April 29) 

(5th cent.) The first convert made by St. 
Patrick in Ulster. He was originally a swine- 
herd. After his conversion it is written that 
he continued faithful to the end to Christ and 
St. Patrick. The year of his death is unknown. 

DICHUL (St.) Abbot. (Jan. 18) 

Otherwise St. DEICOLA, which see. 

*DIDACUS CARVALHO (Bl.) M. (Feb. 22) 

(17th cent.) A Jesuit Martyr in Japan, who 

was exposed naked on a frozen lake by order of 

the heathen magistrates, and thus laid down his 

life for Christ, A.D. 1624. 

*DIGAIN (St.) (Nov. 21) 

(5th cent.) A son of Constantine, king or 
chieftain of Cornwall. Llangernw (Denbighshire), 
perpetuates his memory. 

DIDACUS (DIEGO) (St.) (Nov. 12) 

(15th cent.) A native of Seville in Spain, 
a Franciscan lay-brother, who attended mis- 
sionaries of his Order to the Canary Islands 
and aided them effectually in their Apostolate. 
Later he was recalled to Spain, where he died 
in the Convent of Alcala in Castile, A.D. 1463. 
He was a miracle of penance and contemplative 
prayer, his chief devotion being to Our Lord 
in the Blessed Sacrament, and to the Holy 
Mother of God. The many miracles worked at 
his tomb led to his canonisation by Pope 
Sixtus V in the year 1588. 




DIDIER (St.) Bp., M. (May 23) 

Otherwise St. DESIDERIUS, which see. 
DIDIUS (St.) M. (Nov. 26) 

DIDYMUS (St.) M. (April 28) 

DIDYMUS (St.) M. (Sept. 11) 


DIE (DEODATUS) (St.) Bp. (June 19) 

(7th cent.) A Bishop of Nevers (France), 

who resigned his See to embrace the life of a 

hermit. He is the founder of the Abbey of 

Jointures, around which sprang up a town, the 

seat of a Bishopric called that of St. Di6. The 

Saint died A.D. 679. 

DIEGO (St.) (Nov. 12) 

Otherwise St. DIDACUS, which see. 

The French name for St. DEUSDEDIT or 
ADEODATUS, which see. 
DIGNA (St.) V.M. (June 14) 

*DINGAD (St.) (Nov. 1) 

(5th cent.) A son of the chieftain Brychan of 
Brecknock, who led a monastic or eremitical 
life at Llandingad in Monmouthshire. 
DIGNA (St.) V. (Aug. 11) 

(4th cent.) A Christian maiden of Todi in 
Umbria (Central Italy), who during the persecu- 
tion under Diocletian in the beginning of the 
fourth century lived a life of penance and 
prayer in the surrounding mountains, and 
acquired a great reputation for holiness. 
DIGNA (St.) M. (Aug. 12) 

DIGNA and EMERITA (SS.) VV.MM. (Sept. 22) 
(3rd cent.) Roman maidens seized and put 
to the torture as Christians in the persecution 
of Valerian (A.D. 254-A.d. 259), who whilst 
standing before their judges and praying, 
expired. Their sacred remains, thrown un- 
buried into the open country, were rescued by 
the Christians and honourably interred in the 
catacombs with those of SS. Felix and Adauctus. 
They are now venerated in the Church of 
St. Marcellus in Rome. 

(St.) Bp. 

(7th cent.) A monk under St. Colman, 
Apostolic Delegate to Ireland in the sixth 
century. Diman was made Abbot, and later 
Bishop of Connor. He died Jan. 6, A.D. 658. 
He is one of the prelates to whom (A.D. 640) 
the Roman Church, after the death of Pope 
Honorius, addressed the well-known Epistle on 
the Paschal controversy and on the errors of 
DIMITRI (St.) M. (Oct. 8) 

Otherwise St. DEMETRIUS, which see. 
DIOCLES (St.) M. (May 24) 

DIOCLETIUS (St.) M. (May 11) 

DIODORUS (St.) M. (Feb. 26) 


(4th cent.) Two deacons put to death as 

Christians under the persecuting Emperor 

Diocletian at the beginning of the fourth century 

in the Province of Caria (Asia Minor). 

DIODORUS (St.) M. (July 6) 

(SS.) MM. 

(Date unknown.) Martyrs of unknown date 
of Laodicea in Syria (Kulat-el-Husn or Ladhi- 
(SS.) MM. 

(3rd cent.) Roman Martyrs under Uumcrian 
(A.D. 283). They are mentioned in the Acts of 
SS. Chrysanthus and Darias ; but these cannot 
be trusted for accuracy of detail. The tradition 
is that they were walled up in the Catacombs and 

there left to die. A Feast is also kept on Jan. 17 
in memory of the finding of their remains 
(A.D. 886). These Martyrs are described as 
being very numerous. In fact, it appears to 
have been a case of a Christian Congregation 
surprised while assembled for prayer, and 
disposed of by having the entrance to their 
subterranean Oratory blocked up. 
DIOGENES (St.) M. (April 6) 

DIOMEDES (St.) M. (Aug. 16) 

(4th cent.) A native of Tarsus, the birthplace 
of St. Paul, by profession a physician and a 
zealous propagator of Christianity, who was 
arrested at Nicsea in Bithynia and put to death 
by Diocletian about A.D. 300. 



MM. (Sept. 2) 

(Date unknown.) Some of these Martyrs are 
believed to have been burned at the stake, 
others drowned, others crucified and the rest 
beheaded, but in what persecution and at what 
place has passed from memory. 
DIOMEDES (St.) M. (Sept. 11) 

♦DIAMMA (St.) (May 12) 

(5th cent.) An Irish Saint, Patron of Kildim 
(Limerick), and commemorated in the Martyr - 
ologies of Tallaght and Donegal. He is said 
to have been the master or teacher of St. Declan 
of Ardmore and of other Saints. But parti- 
culars of his life are lacking. 
DION (St.) M. (July 6) 

DIONYSIA (St.) M. (May 15) 



MM. (Dec. 6) 

(6th cent.) African Martyrs (A.D. 505) under 
the Arian Vandal King Hunneric. Victor of 
Utica, in his History of the Persecution, gives a 
graphic account of the fearful ordeal these holy 
men and women went through. Dionysia, a 
widow, perished at the stake with her little 
child and her sister Dativa. iEmilian (or 
Emilius), a physician, and Tertius, a monk, 
were flayed alive. The fanatics seem to have 
amused themselves in devising strange forms 
of death for the rest of the heroic band. 
DIONYSIA (St.) M. (Dec. 12) 


(SS.) MM. (Feb. 8) 

(Date unknown.) The Roman Martyrology 
describes them as Armenian monks ; but there 
have been disputes among the learned as to the 
nationality of some of them. In reality we are 
no longer in possession of anything like adequate 
evidence bearing on their date, lives or martyr- 

(Date unknown.) Beyond the fact that the 
ancient Martyrologies commemorate these 
Saints as having been beheaded on a Feb. 14, 
and seem to indicate Alexandria of Egypt as 
the place of their martyrdom, nothing whatever 
is now known about them. 
DIONYSIUS (St.) M. (March 10) 

DIONYSIUS (St.) M. (March 16) 

DIONYSIUS (SS.) MM. (March 24) 

Two of the same name who suffered together. 



(2nd cent.) A famous and learned Bishop 
of Corinth who flourished in the second century 
of our Mia, and of whose letters some fragments 
have been preserved to us. One in which he 
bears testimonv to the martyrdom on the 
same day of SS. Peter and Paul in Rome is 



very noteworthy. St. Dionysius was in regular 
communication with St. Soter and other Popes 
of his age. He zealously repressed the Marcion- 
ites and other philosophising heretics of his 
time. The Greeks honour him as a Martyr 
(Nov. 20) ; the Latins as a Confessor. He 
died before A.d. 198, when we find his successor 
at Corinth attending a Council. 

DIONYSIUS (St.) M. (April 18) 


DIONYSIUS (DENIS) (St.) Bp. (May 8) 

(2nd cent.) The sixth of the Bishops of 
Vienne in Dauphine (France). He, like his Ave 
predecessors, has been commemorated in all the 
Western Martyrologies. Ado, himself a Mar- 
tyrologist and Bishop of Vienne in the ninth 
century, tells us that St. Dionysius, successor 
of St. Justus, lived till the reign of Pertinax 
(A.D. 193). He is said to have been one of the 
ten missioners sent into Gaul by Pope St. Sixtus 
I, early in the century with St. Peregrin us. 
Some have erroneously described him as a 

♦DIONYSIUS of AUGSBURG (St.) Bp., M. (Feb. 26) 
(4th cent.) Venerated as the first Bishop of 
Augsburg in Germany. He is said to have been 
converted to Christianity, baptised and later 
consecrated Bishop by St. Narcissus. He 
suffered martyrdom under Diocletian about 
A.D. 303. 

DIONYSIUS (St.) M. (May 12) 

(4th cent.) An Asiatic by birth and uncle of 
the youthful Martyr, S. Pancras, to whom he 
acted as guardian. Coming to Home, St. 
Dionysius charitably gave shelter to the Pope 
(either St. Marcellus or St. Melchiades), sought 
after by the agents of the persecuting Emperor 
Diocletian. With his nephew he was rewarded 
by the grace of conversion to Christianity. 
Having publicly declared themselves servants 
of Christ, they were cast into prison, where we 
read that after some days St. Dionysius rendered 
up his soul to God (A.D. 304). 

DIONYSIUS of MILAN (St.) Bp. (May 25) 

(4th cent.) The successor of St. Protasius in 
the See of Milan. With St. Eusebius of 
Vercelli and St. Lucifer of Cagliari he was 
banished into Cappadocia (A.D. 355) by the 
Arian Emperor Constantius. Two years later, 
when his fellow-exiles were returning to their 
Churches under the Emperor J ulian, St. Diony- 
sius died in Asia, where he had acquired a high 
reputation for sanctity. St. Aurelius the local 
Bishop, and St. Basil the Great, enabled St. 
Ambrose to effect (A.D. 375) the Translation 
to Milan of the remains of his holy prede- 

DIONYSIUS (St.) M. (June 3) 


DIONYSIUS (St.) M. (July 27) 


DIONYSIUS (St.) M. (Julv 31) 


DIONYSIUS and PRIVATUS (SS.) MM. (Sept. 20) 

(Date unknown.) Beyond the Martyrology 

note that they suffered in Phrygia (Asia Minor), 

nothing has reached our times regarding these 

holy men. 

PAUL and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Oct. 3) 

(3rd cent.) To the above should be added 
the names of St. Eusebius, Bishop of Laodicea, 
and of St. Maximus, successor at Alexandria of 
St. Dionysius. By some error these Saints are 
twice commemorated in the Roman Martyrology, 
or rather, there is allotted to them taken 
together this special Feast in addition to that 
of St. Dionysius (one and the same with the 
famous Bishop of Alexandria) on Nov. 17, and 
to that of St. Faustus, his deacon, on Nov. 19. 
Banished in the persecution of Decius (A.D. 250) 
into Libya, all these Christians were again in a 
body brought to trial at Alexandria, under 
Valerian (a.d. 257), on account of their religion. 
Some of them were, it would seem, stoned to 

death, and others died in prison. In one of his 
genuine Epistles, still extant, St. Dionysius 
mentions all the above by name as fellow- 
sufferers with himself. Venerable Bode by 
mistake confuses this St. Dionysius or Denis 
of Alexandria with Denis the Areopagite (Acts 
xvii. 34). 
(SS.) MM. (Oct. 9) 

(1st or 3rd cent.) It has been the fashion 
in modern times to date the martyrdom of 
St. Denis, first Bishop of Paris, of St. Eleu- 
therius, his priest or deacon, and of St. Rusticus, 
a cleric, his companions, as having come to pass 
in the course of the third century in the persecu- 
tion of the Emperor Decius. This view is 
based on the authority of the sixth century 
historian, St. Gregory of Tours. For the 
arguments in its favour, Smith and Wace 
(besides the Bollandist Acta Sanctorum) may 
be consulted. The traditional belief that 
St. Denis was sent into Gaul to evangelise the 
country by Pope St. Clement I in the first 
century, and suffered martyrdom under Domi- 
tian or Trajan, especially if one takes into 
account the frequent inaccuracies of St. Gregory 
of Tours, seems nevertheless to be fairly well 
authenticated. Of the arguments supporting 
it, Abp. Darboy's work and Darras's History 
of the Church, have excellent summaries. 

As to the facts of the martyrdom of the 
Saint and his fellow-sufferers, we know little or 
nothing save that they were put to the torture 
and decapitated near Paris, after having con- 
verted many pagans to belief in Christ, and that 
their bodies cast into the Seine were recovered 
by their disciples and buried on the spot where, 
several centuries later, the Merovingian King 
Dagobert, at the prayer of St. Genevieve, built 
the famous Abbey of St. Denis. 
DIONYSIUS (St.) Bp., M. (Oct. 9) 

(1st cent.) This is Denis the Aeropagite, 
converted by St. Paul (Acts xvii. 34), and 
afterwards first Bishop of Athens. A Greek 
tradition maintains that he was burned alive 
under Domitian (a.d. 95). But an opinion 
strongly held in the Middle Ages, and still ably 
defended, identifies him with the St. Denis 
asserted to have been sent by Pope St. Clement 
to evangelise Gaul, and martyred at Paris. 
His authorship of the wonderful works passing 
under his name, which have laid the foundation 
in the West of both Mystical and Scholastic 
Theology, is equally or even more controverted. 
It has become usual in modern times to attri- 
bute them to an unknown genius of the fourth 
or fifth century. And doubtless, as we have 
them, they are seriously interpolated. Who- 
ever be their author, it is scarcely possible 
(says Baring-Gould) to speak too highly of their 
value and importance. A confusion of this 
St. Denis with his homonym of Alexandria has 
led Butler, following certain ancient Martyrolo- 
gies, to assign his festival to Oct. 3. 
DIONYSIUS of ALEXANDRIA (St.) Bp. (Nov. 17) 

(3rd cent.) A celebrated Father of the 
Church and pupil of Origen, who became 
Patriarch of Alexandria a.d. 248, and two years 
afterwards was arrested as a leader of Christians 
during the fierce persecution under the Em- 
peror Decius. He escaped into hiding in the 
Libyan Desert, and returned to Alexandria 
A.D. 251. Under Valerian he was again arrested 
and again banished ; but was recalled and 
restored under Gallienus. He died at Alexan- 
dria A.D. 265. St. Athanasius styles him 
" the Doctor of the Catholic Church." He was 
ever zealous for the Catholic Faith, and easily 
justified himself when accused at Rome to his 
namesake Pope St. Dionysius. The fragments 
of his letters still extant are doctrinally very 
valuable, and bear abundant evidence to his 
pastoral zeal. 
DIONYSIUS (St.) M. (Nov. 20) 


F 81 



DIONYSIUS (St.) Pope. (Dec. 26) 

(3rd cent.) Perhaps a native of Calabria. 

In early life he embraced the monastic state, 

but later was enrolled in the Roman clergy, 

and by them elected Pope (a.d. 259) in the room 

of the Martyr, St. Sixtus II. St. Basil greatly 

extols his charity to the poor, and St. Denis of 

Alexandria (of whom he had had occasion to 

require an explanation of some writings) praises 

his learning. He denounced Sabellianism and, 

when later called upon by the Emperor Aurelian 

to judge the Rationalistic Paul of Samosata, 

condemned and deposed the latter. He is said 

to have rearranged the boundaries of the Roman 

city parishes. He died A.D. 269. 

DIOSCORIDES (St.) M. (May 10) 

(Date unknown.) A Martyr of uncertain 

date who, after bravely enduring severe torture, 

gave his life for Christ at Smyrna in Asia Minor. 

DIOSCORIDES (St.) M. (May 28) 

DIOSCORUS (St.) M. (Feb. 25) 

DIOSCURUS (St.) M. (May 18) 

(Date unknown.) A Lector or Reader in one 
of the churches of Egypt, who in one of the 
early persecutions was arrested and subjected 
as a Christian to exceptionally savage tortures, 
such as the tearing out of his nails and the 
burning of his sides with torches. A miraculous 
intervention — a dazzling beam of light from a 
quarter of the Heavens opposite to that in 
which was the sun — is said to have startled his 
executioners, and to have procured him a 
brief respite in his agony. In the end he was 
burned to death by the pressing of his body 
between red-hot metal plates. This is all that 
has cone down to our time respecting St. 
Dioscurus. Death by laminae, or sheets of 
hot metal, was an accepted form of execution 
in Roman times. 
DIOSCURUS (St). M. (Dec. 14) 

*DIRAVIANUS (St.) (Jan. 3) 

Otherwise St. DAMIAN, tohich see. 
DISMAS (St.) (March 25) 

The name given by tradition to the GOOD 
THIEF, which see. 
*DISIBODE (DISEN) (St.) Bp. (Sept. 8) 

(7th cent.) Said to have been born in Ireland 
and to have worked as a missionary in the East 
of France and in Germany. He founded the 
monastery of Diseubourg, near Mainz, where 
he died a.d. 700. 
DIZIER (St.) Bp., M. (May 23) 

Otherwise St. DISIDERIUS, which see. 

*DOCHOW (St.) (Feb. 15) 

(Date uncertain.) The English Menology 

mentions him on this day as a Welsh Saint. 

But there is much uncertainty about the name. 

He may be St. Cadoc, sometimes called Dockoe, 

or St. Dogmsel Docmsel. A church in the 

Diocese of St. Asaph is dedicated to a St. Docwy 

or Dogway. 

*DOCANUS (St.) Abbot. (Nov. 7) 

Otherwise St. CUNGAR, which see. 
♦DOCUS (St.) Bp., M. (Jan. 24) 

Otherwise St. CADOC, which see. 
*DODA (St.) V. (April 24) 

See SS. BONA and DODA. 
*DOGFAN (DCSWAN) (St.) M. (July 13) 

(5th cent.) A Saint in Wales, one of the sons 
of the famous chieftain, Brychan. He is said 
to have been put to death by heathen invaders 
of Pembrokeshire, where a church was built 
to his memory. 
*DOGMJEL (DOCM^EL) (St.) (June 14) 

(6th cent.) A holy hermit in Pembrokeshire 
who flourished early in the sixth century and to 
whom several churches were dedicated. 
♦DOMANGARD (DONARD) (St.) (March 24) 

(5th cent.) The Patron of Maghera (Co. 
Down), who in the time of St. Patrick lived as 
a hermit on the mountain now called after lxim 
Slieve-Donard. He seems to have passed away 

some time before A.D. 500, perhaps even in the 
lifetime of St. Patrick, who died A.D. 464. 

DOMETIUS and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Aug. 7) 
Otherwise St. DOMITIUS, which see. 

DOMINATOR (St.) Bp. (Nov. 5) 

(Date uncertain.) Nothing with reference to 
the history or writings of this Saint has been 
handed down to us, nor is it known for certain 
in what century he lived. Surius puts the date 
of his death a.d. 495. He was the fourteenth 
Bishop of Brescia in Lombardy, and succeeded 
St. Rustician in that See. 

DOMINIC of SORA (St.) Abbot. (Jan. 22) 

(11th cent.) A Benedictine Abbot of Sora 
in the old Kingdom of Naples, and the founder 
of nine monasteries. He was famous for his 
sanctity and for the many miracles worked by 
his intercession both in life and after his death 
(A.D. 1031). 


(11th cent.) A Spanish hermit who fixed 
his abode at a lonely spot in Old Castile, which, 
from his having constructed there a hospice 
and pilgrim's road to Compostella, acquired the 
name of the " Calzada." He built there also 
a chapel to Our Blessed Lady. He became so 
famous for sanctity and miraculous powers that 
after his death (a.d. 1109 or perhaps as early 
as a.d. 1060) his own shrine became a noted 
place of pilgrimage. The Bishopric afterwards 
founded at Calzada has since been transferred 
to Calahorra. 

DOMINIC GUZMAN (St.) (Aug. 4) 

(13th cent.) The mother of St. Dominic, 
a scion of the illustrious Guzman family, dreamt, 
before his birth (A.D. 1170) at Calaruega (Old 
Castile), that she had given life to a dog bearing 
a lighted torch which was setting the world on 
fire. Professed as a Canon Regular in the 
Reformed Chapter of Osma, he helped many 
Spanish Bishops to restore Ecclesiastical 
discipline among their clergy. In attendance 
on his own Bishop, he stayed two years at 
Montpellier in the South of France, where the 
immoral heresy of the Albigenses was then at 
its height and causing tremendous havoc. 
They were indefatigable in preaching against it, 
a mission which St. Dominic continued for 
eight more years, after the return of the Bishop 
to Osma. Many were the miracles he worked ; 
numberless the souls he converted ; far-reaching 
the fruit of the Rosary devotion he established. 
In the end he began his great Order of Preaching 
Friars, which with that of the Friars Minor, 
founded by his friend and contemporary, St. 
Francis of Assisi, was the chief means employed 
by Almighty God to renew the fervour of 
Christians during the later Middle Ages. Popes 
Innocent III (a.d. 1215) and Honorius III 
approved and confirmed the new Institutes. 
To St. Dominic was allotted in Rome the ancient 
church of St. Sixtus for his first convent. He 
afterwards ceded it to his nuns, the Friars 
passing to St. Sabina's on the Aventine. The 
Saint next established them at St. James's in 
Paris, returning to Italy in a.d. 1218, and 
fixing his residence in Bologna, where he died 
(a.d. 1121), and where his relics are enslirined. 
In his lifetime he sent missionary Friars to 
Morocco, Portugal, Sweden, Norway, Ireland, 
England (where the convents of Canterbury, 
London and Oxford date from then) and other 
countries. Chief among the miracles bearing 
witness to his sanctity are his having raised 
more than once the dead to life. 


(11th cent.) An Italian Saint, born a.d. 995, 
and from the outset destined by his parents 
for the clerical state. To get him ordained they 
wrongfully made a present to a Bishop and the 
young priest on becoming aware of this crime 
of simonv (at that time rife in Italy) devoted 
himself in atonement to a life of penance. From 
the circumstance of an iron cuirass worn con- 
stantly next his skin having been his chief 



instrument of self-torture, he acquired the name 
of Loricatus. He first retired to the solitude of 
Luceolo, thence passing to Montefeltro in the 
Apennines, where a certain Abbot John, with 
eighteen disciples, was leading a terribly austere 
life. Finally, he entered the monastery of 
Fonte Avellano, then ruled by the celebrated 
St. Peter Damian, where he died A.d. 1060. 
DOMINIC (St.) Bp. (Dec. 20) 

(7th cent.) The successor of St. Anastasius 
in the See of Brescia in Lombardy, where, 
after a zealous Pastorate, he passed away about 
a.d. 612. St. Charles Borromeo translated and 
enshrined his relics. 
DOMINIC of SILOS (St.) Abbot. (Dec. 20) 

(11th cent.) He was born of poor parents in 
Cantabria (north-west of Spain). He was at 
first a shepherd ; but having shown great piety 
and aptitude for learning, he became a priest, 
and embraced a hermit's life under the Rule 
of St. Benedict. Elected Prior of St. Millan 
in Aragon, he refused to surrender certain goods 
of the monastery to the King of Navarre and, 
banished from that country but welcomed by 
the King of Castile, was appointed by him Abbot 
of St. Sebastian's at Silos. This monastery he 
thoroughly reformed. His fame spread far and 
wide on account of the many miracles he 
wrought in his lifetime. After his holy death 
(a.d. 1073) he miraculously delivered more than 
three hundred prisoners taken by the Moors, 
and his shrine is still decorated with many 
chains brought as " ex votos. 

The Countess Guzman having recommended 
herself to his intercession, in answer to his 
prayers, gave birth (a.d. 1170) to the great 
St. Dominic, founder of the Order of Friars 
Preachers. Even to our day the Abbot of Silo 
brings to the Queens of Spain, when in labour, 
the staff of St. Dominic which remains by her 
bedside till the birth has taken place. 


and HONORATUS (SS.) MM. (Dec. 29) 

(Date unknown.) African Martyrs whose 
Acts have been lost. 
DOMINICA (St.) V.M. (July 6) 

(4th cent.) A Christian maiden probably of 
Grecian parentage, who for having destroyed 
idols was condemned to be devoured by wild 
beasts, but being uninjured by them was 
beheaded. There is much uncertainty about 
her and about her name, winch is not found 
in the older Martyrologies, but it is generally 
agreed that she suffered under Diocletian at 
the beginning of the fourth century. The 
Roman Martyrology now locates her martyrdom 
in Campania ; but her Breviary legend has it 
that it took place at Nicomedia, and that her 
body was carried by Angels to Tropea in 
Calabria, where from time immemorial it has 
been venerated. 
DOMINICA (St.) M. (Aug. 21) 

Ordinarily and more properly written St. 
CYRIACA. Similarly CYRIACUS is not 
unfrequently Latinised DOMINICUS. 
DOMITIAN (St.) Abbot. (July 1) 

(5th cent.) Born in Rome about a.d. 347, 
and left an orphan at an early age, he gave up 
his possessions to the poor and retired to one 
of the monasteries in the city. Thence he 
passed into Gaul and received the priesthood 
in the famous Abbey of Lerins. Later, we find 
him in the neighbourhood of Lyons, where he 
built a little Oratory dedicated to St. Christo- 
pher, and lived some time as a hermit. Finally, 
he founded the monastery of Bebron, now 
St. Rambert de Joux, where he died in extreme 
old age towards the middle of the fifth century. 
Extant sources of information concerning 
St. Domitian are very unsatisfactory. Such 
particulars as we have come mainly through 
Trithemius, a comparatively modern author, 
who avers that he had seen the Acts of the 

DOMITIAN (St.) M. (Aug. 1) 

DOMITIAN of CHALONS (St.) Bp. (Aug. 9) 

(Date uncertain.) The third Bishop of 
Chalons-sur-Marne in France, remarkable for 
his zeal and success in the conversion of the 
heathen. He entered into his rest towards the 
close of the fourth century and was buried in 
the same grave as his predecessors, St. Memmius 
(Menge) and St. Donatian, of the latter of whom 
he was a disciple in Rome. But Baronius and 
the old traditions antedate all three Saints by 
two centuries and probably with good reason. 
DOMITIAN (St.) M. (Dec. 28) 

DOMITILLA (St.) V.M. (May 7) 

More correctly ivritten St. FLA VIA DOMI- 
TILLA, which see. 

and THEODOSIA (SS.) MM. (March 23) 

(4th cent.) St. Domitius was a Phrygian, 
and died by the sword under J ulian the Apostate 
(a.d. 361), probably at Caesarea in Palestine. St. 
Domitius is said to have provoked his own arrest 
by publicly attacking the errors of heathenism 
in the Circus where the people were gathered 
for the festival games held in honour of the gods. 
With him several other Christians suffered. 
DOMITIUS (St.) M. (July 5) 

(4th cent.) A Persian or, as some say, a 
Phrygian, converted at Nisibi in Mesopotamia, 
who embraced the monastic life and later 
retired into a cave, somewhere in Asia Minor, 
where he converted to Christianity many of 
the neighbouring country people. Julian the 
Apostate, irritated, it is alleged, by the re- 
proaches Domitius ventured to address to him, 
had him stoned to death (a.d. 362). Two of his 
disciples suffered with him. St. Gregory of 
Tours mentions a St. Domitius of Syria ; but 
it is not clear that he is identical with the St. 
Domitius of July 5. The latter, however, may 
be very well one and the same with the St. 
Dometius or Domitius commemorated in the 
Roman Martyrology on Aug. 7. 

(SS.) MM. 

(4th cent.) The entry in the Roman Martyr- 
ology is : "At Nisibis in Mesopotamia St. 
Domitius, a Persian monk who with two of his 
disciples was stoned to death under Julian the 
Apostate." But modern criticism has great 
difficulty in accepting this St. Domitius or 
Dometius as other than the Martyr of the same 
name commemorated on July 5. Julian the 
Apostate was never at Nisibi. On the other 
hand, it is fairly clear that this Saint Domitius 
the Hermit is not the Phrygian soldier-saint 
venerated on March 23. 
DOMITIUS (St.) (Oct. 23) 

(8th cent.) A priest of the Diocese of Amiens, 
who retired into a solitude where he practised 
austere penance. He flourished either in the 
seventh or in the eighth century of our Era. 
But the Lives we have of him are of late date 
and little reliance is to be placed upon them. 
Surius maintains and, it would seem, with good 
reason, that St. Domitius was not a priest but 
only a deacon, and as such he is described in 
the Proper Lections of his Office. 
DOMNA (St.) V.M. (Dec. 28) 

*DOMNEVA (EBBA) (St.) W. (Nov. 19) 

Otherwise St. ERMENBURGA, which see. 
DOMNICA (St.) M. (Aug. 21) 

Otherwise St. CYRIACA, which see. 
DOMNINA and ANOTHER (SS.) (April 14) 


(Date uncertain.) Virgin Martyrs who suf- 
fered at Teramo or perhaps at Terni in Umbria, 
probably about the middle of the third century, 
at the same time as their Bishop St. Valentine. 
All the Martyrologies commemorate them, but 
whether there were not in the same locality 
two or more Virgin-Martyrs by name Domnina 




is altogether uncertain. Jacobilli contends for 
a Domnina Martyr under Totila at Teramo in 
the sixth century. 

DOMNINA (St.) M. (Oct. 12) 

(4th cent.) A Christian woman who, after 
cruel torments, died in prison at Anazarbus in 
Cilicia, Lysias being Prefect, A.D. 303. The 
Roman Martyrologist must have used a corrupt 
manuscript in which Lycia was substituted for 
Lysias, as he places St. Domnina's martyrdom 
in the Province of that name. 

DOMNINUS (St.) M. (March 21) 


(SS.) MM. 

(Date uncertain.) St. Domninus suffered 
various torments under Maximian Herculeus, 
the colleague of Diocletian in A.D. 300, and 
gave his life for Christ at Thessalonica, together 
with Philocalus, Achaicus and Palotinus. The 
Greeks keep their Feast on Oct. 1 ; and the 
St. Domninus commemorated on that day in the 
Roman Martyrology is probably one and the 
same with the Martyr of March 30, inserted 
there by mistake. St. Victor and his com- 
panions (in all about ten in number) suffered 
elsewhere, but the place and the date are alike 
unknown, though the Greek manuscripts specify 
the names of several among them and give 
particulars about them. 

DOMNINUS (St.) (April 20) 


DOMNINUS (St.) M. (Oct. 1) 

(4th cent.) A Christian who suffered at 
Thessalonica about A.D. 300 under Maximinian 
or Diocletian. He is in all probability the 
same as the St. Domninus commemorated with 
others on March 30. 

DOMNINUS (DONNINO) (St.) M. (Oct. 9) 

(4th cent.) A Christian of Parma in Italy 
who, while trying to escape a band of soldiers 
sent to arrest him, was overtaken and beheaded 
on the Via Claudia or iEmilia, a few miles out 
of Parma at a place now called after him Borgo 
San Donnino, where his relics are venerated to 
this day. His martyrdom is alleged to have 
taken place A.D. 304 ; but the narration accepted 
in the Middle Ages as the Acts of St. Domninus 
is altogether untrustworthy. 

VANUS and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Nov. 5) 
(Date uncertain.) This St. Domninus was a 
young man said to have been a physician, at 
first condemned to work in the mines, but 
afterwards burned to death somewhere in 
Palestine. SS. Theotinvus and Philotheus 
appear to have suffered elsewhere and at 
another time. St. Sylvanus, a Syrian Bishop, 
was condemned to the mines together with 
St. Domninus, but wa3 martyred much later. 
A St. Sylvanus is commemorated as having 
suffered at Rome on May 5, and it may possibly 
be he. All these holy men are said to have 
confessed Christ under the Emperor Maximian. 
Most authors understand Maximin Daza and 
date this martyrdom A.D. 310. Surius, however, 
thinks Maximin the Thracian to be referred to, 
and dates it A.D. 237 or A.D. 238. 

DOMNIO and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (April 11) 

(1st cent.) Tradition has it that St. Domnio, 
a Syrian, was one of the seventy-two disciples 
chosen by Christ to go before His Pace (Luke x. 
1), and that he came to Rome with St. Peter ; 
that he was afterwards sent by the Apostle 
into Dalmatia, where he evangelised the country 
on the Eastern shores of the Adriatic, and in the 
end was beheaded by order of the Imperial 
Prefect, Maurelius, together with eight soldiers, 
converts made by him. His relics are still 
honoured at Salona, though the Church of St. 
John Lateran in Rome has claimed to possess 
a large portion of them since the time of Pope 
John IV (A.D. 641). It appears historically 
certain that this Pontiff did cause to be brought 
to Rome the body of a Martyr, Domnio by name. 


DOMNIO (St.) M. (Julv 16) 

(3rd cent.) St. Domnio, a zealous Christian, 
was beheaded at Bergamo in Lombardy under 
Maximian Herculeus, the colleague of Diocletian, 
towards the end of tbe third century. Thus, 
the local historians ; but it must be "confessed 
that no ancient Martyrology so much as men- 
tions his name. Of his niece, St. Eusebia, 
Virgin-Martyr, the Feast is similarly kept at 
Bergamo (Oct. 29). 
DOMNIO (St.) (Dec. 28) 

(4th cent.) A saintly priest, member of the 
Roman clergy in the latter half of the fourth 
century. St. Jerome, who dedicated to him 
some of his works, styles him " a most holy 
man, the Lot of our times," and St. Augustine 
speaks of him as " truly, a most holy Father." 
Popular veneration no doubt canonised him 
immediately after his passing to a better life, and 
secured him a place in the Roman Martyrolocv. 
*DOMNOC (St.) (Feb. 13) 

Otherwise St. MADOMNOC or MODOMNOC, 
which see. 
DOMNOLUS (St.) Bp. (May 16) 

(6th cent.) A holy Religious who from having 
been Abbot of a monastery near Paris, was 
called (A.D. 543) to be Bishop of Le Mans 
(Cenomanensis) in the West of France. His 
life of prayer and penance, his zeal for the good 
of his people and his great love of the poor made 
him conspicuous for sanctity among the prelates 
who with him assisted at the celebrated Council 
of Tours (A.D. 566). He died A.D. 581, having 
founded many monasteries, hospitals and 
DOMNUS (St.) M. (Oct. 13) 

DOMNUS of VIENNE (St.) Bp. (Nov. 3) 

(6th cent.) St. Ado, one of the successors 
of St. Domnus, relates in his Chronicle that 
St. Domnus succeeded St. Desidexius the 
Martyr, in the Bishopric of Vienne in France ; 
and that he was a prelate of surpassingly holy 
life, distinguished by his charity to the' poor, 
and zealous in the redeeming of the captives 
taken in the incessant wars of the period. He 
died A.D. 527. We know nothing more about 
him. His Feast is not kept in the Liturgy, 
not even locally. 
*DONALD (DONIVALD) (St.) (July 15) 

(8th cent.) A holy man in Scotland who 
with his nine daughters led the life of a Religious 
at Ogilvy in Forfarshire. Various memorials 
of the nine maidens remain to this day in 
DONARD (St.) (March 24) 

Otherwise St. DOMANGARD, which see. 
DONAS (St.) Bp. (Oct. 14) 

Otherwise St. DONATIAN, which see. 

The Patron Saint of St. Donat's or Llan- 
dunwyd (Glamorgan). This from the English 
Menology. Nothing more is discoverable. 
DONATA (St.) M. (July 17) 

One of the SCILLITAN MARTYRS, which 


MM. (Dec. 31) 

(Date unknown.) A band of Christian women 
put to death for the Faith in Rome in one of 
the early persecutions, and whose relics were 
enshrined with those of other Martyrs in the 
Catacombs of the Via Salaria. Beyond their 
names duly registered in the official Martyrolo- 
gies nothing is known about them. 
(3rd cent.) Two brothers of Nantes in Brit- 
tany, put to death, by Rictius Varus, Governor 
of Gaul, for the crime of being Christians 
(a.d. 299) during the great persecution under 
DONATIAN (St.) Bp. (Aug. 7) 

(Date uncertain.) The second Bishop of 



Chalons-sur-Marne, disciple and successor of 
St. Memmius (Menge), the founder of the See, 
whose deacon he was. Baronius and the old 
tradition holds that St. Memmius was sent into 
Gaul by St. Peter (a.d. 46) and consequently 
that St. Donatian flourished in the first and 
second centuries of our era. Surius and the 
moderns substitute Pope St. Fabian for St. 
Peter. Consequently St. Donatian would have 
lived in the third century. A Donatian, Bishop 
of Chalons, assisted at a Council of Cologne 
A.D. 346. All agree that he was a zealous and 
able Bishop, but evidently he is other than the 
Saint of August 7. 


(Sept. 6) 

(5th cent.) Some of the more conspicuous 
among the Catholics driven from Africa into 
exile by Hunneric, the Arian King of the 
Vandals (A.D. 484), of whom a particular ac- 
count is given by Victor of Utica in his History 
of that Persecution. It is said that they 
numbered in all nearly five thousand in a single 
year. Lsetus, a Bishop and a most zealous 
Prelate, was, however, burned to death at the 
stake ; the others, part priests, part laymen, 
scourged and banished. 
DONATIAN (DONAS) (St.) Bp. (Oct. 14) 

(4th cent.) The Patron Saint of Bruges in 
Belgium, whither his relics were translated in 
the ninth century. He was a Roman by birth, 
and Bishop of Reims from A.D. 360 to A.D. 390, 
between SS. Maternus and Viventius, and 
appears in life as after death to have been in 
high repute of sanctity. But no trustworthy 
account of him has come down to our age. 
DONATELLA (St.) V.M. (July 30) 


(SS.) MM. 

(Date unknown.) Apart from the mere 
registration of their names on Jan. 25, we have 
no record of these Martyrs. Baronius refers 
for them to old manuscripts without specifying 
the latter. 
DONATUS (St.) M. (Feb. 4) 

DONATUS (St.) M. (Feb. 9) 

See SS. PRIMUS and DONATUS, &c. 

OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Feb. 17) 

(4th cent.) Martyrs under Diocletian (A.D. 
304). They were of Vicenza, but suffered at 
Porto Gruaro (Concordia), not far from Venice, 
and were eighty-nine in number. Other 
particulars are lacking. 

(SS.) MM. (Feb. 25) 

(3rd cent.) Fifty Martyrs who suffered in 

Africa in the Decian persecution in the middle 

of the third century. Beyond the names of 

the above, nothing is known about them. 

DONATUS (St.) M. (March 1) 

See SS. LEO, DONATUS, &c. 
DONATUS (St.) M. (April 7) 

DONATUS (St.) Bp. (April 30) 

(4th cent.) Bishop of Eursea in Epirus 
(Albania) towards the end of the fourth century. 
Sozomen and other Creek writers extol his 
sanctity and, in the ninth century, Anastasius 
the Librarian translated one of their accounts 
into Latin. 
DONATUS (St.) M. (May 21) 

DONATUS and HILARY (SS.) MM. (Aug. 7) 

(4th cent.) St. Donatus, Bishop of Arczzo 
in Tuscany, is commemorated liturgically on 
Aug. 7. He, with Hilary (or Hilarimis), a 
monk, uas put to death for the Faith under 
Julian tin- apostate (a. it. :>(;i). Hilary was 
scourged to death ; Donatus was beheaded. 
St. Gregory and others relate the many miracles 
wrought by these holy men, among wliich the 

restoring as before a glass altar-chalice dashed 
in pieces by the Pagans. 

DONATUS (St.) (Aug. 19) 

(6th cent.) A deacon, native of Orleans in 
France, who lived the life of a hermit on Mount 
Jura near Sisteron in Provence, and was 
renowned for his sanctity and for the miracles 
worked by his prayers. He died towards the 
year 535. 

DONATUS of ANTIOCH (St.) M. (Aug. 23) 


DONATUS of CAPUA (St.) M. (Sept. 5) 


DONATUS of MESSINA (St.) M. (Oct. 5) 


DONATUS of FIESOLE (St.) Bp. (Oct. 22) 

(9th cent.) By birth an Irishman, who, on 
his return from a pilgrimage he had made to 
Rome, while passing through Tuscany, was on 
account of his virtues and learning made 
Bishop of Fiesole near Florence. He died 
about A.D. 874 after nearly half a century of 
Episcopate. He is said to have left some 
poems, besides prose writings ; but nothing of 
them now remains. 

DONATUS of CORFU (St.) (Oct. 29) 

(Date unknown.) All we know of this Saint 
is that about A.D. 600 St. Gregory the Great 
directed that his relics, brought to Corfu by 
some refugee priest from Asia Minor, should be 
reverently enshrined in one of the churches of 
the island. 

DONATUS (St.) M. (Dec. 12) 


DONATUS of ALEXANDRIA (St.) M. (Dec. 30) 

DONVINA (St.) M. (Aug. 23) 


*DORBHENE (St.) Abbot. (Oct. 28) 

(8th cent.) An Abbot of Iona, descended 
from a brother of St. Columba. A copy of 
St. Adamnan s Life of the latter written by 
St. Dorbhene is still in existence. He died 
A.D. 713. 

DOROTHEA (DOROTHY) (St.) V.M. (Feb. 6) 

(4th cent.) The famous Virgin-Martyr of 
Csesarea in Cappadocia, who was racked, 
scourged and beheaded under Diocletian, about 
a.d. 300, and whose relics are now venerated 
in Rome. She converted to the Christian Faith 
the very persons sent to persuade her to renounce 
it. She is represented with fruit and flowers, 
in allusion to a lawyer having mockingly asked 
her to send him " roses and apples " from the 
garden of her Heavenly Bridegroom, and to his 
having mysteriously received them on the day 
of her martyrdom amid the snows of a Cappa- 
docian winter. The cultus of St. Dorothy 
appears to have been curiously neglected in the 

DOROTHEA (St.) V.M. (Sept. 3) 


DOROTHEUS (St.) M. (March 28) 


DOROTHEUS of TYRE (St.) M. (June 5) 

(4th cent.) There is much uncertainty as to 
the true history of this Saint. The Roman 
Martyrology adopts the view that he was a 
priest of Tyre, imprisoned and otherwise made 
to suffer for the Faith in the great persecution 
at the beginning of the fourth century, and who 
survived to undergo banishment under Julian 
the Apostate (A.D. 362) dying at Verya on the 
Black Sea at the age of 107. The Bollandists 
(probably with reason) make him Bishop of 
Tyre, and one of the Fathers of the Council 
of Nicaea (A.D. 325). He is said to have written 
in Greek and in Latin and on several subjects ; 
but it is curious that neither Eusebius nor 
St. Jerome, his contemporaries, make any 
mention of him. 

DORYMEDON (St.) M. (Sept, 10) 


(4th cent.) Favourites of the Emperor 




Diocletian and officials of his Court of Nico- 
media in Asia Minor, whom he sacrificed to his 
hatred for the Christian religion, causing them 
to be put to the torture and eventually hanged 
(a.d. 303). Eusebius of Csesarea, a contem- 
porary, has left us a detailed and trustworthy 
account of their sufferings. The body of 
St. Gorgonius was translated to Rome under 
Pope St. Gregory IV (827-844). Hence it has 
come about that he is not only registered in 
the Roman Martyrology, but liturgically com- 
memorated each year. 
DOSITHEUS (St.) (Feb. 23) 

(6th cent.) An Egyptian solitary, a simple 
and unlearned man, whose weak health hindered 
him from practising the austerities of his 
fellow-monks, but who nevertheless by prayer 
and self-denial attained to great sanctity. 
The Lives of the Fathers of the Desert give 
interesting particulars concerning him. 
•DOTTO (St.) Abbot. (April 9) 

(6th cent.) A Saint who has left his name to 

one of the Orkney Islands, where he is said to 

have been head of a monastery. Nothing 

certain is known about him. 

♦DONNAN (DOUNAN) and OTHERS (April 17) 

(SS.) MM. 

(7th cent.) St. Donnan, an Irish Saint, 
following the example of St. Columba, settled 
with his disciples on Egg Island, off the Western 
coast of Scotland. He and fifty-two of his 
companions were done to death by the heathen 
Picts. From the traditional connection between 
St. Donnan and St. Columba the date of the 
Passion of these holy Martyrs may safely be 
put at the end of the sixth or beginning of the 
seventh century. 
DREUX (St.) (April 16) 

Otherwise St. DROGO, which see. 
*DRILLO (St.) (June 15 

(6th cent.) Patron Saint at Llandrillo 
(Denbigh) and at Llandrillo (Merioneth). He 
appears to have been a sixth century Saint, 
son of an Armorican chief in Brittany, and to 
have lived as a monk at Bardsey. 
*DRITHELM (St.) (Aug. 17) 

(7th cent.) A Northumbrian, who after 
leading a reprehensibly worldly life, was terri- 
fied by a vision of the Judgment to come and 
of Hell. In consequence of this he embraced 
a career of severe penance as a monk of Melrose, 
persevering therein to the day of his holy death, 
about A.d. 700. 


(6th cent.) A disciple of St. Germanus of 
Paris, who became Abbot of the monastery of 
St. Symphorian at Autun, a Religious House 
in which a Rule was followed modelled upon 
that of the Solitaries of Egypt. When St. 
Germanus had become Bishop of Paris and 
King Childebert had founded the Abbey of 
St. Vincent (since called St. Germain des Pres) 
St. Germanus set St. Droctoveus over it. He 
ruled the monastery till his death at the age of 
forty-five (about A.D. 580), " the embodiment 
(so the chroniclers describe him) of Christian 
and monastic perfection." Venantius For- 
tunatus has left us some lines of verse in praise 
of St. Droctoveus. 
*DRAUSINUS (DRAUSIUS) (St.) Bp. (March 5) 

(7th cent.) A native of Soissons and a 
Bishop of that city. He died A.D. 675, and is 
locally venerated as a Saint. 
DROGO (DREUX, DRUON) (St.) (April 16) 

(12th cent.) One of the Patron Saints of 
shepherds. He lost both parents at birth, 
and when twenty years of age disposed of all 
his property to embrace a life of utter poverty. 
For more than twenty years he tended the 
cattle of a rich and pious lady, busying himself 
at the same time with practices of prayer and 
penance. He is said to have made nine times 
the pilgrimage to Rome. Finally, he built 
himself a hut against the church of Sebourg in 


Hainault (Belgium) where he subsisted for 
forty-five years on barley bread and water. 
He died A.d. 1186, at the age of eighty-four. 

*DROSTAN (St.) Abbot. (July 11) 

(7th cent.) An Irish Saint, disciple of St. 

Columba and one of the Apostles of Scotland. 

He was the first Abbot of Deer in Aberdeenshire. 

(SS.) MM. 

(Date unknown.) Christians who suffered 
martyrdom in Syria, probably at Antioch. 
Some MSS. have Drusina for Drusus. Their 
Acts are lost and dates unknown, though St. 
John Chrysostom has left a Homily preached 
on their Festival day. 

DRUSUS (St.) M. (Dec. 24) 


*DUBTACH (St.) Bp. (Oct. 7) 

(6th cent.) An Archbishop of Armagh, who 
governed that Diocese for sixteen years, dying 
a.d. 513. 

*DUMHAID (St.) Abbot. (May 25) 

Otherwise St. DUNCHAID, which see. 


Bp. (Nov. 14) 

(6th cent.) A famous Welsh Saint, of the 
race of Brychan and the founder of monachism 
in Wales. He was Bishop of Llandaff and 
Archbishop of Caerleon, which latter See he 
resigned to the yet more celebrated St. David. 
St. Dubritius is said to have been consecrated 
Bishop of St. Germanus of Auxerre. He died 
probably about the middle of the sixth century, 
and, as it would appear, in the Isle of Bardsey, 
to which he had retired in his old age. His 
relics were solemnly translated A.d. 1120. 

DULA (St.) V.M. (March 25) 

(Date unknown.) The Christian slave of a 
Pagan soldier at Nicomedia in Asia Minor. 
She suffered death at his hands in defence of 
her chastity. The date is unrecorded. In art 
St. Dula is represented as lying dead with a dog 
watching by her. 

DULAS (TATIAN) (St.) M. (June 15) 

(4th cent.) A Christian of Zephyrinum in 
Cilicia (Asia Minor), put to death in the great 
persecution under Diocletian about A.d. 300. 
His Acts and the relation of Metaplirastes give 
a graphic description of the frightful tortures 
to which St. Dulas was put, a sample of what 
also many other Christians endured in that 
terrible age of trial. He was savagely scourged 
back and front, then half-roasted on a gridiron 
and so dismissed to his dungeon. Next day, 
the proceedings began by the piling of burning 
charcoal on his head ; after which he was 
hung up by his wrists and his body was torn 
with iron rakes, so that his flesh hung down 
in ribbons and his bowels were exposed. Then 
the dying man was ordered to be dragged to 
Tarsus, the chief city of Cilicia for the continuing 
of his execution. Happier in this than some of 
his fellow-Christians, Dulas expired on the way. 
Over his body thrown into a ditch, a sheep- 
dog is said to have stood guardian, until eventu- 
ally the Christians found and reverently interred 
his remains. As we find stated in the report 
of the Interrogatory through which he was put 
by the judges, Dulas was only a sort of nickname 
given him ; his real name was Tatian. 

*DUNCHADH (DUMHAID) (St.) Abbot. (May 25) 
(8th cent.) From a monastery over which 
he had presided in his native Ireland, St. 
Dunchadh was called to Scotland to become 
Abbot of Ion a. He was a man of singular 
piety and was highly favoured with super- 
natural gifts. In his time the Roman tonsure 
and the Roman date of Easter were finally 
adopted by the Celtic monks in Scotland. 
a.d. 717 is given as the year of his death. 

*DUNCHAID (St.) Abbot. (Jan. 16) 

(10th cent.) This Saint, surnamed O'Raoin, 

was born in West Meath, and having long led 

the life of an anchorite near the monastery of 

Clonmacnoise, was elected its Abbot in a.d. 969. 



He is famous for many miracles, amongst others 
for having raised a dead child to life. In his 
old age he retired to Armagh, where he died 
a.d. 988. 

DUNSTAN (St.) Bp. (May 19) 

(10th cent.) St. Dunstan, one of the most 
famous Saints of Anglo-Saxon England, was 
born about A.D. 925, and was educated at 
Glastonbury Abbey, whither, after spending 
some time at the court of King Athelstan, 
he returned to become a monk. In his mona- 
stery he lived in great fervour, dividing his time 
between prayer, study and manual labour. 
Under King Edmund, he was appointed Abbot ; 
but, having rebuked the unworthy King Edwy 
for his shameless life, was afterwards forced 
into a year's exile in Flanders. Of Edgar the 
Peaceful he was a favourite and a chief adviser, 
and during his reign was made successively 
Bishop of Worcester (A.D. 957) and Archbishop 
of Canterbury (A.D. 961). Moreover, Pope 
John XII appointed Dunstan his Legate in 
England. The Saint never faltered in the 
execution of his duty, and did not spare even 
his Royal Patron, guilty at least on one occasion 
of flagrant immorality. By his " Canons " 
St. Dunstan did much to restore Ecclesiastical 
discipline in England, where his influence 
worked immense good. He expired calmly, 
May 19, A.D. 988, and was buried at Canter- 

♦DUTHAC (St.) Bp. (March 8) 

(11th cent.) A native of Scotland and first 

Bishop of Boss. Having acquired a great 

reputation for learning and piety, he passed 

away A.D. 1065. 

♦DWYNWEN (St.) Widow. (July 18) 

Otherwise St. THENEUVA or THENNEW, 
wJiicfi sec 

*DWYNWEN (St.) V. (Jan. 25) 

(5th cent.) A Welsh Saint of the family of 
Brychan of Brecknock. The maxim : " Noth- 
ing wins hearts like cheerfulness," is attributed 
to her. After a troubled life, she passed away 
about a.d. 460. Churches dedicated to her are 
found both in Wales and in Cornwall. 

*DYFAN (St.) M. (May 14) 

(2nd cent.) Said to have been one of the 
missionaries sent to the Britons by Pope St. 
Eleutherius at the prayer of the king, St. Lucius. 
His name has been Latinised into Deruvianus 
or Daraian ; or rather it is some such Latin 
appellation which has been rendered into the 
Celtic Dyfan. His church of Merthyr Dyfan 
shows the popular tradition that he ended his 
days by martyrdom. 

♦DYFNAN (St.) (April 24) 

(5th cent.) A son of the Welsh chieftain, 
Brychan. He founded a church in Anglesey. 

♦DYFNOG (St.) (Feb. 13) 

(7th cent.) A Welsh Saint of the family of 
Caradog. He was formerly in local veneration 
in Denbighshire. 

DYFRIG (St.) Bp. (Nov. 14) 

Otherwise St. DUBRITIUS, which see. 

DYMPNA (DYMPHNA) (St.) V.M. (May 15) 

(6th cent.) Dympna, the daughter of a 
Pagan Irish chieftain, but herself secretly a 
Christian, was forced to fly her country in order 
to escape the guilty love of her unnatural par- 
ent. She settled at Gheel, a village in the 
present Province of Brabant, and devoted 
herself to works of charity. Her father pursued 
her and murdered both the Saint and the old 
priest who had advised and accompanied her. 
At her shrine lunatics and those possessed by 
devils were often miraculously cured ; and in 
art she is frequently represented as dragging 
away a devil. She is the Patron Saint of the 
insane ; and Gheel to-day is famous for asylums 
for lunatics, which arc among the best managed 
establishments of the sort. St. Dympa is a 
sixth century Saint ; but exact dates are not 


Saints names beginning with the letter E are 
often found written with " M " (diphthong) as 
the initial. 

'EADBERT (EADBERHT) (St.) Bp. (May 6) 

(7th cent.) A monk of Lindisfarne, successor 
of St. Cuthbert in that See, which he governed 
for eleven years. Towards the close of his life 
he enshrined afresh the incorrupt body of his 
holy predecessor, directing that his own remains 
should be laid underneath it. This was duly 
done when St. Eadbert passed away on May 6 
of that same year, 698. St. Eadbert was 
remarkable for his profound knowledge of the 
Holy Scriptures and for his exceeding charity 
to the poor. 

*EADBURGA (EDBURGA) (St.) V. (Dec. 12) 

(8th cent.) The successor of St. Mildred as 
Abbess of Minster in the Isle of Thanet. She 
built there a new church, and was in corre- 
spondence with St. Boniface of Germany. She 
died about a.d. 751. 

*EADFRID (St.) (Oct. 26) 

(7th cent.) " Supposed to be Eadfrid, the 
Northumbrian priest who visited Mercia, effected 
the conversion of King Merewald and preached 
the Gospel to his subjects " (English Meno- 
logy). If so, it is he who founded Leominster 
Priory, and passed away about a.d. 675. 

*EADNOTHUS (ESNEU) (St.) Bp., M. (Oct. 19) 
(11th cent.) A Saint difficult to trace. 
Migne's Dictionary (where the name is spelled 
Eadnochus) says that he was a Bishop and 
Martyr in England, honoured at York. Baring- 
Gould puts on Oct. 19 : " Eadnoth, Bishop 
and Martyr, at Dorchester, A.D. 1016." 

*EADSIN (St.) Bp. (Oct. 28) 

(11th cent.) An Archbishop of Canterbury 
and a great patriot. He crowned St. Edward 
the Confessor on the restoration of the Anglo- 
Saxon line in England. He resigned his See 
some years before his holy death, a.d. 1050. 

*EANFLEDA (St.) Queen, Widow. (Nov. 24) 

(7th cent.) A daughter of King St. Edwin 
of Northumbria and of his wife St. Ethelburga 
of Kent, baptised as an infant by St. Paulinus. 
She naarried King Oswy of Northumbria and 
showed herself a great protector of St. Wilfrid. 
On the death of her husband she retired to 
Whitby Abbey, where she closed her holy life 
about a.d. 700. 

*EANSWITH (EANSWIDA) (St.) V. (Aug. 31) 
(7th cent.) A princess of Kent, grand- 
daughter of King St. Ethelbert. She founded 
and as Abbess presided over a monastery at 
Folkestone, where the Parish church is still 
called after her. A.D. 640 is given as the date 
of her holy death. 

*EATA (St.) Bp. (Oct. 26) 

(7th cent.) A disciple of St. Aidan, and 
himself master of St. Cuthbert at Melrose. 
Afterwards, he was by St. Theodore consecrated 
first Bishop of Hexham, and for a time of 
Lindisfarne. " A most reverend man, and of 
all men the most meek and simple." He died 
at Hexham, A.D. 685. 

*EBBA (St.) Widow. (Nov. 19) 

Otherwise St. ERMENBUBGA, which see. 

*EBBA THE ELDER (St.) V. (Aug. 25) 

(7th cent.) The sister of the holy King 
St. Oswald of Northumbria, and foundress of 
the great Abbey of Coldingham, near Berwick- 
on-Tweed. The friend of St. Cuthbert and of 
St. Adamnan, she was the mistress in the 
spiritual life of St. Etheldreda. She was 
venerated in life and after her death (a.d. 683) 
as a most lovable Saint. 


MM. (Aug. 23) 

(9th cent.) The noble Virgin-Martyrs of 

Coldingham who, assaulted by the heathen 

Danes, courageously protected their honour 

by mutilating their faces, enraged at which the 




barbarians burned them alive in their monas- 
tery (a.d. 870). 
♦EBERHARD (EVERARD) (St.) Bp. (June 22) 
(12th cent.) A German Benedictine made 
Archbishop of Salzburg by Pope Innocent II, 
one of the most able and most holy of the 
prelates of his age. He died A.D. 1164 at the 
age of seventy-nine. 
*EBERHARD (EVERARD) (St.) Abbot. (Aug. 11) 
(10th cent.) The holy founder of the great 
Abbey of Einsiedeln in Switzerland, notable not 
only for his zeal and piety, but also for his great 
charity to the poor. He died A.D. 958. 
*E" JRHARDUS (St.) Bp. (Jan. 8) 

Otherwise St. ERARD, which see. 
EBREGESILUS (St.) Bp., M. (Oct. 24) 

Otherwise St. EVERGISTUS, which see. 
EBRULPHUS (St.) Abbot. (Dec. 29) 

Otherwise St. EVROUL, which see. 

*ECHA (ETHA) (St.) (May 5) 

(7th cent.) A hermit in Yorkshire, greatly 

venerated for holiness of life and graced with 

the power of working miracles and with other 

supernatural gifts. He died A.D. 677. 

*EDAN (St.) Bp. (Jan. 31) 

Otherwise St. iEDAN, which see. 

*EDANA (ETAOIN) (St.) V. (July 5) 

(Date uncertain.) An Irish Saint, Patron of 

Parishes in the West of Ireland. A famous 

holy well bears her name. She appears to have 

lived near the confluence of the rivers Boyle 

and Shannon. Some have thought her to be 

one and the same with St. Modwenna, who is 

also commemorated on July 5. 

*EDBERT (St.) Bp. (May 6) 

Otherwise St. EADBERT, which see. 
*EDBERT (St.) King. (Aug. 20) 

(8th cent.) The successor of St. Ceolwulph 
on the throne of Northumbria. His reign was 
prosperous and lasted twenty years, at the 
end of which he abdicated in favour of his son 
and retired to York, where he passed other ten 
years in the practices of prayer and penance 
before entering into everlasting rest (A.D. 768). 
*EDBURGA (IDEBERGA) (St.) V. (June 20) 

(7th cent.) The daughter of the Pagan 
Penda, King of Mercia, a nun at Caistor in 
Northamptonshire, whence her relics were 
transferred to Peterborough and later to 
*EDBURGA (St.) V. (Dec. 21) 

(10th cent.) The saintly daughter of King 
Edward the Elder, a nun and Abbess at Win- 
chester, where she passed to her heavenly 
reward (A.D. 960). 
*EDBURGA (EADBURGA) (St.) V. (July 18) 

(7th cent.) An Anglo-Saxon princess who 
became a nun at Aylesbury, together with her 
sister Edith, and took charge of their third 
sister, St. Osith the Martyr. St. Edburga died 
in great repute of sanctity about a.]). 620. 
*EDEYRN (St.) (Jan. 6) 

(6th cent.) The Patron Saint of Landeyrn 
(Brittany). Various legends describe him as 
a Briton, and associate him with King Arthur. 
It is further recounted of him that in his old 
age he crossed the seas to become a hermit in 
EDILBURGA (St.) V. (July 7) 

Otherwise St. ETHELBURGA, which see. 
EDILTRUDIS (St.) V. (June 23) 

which see. 
EDISTIUS (St.) M. (Oct. 12) 

(4th cent.) A Martyr at Ravenna (Italy) 
during the persecution under Diocletian, 
probably a.d. 303 ; but particulars have been 
*EDITH (St.) V. (July 15) 

(9th cent.) This Saint, other certainly than 
the better known St. Edith of Wilton, daughter 
of King Edgar, was, like her, connected with 
the Royal House of Wessex. She was a 
daughter probably of King Egbert, and seems 
to have succeeded St. Modwenna as Abbess of 

Polesworth, some time towards the end of the 
ninth centurv. 

EDITH (St.) v.' (Sept. 16) 

(10th cent.) The natural daughter of King 
Edgar the Peaceful, brought up by her mother 
Wulfridis, who had become a nun in the mona- 
stery of Wilton near Salisbury, and, her father 
reluctantly consenting, admitted while quite a 
child to make her Religious Profession. Of 
her the Martyrology simply says : " She did 
not leave the world ; she never knew it." 
The sick and poor, more especially lepers, were 
her care through life, and she persistently 
refused the position offered her of Abbess. 
Her holy death, foretold by St. Dunstan, took 
place at the early age of twenty-three (A.D. 984) ; 
and numerous miracles have since borne witness 
to her sanctity. 

EDMUND of CANTERBURY (St.) Bp. (Nov. 16) 
(13th cent.) The eldest son of Reynold 
Rich, a tradesman of Abingdon in Berkshire, 
who having studied at Oxford and Paris, 
taught Philosophy in the former University 
from A.D. 1219 to A.D. 1226. He became suc- 
cessively Canon of Salisbury and Archbishop of 
Canterbury, governing the Church in England 
with gentleness, but with all Apostolic vigour. 
He corrected many abuses and bravely upheld 
the rights of the Church against the usurpation 
of Henry III. and his advisers. Driven into 
exile to Pontigny in France (where his body 
yet rests;, he died at Soissy, Nov. 16, A.D. 1242, 
and four years later was canonised by Pope 
Innocent IV. 

EDMUND (St.) King, M. (Nov. 20) 

(9th cent.) Born of royal blood (A.D. 849), 
he was made King of the East Angles in A.D. 855, 
under the suzerainty of the monarchs of Wessex. 
During his fifteen years of reign, his one aim was 
to secure the happiness of his people. In the 
Danish inroad of A.D. 870, one of the most 
devastating of that terrible age, after the defeat 
of his little army, he was taken prisoner and 
savagely done to death at Hoxne in Suffolk. 
He expired with the name of Jesus on his lips 
and has always been venerated as a Martyr. 
His shrine at Bury St. Edmunds was one of the 
most frequented in England. 

*EDMUND CAMPION (Bl.) M. (Dec. 1) 

(16th cent.) One of the most illustrious of 
the Martyrs of England. Born in London and 
educated at Christ's Hospital, he distinguished 
himself at Oxford, passing thence to Douai and 
eventually entering the Society of Jesus. 
Returning to England, he preached with bold- 
ness, and became known as the " Pope's 
Champion." After a mock trial for treason and 
terrible torturing, Queen Elizabeth, though not 
believing him guilty, had him hanged at Tyburn 
A.D. 1581. 

EDWARD (St.) King, M. (March 18) 

(10th cent.) The son of Edgar the Peaceful 
and King of England at the age of thirteen 
on his father's death (A.D. 975). He reigned 
for only a little over three years and a half ; 
but, guided by St. Dunstan. the great prelate 
of the time, won for himself by his piety and 
virtuous life, the love and reverence of his 
subjects. He was murdered at Wareham in 
Dorsetshire by emissaries, hired by his jealous 
and ambitious stepmother, March 18, A.D. 978 ; 
and was forthwith popularly acclaimed as a 
Martyr. His remains were translated to 
Shaftesbury three years after his death. 

♦EDWARD POWEL (Bl.) M. (July 30) 

(16th cent.) A learned Professor of Oxford 
University, author of various Treatises in 
defence of the Faith against Luther, and one of 
the three defenders of Queen Catharine in the 
divorce proceedings. He was put to death, 
a.d. 1540, by Henry VIII. for rejecting that 
monarch's pretended Supremacy in Spirituals. 

EDWARD THE CONFESSOR (St.) King. (Oct. 13) 
(11 th cent.) The son of Ethelred the Un- 
ready, born A.D. 1004, and brought up in exile 



on account of the Danish occupation of England. 
He was crowned King of England on the 
restoration of the Anglo-Saxon line (A.D. 1042). 
A just ruler and in all things considerate of the 
interests of his subjects, he yet, by the con- 
tinuous proofs of affection he gave to the 
Normans, who had befriended him in his 
youth, stirred up a feeling against him among 
the high nobles. Foremost among these was 
the powerful Earl Godwin, whose daughter, 
Edith, he had espoused. But the Commoners 
were for " Good King Edward," and for cen- 
turies idolised his memory. His armies were 
successful in wars with the Scots and Welsh, 
while peace was maintained within his own 
dominions. His remission of the odious tax 
called the Dane-Gelt, and the wise laws he 
enacted, endeared him to his people, and his 
care for the interests of religion was of lasting 
good to them. He died Jan. 5, A.D. 1060, 
and his body was enslirined in Westminster 
Abbey, built or rather restored by him, where 
it yet remains. His festival is kept by the 
Church on Oct. 13, the anniversary of the 
Translation at Westminster of his relics. 

*EDWEN (St.) V. (Nov. 6) 

(7th cent.) The alleged Patron Saint of 

Llanedwen (Anglesey). She is described as 

having been a daughter of King Edwin of 


♦EDWIN (St.) King, M. (Oct. 12) 

(7th cent.) The powerful King of Northum- 
bria, who after his marriage with St. Ethelburga, 
daughter of St. Ethelbert of Kent, embraced 
the Christian religion preached to him by 
St. Paulinus, his Queen's chaplain, and zealously 
promoted the conversion of his subjects. He 
fell at Hatfield Chase, A.D. 633, fighting against 
Cadwallon of Wales and the Pagan tyrant of 
Mercia, Penda. Hence popular piety has 
numbered him among the Martyrs to Chris- 

*EDWOLD (St.) (Nov. 27) 

(9th cent.) The brother of St. Edmund the 
Martyr, King of East Anglia. He lived an 
austere life as a hermit at Cerne in Dorsetshire 
in the latter half of the ninth century, and 
after his death was venerated as a Saint. 

♦EFFLAM (St.) (Nov. 6) 

(6th cent.) Son of a British Prince who, 

crossing to France, became Abbot of a monastery 

he had founded in Brittany. He died before 

A.D. 700. 

EGBERT (St.) (April 24) 

(8th cent.) A native of England who, like 
many of his countrymen in the seventh century, 
passed over to Ireland to frequent its renowned 
schools of piety and learning. He meditated, 
consecrating himself to the A postdate of Ger- 
many, but was forced to be content with being 
instrumental in inducing SS. Willibrord, 
Wigbert and others to undertake the mission. 
He himself repaired to St. Columba's monastery 
in the Isle of Iona, where he lived a life of 
prayer and penance till his death, a.d. 729, 
on the Festival of Easter, which he had suc- 
ceeded in causing the Celtic monks to celebrate 
on the day appointed by the Universal Church. 

EGDUNUS and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (March 12) 
(4th cent.) Victims of the persecution under 
Diocletian at Nicomedia in Asia Minor (A.D. 303). 
Egdunus, with seven other Christians, was hung 
up by his feet over a lire and suffocated with 
its smoke. 

*EGELNOTH (St.) Bp. (Oct. 30) 

(11th cent.) An Archbishop of Canterbury 

who died A.D. 1038 and was venerated as a Saint. 

*EGELRED (St.) M. (Sept. 25) 

(9tli cent.) One of the Croyland Abbey 
Martyrs, killed with his Abbot and many others 
by the heathen Danes (A.D. 870). 

♦EGELWINE (St.) (Nov. 29) 

(7th cent.) A prince of the House of Wessex, 
who lived a life of great holiness in the seventh 
century at Athelney in Somersetshire. 

*EGWIN (St.) Bp. (Dec. 30) 

(8th cent.) The third Bishop of Worcester 
and founder of the great Abbey of Evesham, 
where at an advanced age he ended his days, 
A.D. 717. Zealous in the interests of his flock 
and a father to the poor, he yet had to undergo 
persecution ; but driven from his See he was 
reinstated with honour by the Pope to whom 
he had made appeal, journeying for that 
purpose to Borne. His tomb became illustrious 
for the many miracles wrought at his inter- 


Egypt having its centre at Alexandria, gave 
to the Catholic Church, besides SS. Athanasius, 
Cyril and other illustrious Doctors* numerous 
holy Anchorites, known as the Fathers of the 
Desert, and a glorious array of Martyrs, who 
suffered either in the persecutions under the 
Roman heathen Emperors, or in defence of 
the Catholic Faith against the Arian and later 
against the Eutychian heretics, or in the cause 
of religion after the Mohammedan conquest 
of the country. Of Martyrs not associated with 
the names of any specially registered holy 
leader, a few groups are commemorated in the 


(4th cent.) In the great persecution under 
Diocletian, Upper Egypt was fertile in Saints 
and Martyrs. Eusebius, an eye-witness, des- 
cribes how the executioners themselves were 
worn out with their work. As a rule after 
torture, believers in Christ were either beheaded 
or burned alive (A.D. 303). 


(4th cent.) Numerous Christians (among 
them many Bishops and Priests), banished by 
the Arian Emperor Constantius (A.D. 357) 
when St. Athanasius, having also been sent 
into exile, the Arian Archbishop George usurped 
the See of Alexandria. Of these Catholic 
Confessors who took refuge in the desert, many, 
being old and infirm, died on the journey, 
others perished in the wilderness, leaving but 
few to return to their homes on the accession 
of Julian (A.D. 361), whose aim it was to recall 
Christians of all denominations, in order later 
to persecute all alike. 

*EIGRAD (St.) (Jan. 6) 

(6th cent.) A brother of St. Sampson of 
York, trained by St. llltyd, and founder of a 
church in Anglesea. 

*EILAN (St.) (Jan. 12) 

Otherwise St. ELIAN or ALLAN, which see. 

*EINGAN (ENEON, ANIANUS) (St.) (April 21) 
(6th cent.) A British prince who came from 
Cumberland into North Wales and finished his 
days in religious retirement at Llanengan near 
Bangor. He died about A.D. 590. He appears 
to have been one of the sons of the famous 
chieftain Cunedda, whose family is said to have 
produced no less than fifty Saints. 

*EL^ETH THE KING (St.) (Nov. 10) 

(6th cent.) A Briton from the North driven 

into Wales by the Picts. He became a monk 

under St. Sciriol in Anglesea. Some poems of 

his are still extant. 

*ELDATE (ELDAD) (St.) (Feb. 4) 

Otherwise St. ALDATE, which see. 

ELEAZAR (St.) M. (Aug. 23) 


ELEAZAR (St.) M. (Aug. 1) 

One of the MACHABEES, which see. 

ELEAZAR (St.) (Sept. 27) 

(14th cent.) A nobleman of the Diocese of 
Avignon, Count of Ariano in the Kingdom of 
Naples, and married to Delphina, who like him 
is honoured as a Saint. lie was distinguished, 
in the trying and difficult circumstances of the 
turbulent age in which he lived, lor his scrupu- 
lous obsi rvance of God's Law, ;i^ well as for his 
practice of constant penance and prayer. To 
advance themselves yet more in the way of 
perfection, he and his wife became fervent 




Tertiaries of St. Francis, tending the poor and 
especially the lepers. He was engaged at 
Paris as Ambassador from the King of Naples 
to the French monarch, when death overtook 
him (a.d. 1325) at the age of forty. Together 
with St. Delphina he was buried at Apt in 
Provence. Urban V. canonised St. Eleazar in 
*ELERIUS (St.) (Nov. 3) 

(6th cent.) A Welsh Saint who lived in the 
sixth century, and who is mentioned in the 
traditions concerning St. Winifred. He is 
supposed to have presided over a monastery 
in North Wales. 
ELESBAAN (St.) King. (Oct. 27) 

(6th cent.) A Christian King of Ethiopia 
(Abyssinia) in the first half of the sixth century, 
who distinguished himself by his warlike and 
successful expeditions in Arabia, where a 
Jewish usurper had almost exterminated the 
Christianity of the Southern part of the Penin- 
sula. In these wars he was supported by the 
Byzantine Emperors, Justin I. and Justinian. 
At the close of a long and memorable reign St. 
Elesbaan abdicated and ended his life as a hermit 
in the exercises of prayer and penance. He 
died about a.d. 555. His real name seems to 
have been Caleb. Hence, the Abyssinians 
style him Calam-Negus. 
*ELESMES (St.) Abbot. (Jan. 30) 

Otherwise St. ADELELMUS, which see. 
*ELETH (St.) (Nov. 10) 

(6th cent.) The Patron Saint of Llaneleth 
in Anglesea. He was of the Cunedda family, 
brother of SS. Seriol and Meirion. He was 
surnamed " Frenluuin " (the King), and lived 
in the sixth century. Two hymns of his com- 
position are extant. 
ELEUCHADIUS (St.) Bp. (Feb. 14) 

(2nd cent.) A learned man of Greek origin 
who was converted and ordained deacon by 
St. Apollinaris, and who governed the Church 
of Ravenna, together with other deacons and 
priests, during that Saint's four years' absence. 
Elected a.d. 100, on account of the miraculous 
apparition of a dove resting over his head, to 
succeed St. Aderitus, who had followed St. 
Apollinaris, he was for twelve years Bishop of 
Ravenna. He died Feb. 14, A.D. 112, and was 
at once honoured as a Saint. His relics were 
subsequently translated to Pa via in Lorn- 
ELEUSIPPUS (St.) M. (Jan. 17) 

ELEUTHERIUS of TOURNAI (St.) Bp., M. (Feb. 20) 

(6th cent.) A Christian of Tournai, chosen 
Bishop of that city (A.D. 486) ten years before 
the conversion of King Clovis and his Franks. 
His great work was the evangelising those of 
that nation who had settled in and near Tournai. 
In this he was successful, as also in battling 
with Arianism at that time rife in the West of 
Europe. But his zeal led to his being persecuted 
and in the end his enemies attacked and mur- 
dered him at his church door, a.d. 532. Some 
of his writings are still extant. 

Bp., M. (Feb. 20) 

(Date uncertain.) A Saint, concerning whose 
identity there is much dispute. The Bollandists 
believe him one and the same with the Byzantine 
Martyr Eleutherius, commemorated with others 
on Aug. 4. Others will have him to have been 
the fifth or perhaps the eighth Bishop of Byzan- 
tium, and to have flourished and suffered martyr- 
dom in the third century. 
ELEUTHERIUS and ANTHIA (SS.) MM. (April 18) 

(2nd cent.) Martyrs at Rome under Hadrian 
(A.D. 117-138). St. Eleutherius, son of Eugeuius 
the Consul, a cleric, had been consecrated by 
the then Pope as Bishop of Illyricum ; but 
while preparing to repair to his field of work he 
was arrested as a Christian, together with 
St. Anthia, his mother. They were put to the 
torture and beheaded. Part of their relics 


were afterwards transported to Constantinople, 
where a church was built in their honour. 

ELEUTHERIUS (St.) Pope, M. (May 26) 

(2nd cent.) The successor in St. Peter's 
Chair of Pope St. Soter, whose deacon he had 
been. During his Pontificate, the Fourth 
General Persecution, that under Marcus Aurelius, 
took place, raging chiefly in Gaul, though there 
were Martyrs also in Rome. St. Eleutherius 
had likewise to deal with the Montanist heretics 
whom he exposed and condemned, and with 
some forms of Gnosticism then rife even in 
Rome. A remarkable event of the Pontificate 
of St. Eleutherius (variously dated A.d. 170-185, 
or 182-193) was his sending missionaries to the 
Pagans of Britain, for the trustworthiness of the 
tradition concerning which there is very satis- 
fying evidence. The circumstances of the 
death of St Eleutherius are not known. 

ELEUTHERIUS (St.) (May 29) 

(12th cent.) He is said to have been a 
brother of SS. Grimwald and Fulk, and to have 
been born in England. He died, whilst on a 
pilgrimage, at Rocca d'Arce, near Aquino in 
the Kingdom of Naples. He is usually set 
down as a Saint of the twelfth century, but there 
is great uncertainty both as to his date and to 
the particulars of his life. 

ELEUTHERIUS (St.) M. (Aug. 4) 

(4th cent.) A Senator and Chamberlain to 
the Emperor Maximian Galerius at Constanti- 
nople. On becoming a Christian he left the 
Court and retired to a country estate he owned 
in Bithynia. There he was arrested, tortured 
and beheaded (before A.D. 310). His body was 
buried near the place of his martyrdom, and a 
church afterwards erected there. {See the 
notice of St. Eleutherius of Constantinople, 
Feb. 20). 

(Date unknown.) Martyrs at Constantinople, 
where they were burned to death for the Faith, 
but in which of the early persecutions is un- 

ELEUTHERIUS (St.) Bp. (Aug. 16) 

(6th cent.) The successor of St. Droctoald 
in the See of Auxerre (a.d. 532). His Episcopate 
lasted for twenty-eight years, during which he 
assisted at the four Councils of Orleans. Noth- 
ing further is now known concerning him. 

ELEUTHERIUS (St.) Abbot. (Sept. 6) 

(6th cent.) The head of a monastery near 
Spoleto (Central Italy) in the time of Pope 
St. Gregory the Great, who personally experi- 
enced the efficacy of his prayers and super- 
natural gifts. St. Eleutherius died in the 
monastery of St. Andrew (now San Gregorio), 
Rome, about a.d. 585, and his relics were later 
translated to Spoleto. 

(4th cent.) A group of Christians, to be 
counted by hundreds, who falsely accused of 
having set fire to Diocletian's palace at Nico- 
media, were savagely tortured and put to death 
in that city (a.d. 303, as is commonly believed). 
But there were two great fires in the same pile 
of buildings, with an interval of two years 
between them, which makes the precise date 
of the martyrdom uncertain. Nor is it clear 
how far the company who suffered with the 
Bishop St. Anthimus (April 27) are to be 
distinguished from the fellow-sufferers with 
St. Eleutherius. Again, this St. Eleutherius 
is by some thought to be identical with the 
Martyr of the same name who is honoured on 
Aug. 4, and may possibly be also the Bishop- 
Martyr of Feb. 20. The whole history is very 
hard to unravel. 

ELEUTHERIUS (St.) M. (Oct. 9) 


*ELEVATHA (St.) V.M. (Aug. 1) 

Otherwise St. ALMEDHA, which see. 


(St.) (Feb. 14) 

(8th cent.) A Saxon princess consecrated 



to God from her infancy by her father Oswy 
of Northumbria. She was by him committed 
to the care of St. Hilda at Whitby, whom she 
eventually succeeded as Abbess. St. Elfleda 
died a.d. 713. 

*ELFLEDA (St.) Widow. (Oct. 23) 

(10th cent.) An Anglo-Saxon princess who 
lived as a Recluse at Glastonbury, held in great 
veneration by St. Dunstan, to whom she foretold 
the year and day of her own death. This took 
place about the middle of the tenth century. 
This holy widow must not be confused with her 
contemporary and namesake the Abbess of 
Romsey, though their festivals were kept on 
the same dav. 

♦ELFLEDA (ETHELFLEDA) (St.) V. (Oct. 23) 

(10th cent.) One of the nuns of St. Modwenna 

at Romsey, to the government of which Abbey 

she eventually succeeded. She lived in the 

first half of the tenth century. 

♦ELFREDA (St.) V. (May 20) 

Otherwise St. ALFREDA, which see. 

♦ELFRIC (jELFRIC) (St.) Bp. (Nov. 16) 

Otherwise St. ALFRIC, which see. 

♦ELGAR (St.) (June 14) 

(11th cent.) Born in Devonshire, after some 
years of captivity in Ireland, he settled in the 
Isle of Bardsey off the coast of Carnarvon, 
where he lived as a hermit until his holy death 
towards the year 1100. 

*ELGIVA (St.) Queen, Widow. (May 18) 

(10th cent.) The mother of Kings Edwy and 
Edgar, and wife of King Edmund, the brother 
of Athelstan. On the death of her husband 
she retired to King Alfred's monastery at 
Shaftesbury, and there closed (a.d. 971) a life 
wholly spent in the discharge of her duties as 
wife and mother, and in works of piety and 

♦ELIAN (EILAN, ALLAN) (St.) (Jan. 12) 

(6th cent.) A Cornish or Breton Saint of 
the princely family to which belonged SS. 
Ismael, Oudoceus, Melorius, Tugdual, Judictel, 
and other holy men. He has given his name 
to Llanelian in Anglesea, and was Titular of 
St. Allan's Church in Powder. He may have 
followed his friend St. Cybi into Cornwall. 
Baring-Gould calls attention to the not infre- 
quent confusing of his name with that of St. 

♦ELIAN AP ERBIN (St.) (Jan. 12) 

(5th cent.) The name of this holy man 
appears in some Welsh Calendars, and on that 
account is given in the English Menology. 
He is possibly identical with the St. Eloan, 
son of St. Erbin, Prince of Devon, a fifth century 
Saint, whose Feast is also kept on Jan. 12. 
He would therefore be other than the St. Elian 
or Allan, styled " the pilgrim," who lived 
perhaps a half century later. 

DANIEL (SS.) MM. (Feb. 16) 

(4th cent.) Five brothers, who on their 
return from visiting some of their fellow- 
Christians condemned to toil in the mines of 
Cilicia, were arrested at the gates of Cpesarea 
in Palestine, and after being put to the torture, 
beheaded (a.d. 309) under Galerius Maximianus 
and Maximin Daza. 

ELIAS, PAUL and ISIDORE (SS.) MM. (April 17) 
(9th cent.) St. Elias was a priest venerable 
for age and virtue, who together with Paul and 
Isidore, two young Christians, his spiritual 
children, suffered for Christ (A.D. 856) at Cordova 
in Spain in the persecution under the Caliph 
Mohammed. St. Eulogius makes special men- 
tion of them in his History of the Times. 

ELIAS of JERUSALEM (St.) Bp. (July 4) 


ELIAS (ELIJAH) (St.) Prophet. (July 20) 

(8th cent. B.C.) The great Prophet raised up 
in the Kingdom of Israel to reprove the Ten 
Fallen Tribes, and whose works are set forth 
in the Third and Fourth r.ook of Kings. The 
tradition is that, carried away from this world 

in a chariot of fire (4 Kings, ii.), he has to 
reappear upon earth, and to die for Christ at 
the end of time (Apoc. xi.). The Carmelite 
Order, tracing its origin to the " sons of the 
prophets " (4 Kings, i. 13), venerates St. Elias 
as its founder. His Festival is kept annually 
in many churches, especially in the East. 
ELIAS (St.) Bp., M. (Sept. 19) 

♦ELIER (St.) (July 16) 

Otherwise St. HELIER, which see. 
ELIGIUS (ELOY) (St.) Bp. (Dec. 1) 

(7th cent.) Born near Limoges (a.d. 588), 
he was a man of remarkable piety and ability. 
By his skill in the art of working in precious 
metals — he is the Patron Saint of metal-workers 
— he acquired a place and influence at the 
Courts of Clotaire II. and Dagobert I., Kings 
of the Franks. His prospects of advancement 
he relinquished in a.d. 640, in order to become 
a priest, distributing the wealth which he had 
acquired to the poor. Consecrated Bishop of 
Noyon, he evangelised a great part of Flanders, 
and more particularly the districts round 
Antwerp, Ghent and Courtray. His death 
probably took place A.D. 658 or 659 ; but by 
some authors it is post-dated to a.d. 665. 
*ELINED (St.) V.M. (Aug. 1) 

Otherwise St. ALMEDHA, which see. 

The name is also written ELLYW, and the 
Saint is probably the one ivhose memory is 
perpetuated in the Welsh place-name Llanelly. 
ELIPHIUS (ELOFF) (St.) M. (Oct. 16) 

(4th cent.) A Christian, some say by birth 
an Irishman or a Scot, who suffered at Toul in 
France under Julian the Apostate (a.d. 362). 
His relics were translated in the tenth century 
to Cologne. 
ELISABETH of SCHONAUGE (St.) V. (June 18) 

(12th cent.) A Benedictine nun of the Abbey 
of Schonauge, near Bingen on the Rhine, of 
which monastery she was for many years Ab- 
bess. Her sufferings from ill-health were life- 
long, but borne with marvellous cheerfulness. 
The friend of St. Hildegarde, she, like that great 
contemplative, was favoured with heavenly 
visions, and wrote valuable books on Mystical 
Theology. She died a.d. 1165 at the age of 
thirty-six. Her name was inserted in the 
Roman Martyrology, though she does not 
appear ever to have been formally canonised. 

Widow. (July 8) 

(14th cent.) The daughter of Peter II., 
King of Aragon, born in 1271. Educated with 
great care from her earliest years, she gave 
constant proofs of her spirit of self-denial and 
prayer. At the age of twelve she was married 
to Dionysius, King of Portugal, becoming for 
the King and Court a striking pattern of every 
virtue. Her charity to the poor and her 
continuous endeavours to prevent hostilities 
breaking out between her relatives the Kings 
of Portugal and Castile, were characteristic 
of her sanctity. After the death of her husband 
(A.D. 1325) she took the habit of the Third 
Order of St. Francis, and devoted herself to 
good works. She died at Estremos (A.D. 1336), 
and was canonised (A.D. 1625) by Pope Urban 
ELISABETH (St.) Widow. (Nov. 5) 

The mother o>f St. John the Baptist. There 
are legends and traditions extant concerning 
her ; but our knowledge is really limited to 
what we gather from the first chapter of St. 
Luke's Gospel. In their commentaries upon 
this Gospel, however, the Holy Fathers often 
dwell at length upon the sanctity of her life. 
ELISABETH of HUNGARY (St.) Widow. (Nov. 19) 

(13th cent.) The daughter of Alexander II., 
King of Hungary, born A.D. 1207, and when only 
four years of age, promised in marriage to 
Louis, son of the Landgrave of Thuringia. 
She was educated at the Thuringian Court, 
where she suffered much from the jealousy of her 




future relatives. Louis, however, to whom she 
was married in 1221 , proved himself a husband 
worthy of her. With his permission, and to 
his secret delight, she multiplied her works of 
mercy ; for her love of the poor was boundless. 
Even in her dress she sought to be like them. 
On her husband's death at Otranto in 1227, 
while on his way with the Emperor Frederick 
Barbarossa to take part in the defence of the 
Holy Land, she with her children was stripped 
of everything and reduced to the direst straits 
by an opposing faction, headed by her brother- 
in-law. Befriended at length, and having seen 
her son Herman reinstated in his inheritance, 
she took the habit of the Third Order of St. 
Francis (of which she is the Patron Saint), 
and remaining in the world, busied herself to 
the day of her death (Nov. 19, 1231) in works 
of charity and piety. Her relics are enshrined 
at Marpurg, the place of her decease, in Thurin- 
gia. She was canonised only four years after 
her death by Pope Gregory IX. 

ELISEUS (ELISHA) (St.) Prophet. (June 14) 

(8th cent. B.C.) The holy man on whom fell 
the mantle of Elias, and who continued the work 
of that great Prophet, as is described in the 
Fourth Book of Kings. In the age of St. 
Jerome, his grave in Samaria was shown as 
containing also the body of St. Abdias the 
Prophet. The Feast of St. Eliseus is kept 
by the Carmelite Order and also generally in 
the East. 

*ELLIDIUS (ILLOD) (St.) (Aug. 8) 

(7th cent.) Patron Saint, as would appear, 

of Hirnant (Montgomery), and of a church in 

the Scilly Islands. The name " St. Helen's 

Isle " is a corrupt variant of St. Ellidius's Isle. 

*ELLYN (St.) V.M. (Aug. 1) 

Otherwise St. ALMEDHA, which see. 

*ELMO (St.) (April 15) 

Otherwise Bl. PETER GONZALEZ, which 
see. But the name ELMO usually stands for an 
abbreviation of that of St. ERASMUS (June 2). 

*ELOAN (St.) (Jan. 12) 

Otherwise St. ELIAN AP ERBYN, which see. 

ELOF (ELOPHIUS) (St.) M. (Oct. 10) 

Otherwise St. ELIPHIUS, which see. 

ELOI (St.) Bp. (Dec. 1) 

Otherwise St. ELIGIUS, which see. 

*ELPHAGE (ALPHAGE) (St.) Bp. (March 12) 
(10th cent.) Called the Elder to distinguish 
him from his more famous namesake, the 
Martyr of Canterbury and Greenwich. St. 
Elphege the Elder, a monk of singularly holy 
life, succeeded St. Birstan in the See of Win- 
chester, where he died, and his relics were 
enshrined (a.d. 951). 

ELPHEGE (ALPHAGE) (St.) Bp., M. (April 19) 
(11th cent.) Born A.D. 954, of a noble Saxon 
family, he became a monk, and afterwards 
Abbot of the monastery he had founded near 
Bath. In the year 984 he was chosen Bishop 
of Winchester, and in 1000 Archbishop of 
Canterbury. The following year the Danes 
sacked Canterbury, carrying off the holy 
Archbishop, for whom they expected a large 
ransom ; but he refused to allow his Church 
to put itself to such expense for him. He was 
therefore kept in prison at Greenwich for seven 
months, and, because he still refused to charge 
his Church with his ransom, was stoned and 
finally done to death by a swordstroke (A.D. 
1002). He fell asleep in Christ, truly a 
Martyr, with his last breath praying for his 

ELPIDEPHORUS (St.) M. (Nov. 4) 


ELPIDIUS (St.) Bp., M. (March 1) 


ELPIPIUS(T.) (Sept. 1) 


ELPIDIUS (St.) Bp. (Sept. 2) 

(5th cent.) The successor of St. Antiochus 

in the See of Lyons. After a saintly Pontificate 

he passed away (a.d. 422), and was buried in 


the church of St. Justus in his Episcopal city, 

and honoured as a Saint. The particulars of 

his life are lost. 

ELPIDIUS (St.) Abbot. (Sept. 2) 

(4th cent.) A hermit in Cappadoeia who 

in the fourth century lived for twenty-five 

years in a cave on a mountain side, and gathered 

round him numerous disciples. His relics were 

brought to a village in the Marches of Ancona 

(Central Italy), now called Sant' Elpidio, where 

they attract many pilgrims. A late tradition 

avers that he preached and died in that very 

place, indicating, it is likely, some confusion 

between two Saints of the same name. 


OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Nov. 10) 

(4th cent.) Elpidius, a dignitary at the 

Court of the Emperor Constantius, degraded 

by Julian the Apostate, having generously 

confessed the Faith in the presence of the 

latter, is said to have been, with his companions, 

fastened to wild horses and in the end to have 

perished at the stake, A.D. 5£2r" 

ELPIS (St.) V.M. (Aug. 1) 

*ELRIC (St.) (Jan. 7) 

Otherwise St. ALDRICUS, which see. 

*ELSTAN (St.) Bp. (April 0) 

(10th cent.) A monk of Abingdon, trained 

under the Abbot St. Ethelwald, and afterwards 

Bishop of Wilton near Salisbury, where he 

died A.D. 981. 

*ELVAN and MYDWYN (SS.) (Jan. 1) 

(2nd cent.) The two Britons alleged by 

tradition to have been sent by King St. Lucius 

to Pope St. Eleutherius to beg for missionaries 

to Britain, as a result of which petition SS. 

Fugatius and Damian came to South Wales. 

St. Elvan is alleged to have become a Bishop ; 

and Glastonbury is given as the place of burial 

of both him and St. Mydwyn. 

ELVIS (St.) (Feb. 22) 

Otherwise St. ELWYN or ALLEYN, or 

ALLAN, or ELIAN, which last see. 

*ELWYN (ALLAN, ALLEYN) (St.) (Feb. 22) 

(Gth cent.) Said to have been one of the 

holy men who accompanied St. Breaca from 

Ireland to Cornwall, and perhaps the title Saint 

of St. Allen's Church in that county. But 

the traditions are very perplexing. See also 


ELZEAR (St.) (Sept. 27) 

Otherwise St. ELEAZAR, which see. 
EMERENTIANA (St.) V.M. (Jan. 23) 

(4th cent.) Emerentiana, the foster-sister 
of St. Agnes, the famous Roman Virgin-Martyr, 
while as yet only a catechumen awaiting Bap- 
tism, was discovered by the Pagan Roman mob 
praying at the tomb of her mistress, and was 
stoned to death (A.D. 304). 
EMERIC (St.) (Nov. 4) 

(11th cent.) The son of St. Stephen, the 
first Christian King of Hungary. He was 
remarkable for his piety and for his austere 
virtue, and was favoured by Almighty God 
with many supernatural gifts. He died still 
a youth (A.D. 1031), and the many miracles 
which took place at his tomb, together with 
the insistency of the Hungarian people, led to 
his canonisation (A.D. 1083). 
EMERTERIUS (St.) M. (March 3) 

Otherwise St. HEMETERIUS, which see. 
EMILIAN (St.) Abbot. (Nov. 12) 

Otherwise St. ^EMILIAN, which see. 
EMERITA (St.) V.M. (Sept. 22) 

EMIDIUS (St.) Bp., M. (Aug. 5) 

Otherwise St. EMYGDIUS, which sec. 
EMILAS and JEREMIAS (SS.) MM. (Sept, 15) 

(9th cent.) Two Christian youths (of whom 
the former was a deacon), imprisoned and 
beheaded for the Faith at Cordova (a.d. SiyS) 
under the Caliph Abdurrahman. 
*EMMA (St.) Widow. (June 29) 

Otherwise St. HEMMA, which see. 



♦EMMA (St.) V. (Sept. 24) 

Otherwise St. AMA, which see. 
EMMANUEL (St.) M. (March 26) 

EMMELIA (St.) Widow. (May 30) 

EMMERAMUS (St.) Bp., M. (Sept. 22) 

(7th cent.) A native of Poitiers in France, 
where he was raised to the Episcopate on 
account of his learning and holiness of life. 
In the year 648 he set out to preach Christianity 
in Germany, and fixed his See at Ratisbon in 
Bavaria, induced thereto by King Sigebert III. 
In 653, while on a pilgrimage to Rome, he was 
set upon at a place called Helffendorff by the 
emissaries of Lauthbert, a young noble of 
dissolute life, and put to death. The shrine of 
St. Emmeramus is at Ratisbon. 
EMYGDIUS (EMIDIUS) (St.) Bp., M. (Aug. 5) 

(4th cent.) Said to have been a native of 
Germany who, converted to Christianity and 
coming to Rome, was consecrated Bishop by 
Pope St. Marcellus and sent as missionary to 
Ascoli in the Marches of Ancuona, where he was 
put to death under Diocletian (a.d. 303 or 304). 
His relics are in great veneration, and many 
miracles have been wrought at his tomb. 
ENCRATIS (ENGRATIA) (St.) V.M. (April 16) 

(4th cent.) A Christian maiden of Saragossa 
in Spain, one of the numerous victims of the fury 
of the persecution under Diocletian (a.d. 306). 
*ENDEUS (EDNA, ENNA) (St.) Abbot. (March 21) 

(6th cent.) The brother of St. Fanchea and 
founder of many monasteries of which the 
principal one was at Killeany in the Arran 
Islands (Ireland). St. Endeus counted SS. 
Kyran of Clonmacnoise and Brendan among 
his disciples. He died early in the sixth 
ENGELBERT (St.) Bp., M. (Nov. 7) 

(13th cent.) A German of noble birth who 
(a.d. 1215) succeeded a troublesome and un- 
worthy Bishop in the important See of Cologne, 
in which he soon re-established peace and good 
order, while himself becoming conspicuous on 
account of his wise and considerate administra- 
tion and of his virtuous life. The Emperor 
Frederick II made him tutor of the prince his 
son ; also for a time his chief minister for the 
government of the Imperial dominions north 
of the Alps. Many were the abuses and 
injustices he corrected. An evildoer forced by 
the Saint to restore certain ill-gotten goods, 
plotted his death, and while travelling in his 
company bad him murdered by hired assassins 
(Nov. 7, 1225). Numerous miracles wrought at 
liis tomb speedily attested the sanctity of 
St. Engelbert. 
♦ENGELMUND (St.) (June 21) 

(8th cent.) An Anglo-Saxon Saint, fellow- 
missionary with St. Willibrord in Holland, 
where he died late in the eighth century. His 
relics arc enshrined at Utrecht. 
*ENGELMUND (St.) (June 21) 

(8th cent.) An Anglo-Saxon, a fellow- 
missionary with St. Willebrord. He died at 
Haarlem, where he is venerated as a Saint. 
♦ENGHENEDL. (Sept. 30) 

(7th cent.) A Welsh Saint, to whom a church 
in Anglesey is dedicated. Nothing is now 
known about his life. 
♦ENGLACIUS (ENGLAT) (St.) Abbot. (Nov. 3) 

(10th cent.) a.d. 966 is given as the date of 
the death of this Scottish Saint, who by some 
is said to have been a Bishop. He lived at 
Tarves in Aberdeenshire, where he is known 
as St. Tanglan. 

(16th cent.) By these are meant not all who 
in various ages have laid down their lives for 
Christ in England, but only the holy men and 
women put to death for professing the Catholic 
Religion, the Faith of their Fathers, in the 
persecution consequent on the so-called Refor- 
mation between the years 1535 and 1681. They 

are about six hundred in number. Of these, 
fifty-four were beatified bv Pope Leo XIII on 
Dec. 9, 1886, and nine others on May 15, 1895. 
It is a festival in their honour which is in 
England kept annually on May 4, and a brief 
notice of each one will be found in the present 
volume. Prominent among them are Blessed 
John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, Blessed 
Thomas More, the Martyrs of the London 
Charterhouse, &c. The cases of 253 others of 
these Servants of God are now being officially 
enquired into in Rome, and pending the investi- 
gation they are styled " Venerable," a prima 
facie case having been already made out. It is 
proved that they all suffered death at the 
hands of the public executioner, after having 
been in the majority of cases put to the torture. 
But in not a few instances, proofs have still 
to be brought that they suffered on account of 
their religion, and not merely on charges, true 
or false, of treason or other crimes. There 
still remain 284 sufferers of whose claim to be 
regarded as Martyrs the Church has not as yet 
taken cognisance. 

*ENGLAT (TANGLEN) (St.) Abbot. (Nov. 3) 

(10th cent.) A Saint with an Office in the 
Aberdeen Breviary. He may have been a 
Bishop, but the particulars of his life have 
not been preserved. He died at Tarves, 
Aberdeen, probably about a.d. 966. 

*ENNA (ENDA) (St.) Abbot. (March 21) 

Otherwise St. ENDEUS, which see. 

ENNATHA (St.) V.M. (Nov. 13) 


ENNECO (INIGO) (St.) Abbot. (June 1) 

(11th cent.) The second Abbot of Onia, 
a Spanish monastery founded by King Sancho 
the Great of Navarre and transferred to Bene- 
dictine monks of the Cluniac Observance. 
St. Inigo governed this Abbey from A.D. 1038 
to a.d. 1057, in which year he passed away, 
famous for sanctity and austerity of life, and 
also for numerous miracles. 

ENNODIUS (St.) Bp. (July 17) 

(6th cent.) Born in Cisalpine Gaul (Northern 
Italy), or perhaps at Aries (a.d. 473), and well 
versed in Rhetoric and in the science of his 
time, he married a rich and noble lady. But 
after recovering from a dangerous illness, he 
consecrated himself to God (taking deacon's 
orders), and his wife retired into a convent. 
Consecrated Bishop of Pavia (Lombardy) 
A.D. 510, he was twice sent by Pope Hormisdas 
as his Legate to the Eastern Emperor Anas- 
tasius, to try to induce the latter to cease 
from favouring Eutychianism (the heresy of 
those who denied to Christ a real human 
nature like our own). On the last occasion he 
endured much ill-treatment at Constantinople, 
and barely escaped thence with his life. Return- 
ing to Pavia he laboured with much zeal for the 
temporal and spiritual welfare of his flock. 
He died four years later (A.D. 521). The poems 
and ascetical tracts of St. Ennodius are inter- 
esting, though as literature they suffer greatly 
from the defective taste of the age in which he 

♦ENOCH (St.) V. (March 25) 

Otherwise St. KENNOCHA, which see. 

♦ENODER (CYNIDR) (St.) Abbot. (April 27) 

(6th cent.) A grandson of the Welsh chieftain 
Brychan of Brecknock. Llanginydr in Here- 
fordshire perpetuates his memory, as also pos- 
sibly St. Enoder or Enodoc in Cornwall. He is 
the Breton St. Quidic. His contemporary in 
the sixth century, St. Wenedoc or Enodoc, 
can with difficulty be discriminated from him. 

♦ENODOCH (WENEDOC) (St.) V. (March 7) 

(6th cent.) A Welsh Spirit of the great 
Brychan race, possibly identical with St. 
Gwendydd, daughter of the famous chieftain 
Brychan of Brecknock. She cannot have 
flourished later than A.D. 520. 

♦ENOGATUS (St.) Bp. (Feb. 13) 

(7th cent.) The fifth successor of St. Male 




in the See of Aleth in Brittany. He died 
A.D. 631. 

EOBAN (St.) M. (June 5) 

(8th cent.) A fellow-labourer in Germany 
with St. Boniface and a sharer in his martyrdom 
(A.d. 754). He is claimed as of Irish descent. 
and is also asserted to have been consecrated 
Assistant Bishop of Utrecht, where his remains 
were venerated until enshrined at Erfurth, the 
scene of many miracles worked by his inter- 

♦EOCHOD (St.) (Jan. 25) 

(7th cent.) One of St. Columbkille's twelve 
companions, and chosen by him to Christianise 
the people of North Britain. He is called the 
Apostle of the Picts of Galloway. He appears 
to have survived St. Columba, who died a.d. 

*EOGAN (St.) Bp. (Aug. 23) 

Otherwise St. EUGENE, which see. 

EPAGATHUS (St.) M. (June 2) 


EPAPHRAS (St.) Bp., M. (July 19) 

(1st cent.) " The most beloved fellow- 
servant " of St. Paul (Col. i. 7). He is tradition- 
ally said to have been Bishop of Colosse and to 
have suffered there for Christ. But beyond 
what we read of him in Scripture (Coloss. i. 7 ; 
iv. 12 ; Philem. 23) we know nothing of his 

EPAPHRODITUS (St.) Bp. (March 22) 

(First cent.) The name occurs (Phil. ii. 25) 
as that of an Apostle sent to the Philippians 
by St. Paul. Hence, St. Epaphroditus is 
reputed first Bishop of Philippi (Macedonia). 
Again, we have Epaphroditus, first Bishop of 
Andriacia (Lycia), and lastly Epaphroditus, 
sent as its first Bishop to Terracina in the south 
of Italy. All are of the Apostolic Age, and all 
are said to have been of the seventy-two 
disciples chosen by Christ (Luke x. 1). There 
are no data for elucidating the problems 

EPARCHIUS (St.) Bp. (Aug. 23) 


EPARCHIUS (CYBAR) (St.) Abbot. (July 1) 

(6th cent.) Born in Perigord (France) 
a.d. 504, and heir to the Dukedom of that 
Province. He preferred, however, to become 
a monk at Sessac. Later, desirous of a still 
more retired and more austere life, he came to 
Angouleme (a.d. 542), and with the help of 
St. Aphtonius, Bishop of the city, was solemnly 
enclosed in a cavern close by. He had already 
received the priesthood, and his sanctity and 
the numerous miracles he wrought drew great 
crowds to listen to his preaching. From his 
retreat he also directed certain monks, who 
eventually founded a monastery in the neigh- 
bourhood. He died a.d. 581, and was chosen 
to be the Patron Saint of the Diocese of Angou- 
leme. His relics, reverenced for a thousand 
years, were destroyed by the Huguenots in the 
sixteenth century. 

EPHEBUS (St.) M. (Feb. 14) 



(8th cent.) Forty-two monks of blameless 
lives, zealous opponents of the Iconoclasts, on 
which account their monastery at Ephesus was 
burned down, and they themselves put to 
torture and death by the persecuting Emperor 
Constantine Copronymus, about A.D. 762. 

EPHRvEM THE SYRIAN (St.) (Feb. 1) 

(4th cent.) A Father of the Church, a great 
orator and a true poet, who has left us a con- 
siderable body of writings of which his Exposi- 
tion of the Scriptures is the most notable. 
Born in Mesopotamia of Christian parents, 
he became a monk while still young, and 
appears to have been present at the Council 
of Nicsea (a.d. 325) as deacon or attendant 
upon one of the Bishops. The chief scene of 
his labours was Edessa (Orfa), where he taught 
in the schools and became famous for his skill 

and success in controversy. The last years of 
his life he passed in solitude, dying at an 
advanced age, a.d. 378. 

EPHREM (St.) Bp., M. (March 4) 


EPHYSIUS (St.) M. (Jan. 15) 

(4th cent.) A Palestinian who, coming to 
Borne, gained the favour of the Emperor 
Diocletian, and was by him made Governor of 
the Island of Sardinia, where he was converted 
to Christianity, and in consequence degraded 
from his office, tortured and beheaded about 
A.D. 303. 

EPICHARIS (St.) M. (Sept. 27) 

(4th cent.) A holy Christian woman, mar- 
tyred at Borne, or, as some say, at Constan- 
tinople, in the persecution under Diocletian at 
the beginning of the fourth century. 

FELIX and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Jan. 9) 

(3rd cent.) Twelve African Martyrs, prob- 
ably of the Decian persecution (a.d. 250). One 
of the Epistles of St. Cyprian is addressed to a 
Bishop Epictetus, conjectured to be the Epic- 
tetus commemorated on this day. 

EPICTETUS (St.) M. (Aug. 22) 


EPIGMENIUS (St.) M. (March 24) 

(4th cent.) A priest mentioned as having 
baptised St. Crescentius, a child-martyr of the 
persecution under Diocletian. It is nowhere 
stated that he himself perished by the sword. 
Hence, probably he is really to be numbered 
only among Confessors. 

EPIMACHUS (St.) M. (May 10) 

(3rd cent.) A Christian of Alexandria in 
Egypt, burned there at the stake in the Decian 
persecution (A.d. 250), and commemorated by 
the Church together with St. Gordian on 
May 10, and likewise with St. Alexander, his 
fellow-sufferer, on Dec. 12. 

EPIPHANA (St.) M. (July 12) 

(Date uncertain.) Mentioned in the very 
untrustworthy Acts of St. Alphius and his 
fellow-sufferers, and consequently dated in the 
Roman Martyrology as a Martyr under Dio- 
cletian. It is more likely that she suffered 
under Licinius after A.d. 307, and more probable 
still that she was one of the Sicilian Martyrs of 
the Decian persecution (a.d. 250). 

EPIPHANIUS (St.) Bp. (Jan. 21) 

(5th cent.) Born at Pavia in Lombardy 
(a.d. 439), and elected Bishop of that city in 
467. His sanctity and his gift of miracles won 
him great credit with the rulers of his time — a 
credit which he used for the good of his flock 
and for securing peace to his Church. He 
rebuilt Pavia after its destruction by Odoacer. 
He died A.D. 497, and his relics were translated 
(a.d. 963) to Hildesheim in Lower Saxony. 
His Life (still extant) was written by St. 
Ennodius, his successor. 


OTHERS (SS.) MM. (April 7) 

(Date unknown.) St. Epiphanius was an 
African Bishop of unknown date and See. 
The Martyrologies commemorate him as having 
suffered for Christ, together with fifteen of his 

EPIPHANIUS of SALAMIS (St.) Bp. (May 12) 
(5th cent.) A famous Eastern Father, a 
native of Palestine and a monk from his earliest 
youth. He was an intimate friend of St. 
Hilarion and later of St. Jerome. He was 
called to Borne for his counsel by Pope St. 
Damasus, and was in so great repute for holiness 
of life and for learning that the Arians did not 
dare to banish him from his See of Salamis 
(Costanza) in Cyprus, though they had driven 
almost every other prominent Catholic Bishop 
into exile. He preached and wrote unceasingly 
against the heresies of his own and preceding 
centuries (the confuting in detail of each of 
which is the subject-matter of his best-known 
work), and was a pillar of the Faith against the 



(Jan. 24) 

(Sept. 15) 

(Aug. 11) 

Arians, as also against the errors of certain 
followers of Origen. He died at an advanced 
age a.d. 403. 

EPIPODIUS (St.) M. (April 22) 

(2nd cent.) A young Christian of Lyons, 
who with his friend Alexander was discovered 
in the hiding-place in which they had concealed 
themselves, put to the torture and beheaded 
on account of their religion under the Emperor 
Marcus Aurelius, a.d. 178. 

EPISTEMIS (St.) M. (Nov. 5) 


(1st cent.) Epitacius (variously written 
Epictetus, Epictritus, &c.) and Basileus, both 
looked upon as Bishops of the Apostolic Age, 
have been in veneration in Spain from time 
immemorial, but there has not come down to 
us any reliable account of their lives and 
asserted martyrdom. 



EPVRE (EVRE) (St.) Bp. 

Otherwise St. APRUS, which see. 

EQUITIUS (St.) Abbot. 

(6th cent.) The Superior of a 
House in the Province of Valeria (a district to 
the East of Rome). Though not a priest, he 
preached with assiduity and success, bringing 
many sinners back to God, from whom he had 
received the gift of the working of miracles. 
His life of prayer and penance ended March 7, 
A.D. 540 ; but his Festival is kept on August 11, 
anniversary of the Translation of his relics to 
Aquila. St. Gregory the Great devotes a 
considerable portion of the First Book of his 
Dialogues to the giving an account of the 
virtues and wonderful works of St. Equitius. 

(St.) Bp. 

(7th cent.) One of the Irish Apostles of 
Bavaria, who is said to have been Bishop of 
Ardagh before setting out on his mission to 
Germany. He flourished in the seventh century 
and for some time shared the solitude of St. 
Hidulphus in the Vosges mountains. Ratisbon 
was the chief centre of his Apostolic labours, 
and it was there that he died (probably A.d. 
671) and that his relics were enshrined. He 
is said to have been canonised by Pope St. Leo 
IX. Alban Butler states St. Erard to have 
been a Scotchman, and dates him considerably 
later, giving a.d. 753 as the year of his death. 

ERASMA (St.) V.M. (Sept. 3) 


ERASMUS (ELMO) (St.) Bp., M. (June 2) 

(4th cent.) A Bishop of some town in Syria 
who, after resigning his See and living seven 
years as a solitary, came to Antioch during the 
persecution under Diocletian. Put to the 
torture and remanded to his prison, he, like 
St. Peter, was miraculously freed by an Angel. 
Later, in Illyricum under Maximian, the same 
experiences befell him. He died peacefully at 
Formiae near Gseta (to which latter town his 
relics were translated A.D. 842). He was the 
object of great and widespread popular devotion 
throughout the Middle Ages, and is still yearly 
commemorated in the Liturgy. 

ERASMUS (St.) M. (Nov. 25), 

(Date unknown.) A Syrian Christian who 
suffered for the Faith at Antioch in one of the 
early persecutions. He may possibly be one 
and the same with the fourth century Martyr, 
Erasmus of June 2 ; but there is not lacking 
evidence that he was a distinct personage. 
There can be no doubt that some details in the 
traditional story of St. Erasmus (June 2) point 
to a confusion between him and some other 
Martyr of the same name. 

ERASTUS (St.) Bp., M. (July 26) 

(First cent.) The Treasurer of the city of 

Corinth (Rom. xvi. 23), converted by St. Paul 

and one of his helpers in the Apostolate (Acts. 

xix. 22), especially at Corinth (2 Tim. iv. 20). 

The Greek tradition is that he became Bishop 
of Philippi Paneas in Palestine. That of the 
Latins that his See was Philippi in Macedonia, 
and that he in the end was put to death for the 

*ERBIN (St.) (May 29) 

(5th cent.) His name is sometimes written 
Erbyn or Ervan. A Cornish Saint, probably 
of the fifth century. Churches are dedicated 
to him and his name appears in several Calen- 
dars. He seems to have been related to one of 
the Cornish or Devonian chieftains of his age. 
By error, his name has sometimes been spelled 
Hermes, confusing him with the ancient Martyr 
of that name. 

*ERC (St.) Bp. (Nov. 2) 

(6th cent.) An Irish Saint, Bishop of Slane, 
a disciple of St. Patrick, who died at the age 
of ninety a.d. 513. 

ERCONGOTHA (St.) V. (July 7) 

(7th cent.) The daughter of King Ercombert 
of Kent and of his Queen Sexburga. With 
her aunt, St. Ethelburga, St. Ercongotha 
embraced the Religious life at Faremoutier in 
France, under St. Fara or Burgondophora, 
where she persevered in holiness until her 
death, a.d. 660. 

ERCONWALD (St.) Bp. (April 30) 

Otherwise St. ERKENWALD, which see. 

*ERENTRUDE (ARNDRUDA) (St.) V. (June 30) 
(7th cent.) An Irish Saint, sister of St. 
Rupert, who accompanied him to his Apostolate 
in South Germany, and for whom he built the 
monastery of Nimberg near Salzburg. In the 
eleventh century the Emperor St. Henry re- 
built her church and shrine. 

*ERFYL (EUERFYL) (St.) V. (July 5) 

(Date unknown.) A British maiden, foun- 
dress and title Saint of the church of Llanerfyl 

*ERGNAD (ERCNACTA) (St.) V. (Jan. 8) 

(5th cent.) This holy woman, born in the 
present county Antrim, is said to have received 
the veil from St. Patrick. She led a life of great 
penance, and her closing years were marked by 
many miracles. 

ERIC (St.) King, M. (May 18) 

(12th cent.) Eric (a name identical with 
Henry), son-in-law of Smercher, King of Sweden, 
was elected to succeed him in 1141, and is 
described as both the father and the servant 
of his people. Having in battle subdued the 
Finns, he laboured to convert them to Chris- 
tianity, and is reckoned the Apostle of their 
country. A man of prayer, he built many 
churches, but always out of the proceeds of his 
own patrimony. A Pagan faction, headed by 
Magnus, son of the King of Denmark, com- 
passed his death, a.d. 1151, when he was struck 
down from his horse and beheaded as he was 
leaving the church after hearing Mass, his last 
thought being to save his followers. His memory 
is yet held in benediction among the Swedes. 

*ERKEMBODON (St.) Bp. (April 12) 

(8th cent.) Leaving Ireland in company 
with two missionaries who were murdered on the 
way, St. Erkembodon entered the monastery 
of St. Omer, where he was elected Abbot, becom- 
ing afterwards Bishop of St. Omer and Terou- 
anne. He died a.d. 734. Many miracles were 
wrought at his shrine, and the offerings of 
pilgrims were soon so considerable that they 
sufficed to defray the cost of the reconstruction 
of the Cathedral. 


(7th cent.) A Prince of East Anglia who, 
retiring among the East Saxons, founded out 
of his patrimony the two famous Abbeys of 
Chertsey for monks and of Barking for nuns. 
Consecrated Bishop of London (a.d. 675) by the • - 
Archbishop St. Theodore, he governed that 
See for eleven years until his death in a.d. 686. 
His tomb in Old St. Paul's was famous fat; 
miracles. His Feast is also kept on Nov. 




Anniversary of the Translation of his Relics 
to a noble shrine over the High Altar. They 
disappeared at the change of religion in the 
sixteenth centurv. 

♦ERLULPH (St.) Bp., M. (Feb. 10) 

(9th cent.) A Scottish missionary in Germany 

who later became Bishop of Werden, and in the 

end suffered death at the hands of the Pagans 

(A.D. 830). 

*ERMEL (ERME) (St.) Abbot. (Aug. 16) 

which see. 

*ERMELINDA (St.) V. (Oct, 29) 

(6th cent.) A Belgian Saint who lived a life 

of penance in a little cell in Brebant. She died 

about A.D. 594, and her relics are enshrined at 


*EflMENBURGA (St.) Widow (Nov. 19) 

(7th cent.) She is otherwise known as Domna 
Ebba (Lady Ebba) abbreviated into Domneva, 
She was a Kentish princess married to Merewald, 
son of King Penda of Mercia, and the mother of 
the three holy virgins SS. Milburga, Mildred and 
Mildgith. In her old age she founded the Abbey 
of Minster in Thanet, where the place-name 
Ebb's Fleet still perpetuates her memory. The 
date of her death some time after A.D. 650 is 

*ERMENGYTHA (St.) V. (July 30) 

(7th cent.) A sister of St. Ermenburga 

(Domneva) who lived in great fervour in her 

sister's monastery at Minster in Thanet, 

a.d. 680 is given as the date of her death. 

*ERMENILDA (St.) Queen. (Feb. 13) 

(7th cent.) The daughter of King Erconbert 
of Kent and his wife, St. Sexburga. She 
married Wulfhere of Mercia and became the 
mother of St. Wereberga. On the death of 
her husband she joined her mother in the 
Abbey of Minster in Sheppey, embracing like 
her the Religious life, and eventually succeeding 
her as Abbess. Later, mother and daughter 
are found together again at St. Etheldreda's 
monastery at Ely, where both finished their 
earthly pilgrimage. The death of St. Ermenilda 
may have taken place about A.D. 700. 

*ERMINOLD (St.) M. (Jan. 6) 

(12th cent.) A monk and Abbot in South 

Germany. A man of very holy life. He was 

assassinated (A.D. 1 151), and died forgiving his 


ERMINUS (St.) Bp. (April 25) 

(8th cent.) A priest of Laon in France, who 
at the invitation of St. Ursmar, Abbot-Bishop 
of Lobbes (near Liege), fixed his abode in that 
monastery and followed so carefully the example 
of his holy Abbot that he was chosen by him 
to be his successor (A.D. 713). St. Erminus was 
conspicuous for his gift of prophecy. He died 
at an advanced age A.D. 737. 

*ERNAN (St.) (Aug. 18) 

(7th cent.) A nephew of St. Columba and 
sometime missionary to the Picts. He later 
returned to Ireland and founded a monastery 
in Donegal, and possibly another in Wicklow. 
According to St. Adamnan, at the moment of 
St. Columba's death, St. Ernan in a vision saw 
the soul of the holy Abbot raised to Heaven. 
St. Ernan died A.D. 634. 

*ERNEST (St.) M. (Nov. 7) 

(12th cent.) An Abbot in the South of 
Germany who joined one of the Crusades and 
after his arrival in Asia devoted himself to the 
work of preaching the Gospels to the Infidels. 
He suffered martyrdom, it is said, at Mecca, 
A.D. 1148. 

"ERNEST (St.) M. (Nov. 7) 

(12th cent.) A Benedictine Abbot in the 
South of Germany, who joined in one of the 
Crusades and strove to propagate Christianity 
in Palestine. Thence he penetrated into Persia, 
and finally made his way into Arabia, where he 
was put to death by the Infidels (a.d. 1148). 

*ERNEY (St.). 

(Date unknown.) The Patron Saint of a 

church in Cornwall, whose history has not been 
traced. He may be identical with St. Ernan. 
It appears that there were several Celtic Saints 
of this or of a verv similar name. 
EROTHEIDES (St.) M. (Oct. 27) 

EROTIS (EROTEIS) (St.) M. (Oct. 6) 

(4th cent.) A Martyr of the fourth century 
who perished at the stake (it would seem) in 
Greece, though by some she is identified with 
St. Eroteides of Cappadocia, who suffered with 
St. Capitolina. 
*ERTH (HERYGH, URITH). (Oct, 31) 

(6th cent.) Brother to St. Uny and St. la 
(Ives). He crossed from Ireland into Cornwall, 
and was held in such veneration that a church 
was dedicated in his honour. He has given his 
name to the village of St. Erth. 
*ERVAN (St.) (May 29) St. ERBYN (ERBIN), which see. 
*ERVAN (St.) Abbot. (Aug. 16) 

Otherwise St. ARMAGILLUS, which see. 
ESDRAS (EZRA) (St.) Prophet. (July 13) 

(6th cent. B.C.) Two canonical Books of 
Holy Scripture bear his superscription, and two 
others, rejected by the Catholic Church and 
Apocryphal, were formerly attributed to him. 
He collected the inspired works of those who 
had preceded him, and is by many thought to 
have written the Books of Parallelipomenon 
or Chronicles. The tradition is that he lived 
to a great age in Jerusalem after the return 
from the Captivity of Babylon. The ancient 
hypothesis that he was one and the same with 
the Prophet Malachi must be rejected. Esdras 
is said to have introduced the practice of writing 
Hebrew uniformly from right to left instead of, 
as was done before his time, alternately from 
right to left and from left to right. 
*ESKILL (St.) Bp., M. (June 13) 

(11th cent.) A fellow-missionary to Sweden 
with St. Sigfrid, who consecrated him as Bishop. 
His zeal for justice led to his being cruelly 
done to death by unbelievers about the middle 
of the eleventh century. 
*ESTERWINE (St.) Abbot. (March 7) 

(7th cent.) A monk of Wearmouth who 
governed that monastery with zeal and success 
in place of St. Benet Biscop, and died a.d. 686, 
during that Saint's absence. His humbleness 
and gentleness, ensured by constant prayer, 
earned him his place among the Saints. His 
remains were enshrined, with those of St. 
Benet Biscop, and of St. Sigfrid his successor, 
before the altar of St. Peter at Wearmouth. 
*ETHA (St.) (May 5) 

Otherwise St. ECHA, which see. 
*ETHBIN (St.) Abbot. (Oct. 19) 

(7th cent.) A Briton of noble birth, educated 
in France by St. Samson, Bishop of Dole in 
Brittany. When a deacon he retired to the 
Abbey of Taurac (A.D. 554), where he remained 
till the dispersion of the community through a 
raid by the Franks (A.D. 556). He then crossed 
over to Ireland, and there led the life of a hermit 
in a forest near Kildare, till his death at the 
age of eightv-three, about a.d. 625. 
*ETHELBERT (St.) King, M. (May 20) 

(8th cent.) A King of East Anglia, who, 
invited by King Offa to come to his Court to 
marry his daughter, was by that monarch's 
orders treacherously and cruelly put to death 
(a.d. 793). Numerous miracles justified popular 
devotion in regarding him as a Martyr, and the 
place where his relics were entombed was a 
little later made a Bishop's See, that of Here- 
ETHELBERT (St.) King. (Feb. 24) 

(7th cent.) The first Anglo-Saxon monarch 
to embrace the Christian Faith. An able ruler 
and a wise legislator, succeeding his father, 
Ermenric, on the throne of Kent, A.D. 560, he 
practically ruled over all the Southern prin- 
cipalities of the Heptarchy. In the year 597, 
encouraged by his Queen, Bertha of France, he 



welcomed the Missionaries sent by Pope St. 
Gregory to England under St. Augustine. 
Converted to Christianity, he founded Canter- 
bury and Rochester Cathedrals, and St. Paul's, 
London. He died A.D. 616, and was buried 
in the Abbey which he had likewise built at 
Canterbury. In Church Dedications he is 
often styled St. Albert. 
*ETHELBERT (St.) M. (Oct. 17) 

♦ETHELBURGA (TATE) (St.) Widow. (April 5) 
(7th cent.) The daughter of St. Ethelbert, 
first Christian king of Kent, and wife of Edwin 
of Northumbria, after whose death she returned 
to Kent in company with the holy Bishop St. 
Paulinus, and founded the monastery of Ly- 
minge, to which she retired and where she passed 
away (A.D. 647). 
(7th cent.) The daughter of Anna, King of 
the East Angles, who consecrated . herself to 
God in the monastery of Faremousties (France). 
In the government of this Abbey she succeeded 
its foundress, St. Fara. She passed away 
A.D. 664. She is known in France as St. 
♦ETHELBURGA (St.) V. (Oct. 11) 

(7th cent.) The sister of St. Erkenwald, 
Bishop of London, and first Abbess of that 
Saint's foundation at Barking. St. Ethelburga 
is famous for the many miracles worked at her 
shrine. She died A.D. 670 about. 
AUDREY) (St.) V. (June 23) 

(7th cent.) Daughter of Anna, King of the 
East Angles, and wife of Egfrid, King of 
Northumbria, with whom she lived, but only as 
a sister, for twelve years, after which time she 
, took the veil at Coldingham under St. Ebba. 
Almost straightway she was chosen to be 
Abbess of the new monastery in the Isle of Ely, 
where her saintly life quickly attracted many 
souls to God. She passed away, June 23, 
a.d. 679. Her incorrupt remains were solemnly 
translated and enshrined sixteen years later by 
the Abbess St. Sexburga, her sister and suc- 
cessor, i 

(10th cent.) An Anglo-Saxon Princess, wife 

of King Alfred. After his death she retired into 

a convent which she had founded at Winchester. 

She died there A.D. 903. 

♦ETHELFLEDA (St.) V. (Oct. 23) 

Otherwise St. ELFLEDA, which see. 
•ETHELGIVA (St.) Abbess. (Dec. 9) 

(9th cent.) A daughter of King Alfred the 
Great and Abbess of Shaftesbury, where she 
died in fame of high sanctity a.d. 896. 
♦ETHELHARD (St.) Bp. (May 12) 

(9th cent.) A Bishop of Winchester, trans- 
lated to Canterbury (A.D. 780). He died A.D. 
*ETHELNOTH (St.) Bp. (Oct. 29) 

(11th cent.) St. Ethelnoth, styled "The 
Good," was Archbishop of Canterbury in the 
days of King Canute the Dane. He governed 
his Church with great ability for about eighteen 
years, dying full of merits a.d. 1038. 
♦ETHELRED (St.) King. (May 4) 

(8th cent.) A king of Mercia, uncle of St. 
Wereberga, who resigned his crown to become 
a monk at Bardney, where he was afterwards 
elected Abbot. He died A.D. 716. 
♦ETHELRITHA (St.) V. (Aug. 2) 

Otherwise St. ALFRIDA (ALTHRYDA), 
which see. 
♦ETHELRED and ETHELBERT (SS.) (Oct. 17) 

(7th cent.) Grandsons of St. Ethelbert, 
first Christian King of Kent, and brothers of 
St. Ermenburga (Domneva) of Minster in 
Thanet. Though of blameless lives, they were 
cruelly done to death at Eastry near Sandwich, 
about a.d. 670. Many miracles attested their 

sanctity and ensured them the veneration due 
to Martyrs. Their shrine was finally set up in 
Ramsev Abbe v. 

♦ETHELWALD (St.) (March 23) 

(7th cent.) A monk of Ripon who took 

St. Cuthbert's place as a hermit on the Island 

of Fame, where after twelve years of solitude 

he passed away A.D. 699. 

ETHELWALD (St.) Bp. (Aug. 1) 

(10th cent.) A great reformer and restorer 
in England of the monastic life after the Danish 
devastation. Born at Winchester, he received 
the Benedictine habit at Glastonbury from 
St. Dunstan. Both at Glastonbury and at 
Abingdon he for a time was Abbot. Made 
Bishop of Winchester, he replaced its secular 
Chapter by monks. After a strenuous Epis- 
copate, fruitful in gain of souls, he passed away 
Aug. 1, a.d. 984, and was succeeded by St. 
Elphage, the future martyred Archbishop of 

*ETHELWIN (St.) Bp. (May 3) 

(8th cent.) The second Bishop of Lindsey. 

He was a devoted friend of St. Egbert, whom 

he accompanied to Ireland, dying there at the 

beginning of the eighth century. 

♦ETHELWOLD (St.) Bp. (Feb. 2) 

(8th cent.) A disciple of St. Cuthbert, 
afterwards Abbot of Old Melrose, and for the 
last twenty years of his life Bishop of Lindis- 
farne. He was a contemporary of St. Bede, 
who speaks of him in terms of high praise. 
He died a.d. 740, and later his relics were 
enshrined at Durham. 

*ETHENIA and FIDELMIA (SS.) VV. (Jan. 11) 
(5th cent.) Daughters of King Laoghaire, 
and among the first converts to Christianity 
made by St. Patrick. They received the veil 
of religion from his hands, and the tradition is 
that in the act of receiving immediately after- 
wards Holy Communion from him, they gave 
up their innocent souls to God (a.d. 433). 

*ETHERNAN (St.) Bp. (Dec. 3) 

(Date uncertain.) A native of Scotland who 
studied in Ireland, and was there consecrated 
Bishop. He devoted his life to missionary 
work in his own country, and after his holy 
death was venerated by the Scots as a Saint. 
His Festival and Office has a place in the old 
Aberdeen Breviary. 

♦ETHERNASCUS (St.) Bp. (Dec. 22) 

Otherwise St. ERNAN, which see. 

*ETHOR (St.) M. (April 10) 


*ETTO (HETTO) (St.) Bp. (July 10) 

(7th cent.) An Irish Saint, missionary 
in Northern France and Flanders. He died 
A.D. 670. 

*ETTO (St.) (June 2) 

Otherwise St. ADALGISUS, which see. 

EUBULUS (St.) M. (March 7) 

(4th cent.) A companion of St. Hadrian the 
Martyr, at Csesarea in Palestine, and the last 
of the Christians who suffered there in the 
great persecution. He was cast to the wild 
beasts in the Amphitheatre under Galerius 
Maximinus, A.D. 308. 

EUCARPIUS (St.) M. (March 18) 


EUCARPIUS (St.) M. (Sept. 25) 


EUCHARIUS (St.) Bp. (Dec. 8) 

(First cent.) The second Bishop of Treves, 
successor and disciple of St. Maternus, whom 
tradition alleges he had raised from the dead 
by laying on his corpse the Staff of St. Peter. 
He flourished in the first century and, it is 
asserted, was Bishop for twenty-three vears. 

EUCHERIUS (St.) Bp. (Feb. 20) 

(8th cent.) Born in Orleans and most 
piously educated by his mother, he entered 
(A.D. 714) the monastery of Jumieges in Nor- 
mandy, where he lived as a monk till A.D. 724. 
In that year his uncle, the Bishop of Orleans, 
having died, he was obliged to accept the 

G 97 



responsibilities of the Episcopate. In 737, for 
having reproved Charles Martel because of his 
encroachments on ecclesiastical rights, he was 
banished to Cologne and later to the vicinity 
of Liege. He died in the monastery of St. 
Trudo (Saint-Trond) A.D. 743. 

EUCHERIUS (St.) Bp. (Nov. 16) 

(5th cent.) Of very illustrious birth and 
remarkable for his learning and eloquence, 
Eucherius married a lady called Galla, by whom 
he had two sons. These he placed in the 
Abbey of Lerins, then just founded, and both 
later became Bishops. He himself in a.d. 422 
retired to the same monastery, whilst Galla 
took the veil. In his solitude he wrote several 
works on " Contempt of the World," con- 
spicuous not only for piety but also for elo- 
quence of diction and mastery of the Latin 
tongue. In a.d. 434 he was compelled to 
accept the Archbishopric of Lyons, where he 
laboured with great fruit till his death a.d. 450. 
His name is among those of the Fathers who 
subscribed the Acts of the First Council of 

EUDOXIA (St.) M. (March 1) 

(1st cent.) Born at Heliopolis in Ccele-Syria 
of a Samaritan family, Eudoxia led at first a 
profligate life, but was converted to Christian- 
ity, received Baptism, and died a penitent. 
Under a false accusation she was brought before 
the ruler of the Province, but, having restored 
life to his dead son, she was set free. Arrested 
a second time as a Christian, she was beheaded 
under Trajan (a.d. 98-117). 

(SS.) MM. (Sept. 5) 

(2nd cent.) A body of Christian soldiers said 
to have been more than a thousand in number, 
stationed in Gaul in the time of Trajan, early 
in the second century, and on their refusal to 
sacrifice to the gods, transferred to Armenia, 
where, encouraged by Eudoxius their leader, 
they bravely gave their lives for Christ. 

EUDOXIUS (St.) M. (Nov. 2) 


EUGENDUS (St.) Abbot. (Jan. 1) 

(6th cent.) The fourth Abbot of Condat 
(St. Claude) in the Jura Mountains. He entered 
the monastery at the age of seven years and 
persevered there till his death (a.d. 510), at the 
age of sixty-one. A model of religious excel- 
lence and of humility, and especially zealous 
for the observance of monastic poverty, he was 
ever affable to all and universally beloved. 

EUGENE III. (Bl.) Pope. (July 8) 

(12th cent.) A French Cistercian Abbot, 
disciple of St. Bernard, who on account of his 
saintly character was elected Pope (a.d. 1145) 
in very troublous times. He governed the 
Church wisely, promoted the Second Crusade, 
and died a.d. 1153, the same year as his holy 
master, St. Bernard. 

EUGENE (St.) M. (July 29) 


*EUGENE (St.) Bp. (Aug. 23) 

(7th cent.) The Patron Saint of the Diocese 
of Derry, where he had his Episcopal See, having 
previously accomplished much missionary work, 
both in Great Britain and on the Continent. 
He died in a.d. 618, or perhaps earlier. 

EUGENIA (St.) V.M. (Dec. 25) 

(3rd cent.) A Roman maiden, proficient in 
the Philosophy and learning of the time, who, 
converted to Christianity by her slaves, SS. 
Protus and Hyacinth, like them, gave her life 
for Christ at Rome under Valerian. She was 
put to death in her prison on Christmas Day, 
a.d. 257. In their poems St. Avitus of Vienne, 
St. Aldhelm of Salisbury, and Venantius 
Fortunatus celebrate St. Eugenia. 

EUGENIAN (St.) Bp. M. (Jan. 8) 

(4th cent.) A Saint, stated to have been 

Bishop of Autun in France in the middle of the 

fourth century. What is known for certain 


about him is that he was at that period a strenu- 
ous upholder of the Catholic Faith against the 
Arians. He ended his holy life by martyrdom, 
but whether at the hands of heretics or of 
Pagans is unknown. 
EUGENIUS (EUGENE) (St.) P. (Jan. 4) 

EUGENIUS (St.) M. (Jan. 24) 

EUGENIUS (St.) M. (March 4) 

EUGENIUS (St.) M. (March 20) 

EUGENIUS (St.) Bp., M. (May 2) 

EUGENIUS I. (St.) Pope. (June 2) 

(7th cent.) While Pope St. Martin I was in 
banishment in the Chersonesus, whither he had 
been exiled by the Emperor Constans, Eugenius, 
a Roman by birth, acted as his Vicar in the 
West. And when it became known that St. 
Martin had died from the ill-usage he had 
received (a.d. 654), St. Eugenius was chosen 
to succeed him. Affable to all, his great 
characteristic was his care of the poor. He 
maintained that the revenues of the Church 
were their patrimony. He bravely and skilfully 
combated the subtle Monothelite heresy (that 
which denied to Christ a human will), and after 
a short Pontificate, passed away a.d. 657, and 
was buried in St. Peter's. 

OTHERS (SS.) MM. (July 13) 

(6th cent.) The entry in the Roman Martyr- 
ology regarding these Saints is as follows : 
" In Africa, the holy confessors, Eugenius, 
Bishop of Carthage, renowned for his Faith 
and his virtues, and all the clergy of that Church 
to the number of five hundred or more (among 
them being many young boys who ministered 
as Lectors or Readers). In the persecution 
under the Arian Hunneric, King of the Vandals, 
they were scourged and starved, and at last 
(rejoicing always in the Lord) driven into 
banishment. Conspicuous among them was 
the Archdeacon Salutaris and the Dignitary 
next in rank to him, Muritta, who had each 
twice previously suffered for Christ." a.d. 505 
is the probable date of the sentence passed on 
St. Eugene and Ms holy companions. 
EUGENIUS (T.) M. (July 18) 

EUGENIUS (St.) M. (July 23) 

EUGENIUS (St.) M. (Sept. 6) 

EUGENIUS (St.) M. (Sept. 25) 

EUGENIUS of TOLEDO (St.) Bp. (Nov. 13) 

(7th cent.) There appear to have been tM'o 
Saints, Bishops of Toledo, by name Eugene. 
The first presided over that See from a.d. 636 
to a.d. 647, and subscribed the Acts of the 
fifth Council of Toledo. He was eminent not 
only for piety and sacred learning, but also for 
proficiency in the science of his age. His 
successor, also a monk by name Eugene, was 
Bishop from A.D. 647 to a.d. 657. He too took 
part in various Councils, and to other accom- 
plishments added that of being a poet. Some 
of his writings are still extant. 
EUGENIUS (St.) Bp., M. (Nov. 15) 

(Date uncertain.) A fellow- v/orker with 
St. Denis of Paris, whose date consequently 
depends on that of the first evangelisation of 
Central and Northern France, whether it be 
placed in the first or in the third century of the 
Christian era. St. Eugene while engaged in 
missionary work near Paris, was seized and 
put to death by the Pagans. Many centuries 
afterwards, his relics, either wholly or in part, 
were translated to Toledo in Spain. 
EUGENIUS (St.) (Nov. 17) 

(5th cent.) A learned Florentine, disciple of 



St. Ambrose of Milan, who faithfully served 
St. Zenobius of Florence as his deacon, retiring 
with him from time to time to solitude, and like 
him favoured by Almighty God with the grace 
of miracle-working. He passed away a.d. 422. 
EUGENIUS (St.) M. (Dec. 13) 

EUGENIUS and MACARIUS (SS.) MM. (Dec. 20) 

(4th cent.) Two priests, victims of the 

persecution under Julian the Apostate (A.D. 362). 

They were scourged, banished into the desert 

of Arabia, and on their return put to the sword. 

EUGENIUS (St.) Bp. (Dec. 30) 

(Date unknown.) Beyond the fact that a 
Saint of this name has from the earliest times 
been honoured in the Liturgy of the Church of 
Milan on this day, as Bishop of that See, no 
record of him remains. 
EUGRAPHUS (St.) M. (Dec. 10) 

EULALIA of BARCELONA (St.) V.M. (Sspk 12) 

(4th cent.) A Christian maiden of Barcelona 
who suffered many tortures, and in the end 
was crucified or (as others say) burned to death 
at the stake in that city under Diocletian 
A.D. 304. She is the Patron Saint of Barcelona, 
and is also much venerated in the South of 
France, where her name is variously written, 
Aulausie, Aulaire, Otaille, <fec. 
EULALIA of MERIDA (St.) V.M. (Dec. 10) 

(4th cent.) The Patron Saint of Merida and 
Oviedo in Spain, in which latter city her relics 
are venerated. Like St. Eulalia of Barcelona, 
she was a Christian maiden put to death for the 
Faith in the persecution under Diocletian 
a.d. 304. After undergoing many tortures she 
perished at the stake. At the moment of her 
death a white dove was seen issuing from her 
mouth, and over her ashes, cast into a field, 
the Heavens forthwith spread a pall of snow. 
The modern theory that she is one and the 
same with her namesake and contemporary of 
Barcelona is unconvincing. 
EULAMPIA (St.) V.M. (Oct. 10) 


(SS.) MM. (Oct. 10) 

(4th cent.) Two young children, brother and 
sister, who bravely confessed Christ at Nico- 
media in Asia Minor under Maximinian Herculeus 
(a.d. 302), and who miraculously came forth 
unhurt from a cauldron of boiling oil into which 
they had been cast. They were thereupon 
beheaded ; but their courage led to the con- 
version of two hundred soldiers, witnesses of 
their martyrdom, and who themselves were 
likewise put to death as Christians. 
EULOGIUS of TARRAGONA (St.) M. (June 21) 

EULOGIUS of CORDOVA (St.) M. (March 11) 

(9th cent.) A priest of Cordova in Spain, 
who in the ninth century persecution of Chris- 
tians by the Mahometans distinguished himself 
by his zeal in encouraging the faithful to 
steadfastness in the Confession of Christ. He 
was seized and bravely gave his life for the 
Faith (probably A.D. 859). Some of his writings, 
notably his Memoriale Sanctorum, are still 
extant. He had been for his great merits 
elected Archbishop of Toledo, but was taken 
from this world before being consecrated. 
EULOGIUS (St.) Bp. (May 5) 

(4th cent.) A priest of Edessa, who when 
the Emperor Valens intruded an Arian Bishop 
and exiled all those of the clergy who refused 
him Communion, was banished to the Thebaid 
(Egypt), where he devoted himself successfully 
to the conversion of the still Pagan people of 
the district. At the death of Valens (A.D. 375) 
he returned to Edessa, became Bishop of that 
city, and as such attended the Ecumenical 
Council of Constantinople (a.d. 381). 
EULOGIUS of ALEXANDRIA (St.) Bp. (Sept. 13) 

(7th cent.) A Syrian by birth and a monk 
from early youth, who laboured with great 

fruit for the reform of morals and the strength- 
ening of orthodox belief among his compatriots, 
many of whom had been seduced by the Euty- 
chians or Monophysites. Eulogius was Patri- 
arch of Alexandria from A.D. 579 to A.D. 607. 
Photius gives an account of his writings in terms 
of high praise. His correspondence with his 
friend St. Gregory the Great (whose letters 
to him are extant) is interesting. One of the 
Epistles contains St. Gregory's account of his 
having sent St. Augustine to England. 

EULOGIUS and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (July 3) 

(4th cent.) Martyrs at Constantinople in 

the time of the Arian Emperor Valens (a.d. 

364-376) ; but of whom particulars are lacking. 

EUMENIUS (St.) Bp. (Sept. 18) 

(3rd cent.) A saintly Bishop of Gortyna in 
Crete, conspicuous for his charity. He died in 
exile in the Thebaid in Upper Egypt, or perhaps 
at Thebes in Bceotia (Greece). He flourished 
in the latter half of the third century. For 
the many miracles he wrought in life and 
after death, he has become known as the 
Thaumaturgus or Wonder-worker. His relics 
were translated to Crete in the seventh century. 

*EUNAN (St.) Bp. (Sept. 23) 

(8th cent.) A Saint whose zeal and good 
works were so eminent that he has come to be 
venerated as the Patron Saint of his Diocese 
of Raphoe in Ulster. By many he is supposed 
to be the St. Adamnan of Iona who wrote the 
Life of St. Columba. In that case, he, after 
establishing Raphoe, must have retired, as was 
not uncommon in his time, to the Scottish 
monastery to end his days in the cloister. 

EUNICIANUS (St.) M. (Dec. 23) 


EUNOMOA (St.) M. (Aug. 12) 


EUNUS (St.) M. (Feb. 27) 


EUNUS (St.) M. (Oct. 30) 


EUPHEBIUS (St.) Bp. (May 23) 

(Date unknown.) A Bishop of Naples whose 

date is variously given from the second to the 

eighth century. No particulars concerning him 

have come down to us. 

EUPHEMIA (St.) M. (March 20) 



ERASMA (SS.) VV.MM. (Sept. 3) 

(1st cent.) The two first were daughters of 
Valentius, a Pagan nobleman of Aquileia, and 
the two others, daughters of his brother Valen- 
tinianus, a Christian. The Pagan Valentius 
having heard of their Baptism had them all 
arrested. After having been put to the torture 
they were beheaded (it is alleged by Valentius's 
own hand) and their bodies cast into a river 
near Aquileia. Their martyrdom took place 
in the first century of the Christian era. They 
are venerated at Venice and also at Ravenna. 

EUPHEMIA (St.) V.M. (Sept. 16) 

(4th cent.) A youthful Christian maiden, 
burned at the stake for the Faith of Christ, 
in the city of Chalcedon, under the Emperor 
Galerius, about a.d. 307. She had long before 
taken a vow of virginity, and by her sober 
attire made known to all men that she had 
forsaken the world. Unheard-of tortures 
appear to have preceded her gaining of the crown 
of martyrdom, for which she had always 
proclaimed that she longed. A realistic picture 
in the great church of the Council of Chalcedon 
(celebrated a century and a half later under 
her patronage) portrays her sufferings. She 
is honoured as one of the chief Martyrs of the 
Greek Church, and her festival is a holiday 
over almost all the East. Her relics, rescued 
from the destructive fury of the Iconoclasts, 
were translated (a.d. 750) to the church of 
St. Sophia in Constantinople, and were in great 
veneration until their destruction (A.D. 1452) 
by the Turks. 




EUPHRASIA (St.) V. (March 13) 

(5th cent.) A Virgin of Constantinople, 
nearly allied in blood to the Emperors, Theo- 
dosius the Great, and Areadius. A year after 
her birth (A.D. 380) her father died, and her pious 
mother withdrew with her daughter to Egypt, 
where she had large estates, and fixed her abode 
near a great monastery of one hundred and 
thirty nuns. When of age to judge for herself 
Euphrasia elected to join the community. 
The nuns received the novice but refused to 
accept the wealth offered with her ; and 
Euphrasia thenceforth lived in poverty, as 
required by their severe rule, until her death 
(A.D. 410). To the Emperor Theodosius the 
Younger, who had had designs to give her in 
marriage to a Senator of distinction, Euphrasia 
had at the outset written a touching letter 
beseeching him to distribute her rich patrimony 
to the poor, which he faithfully did. 

EUPHRASIA (St.) M. (March 20) 


EUPHRASIA (St.) V.M. (May 18) 


EUPHRASIUS (St.) Pp., M. (Jan. 14) 

(Date unknown. ) Perhaps identical with 
Eucrathius, a correspondent of St. Cyprian, 
and therefore a Saint of the third century. 
Others hold that he was a Saint and Martyr 
in Africa of the time of the Vandal persecution 
in the fifth century. 

EUPHRASIUS (St.) Bp., M. (May 15) 


EUPHROMIUS (St.) Bp. (Aug. 3) 

(5th cent.) A Bishop of Autun in France, 
friend of St. Lupus of Troyes, and zealous like 
him for orthodoxy and discipline. He assisted 
at the Council of Aries in A.D. 475, but the 
precise date of his death is unknown. 

EUPHRONIUS (St.) Bp. (Aug. 4) 

(6th cent.) Born A.D. 530 of senatorial family 
and dedicated to God from his youth, he 
illustrated by his virtues the See of St. Martin, 
being the eighteenth Bishop of Tours. When 
this city was burned down during his Episcopate, 
besides comforting and aiding his flock, he 
re-erected several churches. He died A.D. 573, 
having been seventeen years a Bishop, and was 
succeeded by the famous Saint Gregory the 

EUPHROSYNA (St.) V. (Jan. 1) 

(5th cent.) An Egyptian maiden, born at 
Alexandria of pious Christian parents. When 
she was to be married, despite her resolve to 
consecrate her virginity to God, she (it is said) 
entered in male attire a monastery of monks 
whose Abbot was her father's friend. She took 
this extraordinary step because she knew that 
her father would search all convents of nuns 
and drag her out. For thirty-eight years she 
lived unknown in a retired cell and utterly alone, 
and was looked upon by all as a singularly holy 
man. Even her father, wanting spiritual advice, 
was introduced to her, and greatly appreciated 
her wise counsels. He assisted at her last 
moments, and only then did she disclose her 
identity. After her death, about A.D. 470, her 
father himself took possession of her cell, where 
he passed the rest of his days in penance and 

EUPHROSYNA (St.) V.M. (May 7) 


EUPLIUS (St.) M. (Aug. 12) 

(4th cent.) A Martyr at Catania in Sicily 
(A.D. 304). He was in deacon's orders and 
openly proclaimed himself a Christian, carrying 
about with him a Book of the Gospels, a pro- 
ceeding directly contrary to the Edicts of the 
Emperor Diocletian. Put on the rack and 
bidden to worship Apollo, Mars and iEsculapius, 
he replied that he adored only the Father, the 
Son and the Holy Ghost. After his execution the 
Christians carried off his body and embalmed it. 

EUPORUS (St.) M. (Dec. 23) 


EUPREPIA (St.) M. (Aug. 12) 


EUPREPIS (St.) M. (Nov. 30) 


EUPREPIUS (St.) Bp. (Aug. 21) 

(1st cent.) The first Bishop of Verona in 

the North of Italy. Immemorial belief holds 

that he was sent thither as a missionary by the 

Apostle St. Peter himself. 

EUPREPIUS (St.) M. (Sept. 27) 


EUPSYCHIUS (St.) M. (April 9) 

(4th cent.) A young patrician of Caesarea 
in Cappadocia. Julian the Apostate, learning 
that the Temple of Fortune in that city had 
been destroyed, ordered a special persecution 
of Christiana to appease the gods. Eupsychius, 
accused of the crime, was cruelly tortured and 
beheaded (a.d. 362). 

EUPSYCHIUS (St.) M. (Sept. 7) 

(2nd cent.) A Christian of Csesarea in 
Cappadocia who, arrested under the Emperor 
Hadrian, after having distributed all his goods 
to the poor, was savagely tortured and beheaded 
(a.d. 130, about). 

*EURFYL (St.) V. (July 5) 

(Date unknown.) The Patron Saint of 
Llanerfyl (Montgomery). Nothing concerning 
her has come down to our times. 

*EURGAIN (St.) V. (June 30) 

(6th cent.) A daughter of the chieftain 
Caradog in Glamorgan, foundress of Cor- 
Eurgain, afterwards Llantwit. — Another St. 
Eurgain, wife of a princeling in North Wales, 
founded Llan-Eurgain in Flintshire. 

EUSEBIA (St.) V.M. (Oct. 29) 

(3rd cent.) A Christian maiden of Bergamo 
in Lombardy, niece of St. Domnio, who like him 
was beheaded under Maximian Herculeus, 
towards the close of the third century. As 
about St. Domnio, the ancient Martyrologies 
are silent concerning St. Eusebia. Such details 
as we have come from local traditions. Their 
bodies were found and enshrined A.D. 1401. 

*EUSEBIUS (St.) (Jan. 30) 

(9th cent.) A Saint who, leaving Ireland, 
repaired to the monastery of St. Gall (Switzer- 
land), where he practised great mortification, 
was gifted with prophecy and miracles, and by 
his sanctity attracted the veneration even of 
the princes and nobles of his time. — Another 
St. Eusebius of the same or earlier date is also 
in honour as a monk of St. Gall, and is said to 
have suffered martyrdom. But particulars 
are lacking and dates quite uncertain. 

EUSEBIUS and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (March 5) 
(Date unknown.) Ten Martyrs supposed to 
have suffered in Africa, but at what period or 
under what circumstances is unknown. The 
word Eusebius in the manuscript Martyrologies 
is followed by the word Palatinus ; but whether 
the word Palatinus expresses the qualification 
of St. Eusebius as an official, or is the name of 
one of his fellow-martyrs, is uncertain. 

OTHERS (SS.) MM. (April 24) 

(Date uncertain.) According to the Greek 
Menologies, bystanders eight in number, who, 
converted to Christianity on witnessing the 
martyrdom of St. George, were themselves put 
to death on the morrow. 

EUSEBIUS (St.) M. (April 28) 


♦EUSEBIUS (St.) Hermit. (Feb. 15) 

(5th cent.) A holy recluse of Asehia in Syria, 
venerated in the East. 

♦EUSEBIUS (St.) M. (Aug. 14) 

(3rd cent.) A Martyr in Palestine under 
Maximian Herculeus the colleague of Dio- 
cletian, towards the close of the third century. 
He is commemorated in the ancient Martyro- 

EUSEBIUS of SAMOSATA (St.) Bp. (June 21) 

(4th cent.) The " Light-bearer to the world," 

as he is styled by St. Gregory Nazianzen. 



Bishop of Samosata from A.D. 361, this 
Syrian Saint was loved and venerated through- 
out the East. Especially devoted to him was 
the great St. Basil. Not only zealous but 
skilful in doing his part in the struggle against 
the Arians, it was not until A.D. 374 that they 
succeeded in driving St. Eusebius into exile. 
He was banished into Thrace, but recalled four 
years later by the Emperor Gratian. He had 
always longed to give his life for Christ as a 
Martyr ; and in fact his death came about, 
A.D. 379 (or perhaps A.D. 380) by the act of an 
Arian woman who threw down a heavy tile 
from the roof of a house on his head. His last 
word was to beg that she might be pardoned 
both by God and by man. 
EUSEBIUS of MILAN (St.) Bp. (Aug. 12) 

(5th cent.) Probably a Greek by birth, the 
successor of St. Lazarus in the See of Milan. 
He was of great assistance to Pope St. Leo the 
Great in that Pontiff's efforts to repress the 
Eutychian heresy. He restored the churches 
of Milan, rebuilt the city walls, replaced the 
books burned by the barbarians in their inroads, 
and reformed Church discipline in the North 
of Italy. He died A.D. 465, after sixteen years 
of Episcopate. 
EUSEBIUS (St.) (Aug. 14) 

(4th cent.) A Roman priest, sometimes 
honoured as a Martyr, he having ended his days 
in a prison (A.D. 357) during the Arian troubles 
fostered even in Home by the Emperor Con- 
stantius. Into the controversy among the 
learned regarding the attitude of St. Eusebius 
towards the Pontiffs, Liberius and St. Felix II, 
it is not necessary to enter. That Liberius 
never swerved from orthodoxy is clear. It is 
perhaps equally so that St. Eusebius did not 
endorse his policy in the difficult circumstances 
of the times, and thereby forfeited the Pontiff's 
favour. After the death of St. Eusebius, 
Pope and people joined in venerating his 
memory ; and eight years later St. Damasus, 
who shared his views, was elected to the Supreme 

PEREGRINUS (SS.) MM. (Aug. 25) 

(2nd cent.) Martyrs at Home under Coin- 
modus (a.d. 192). Their relics were translated 
to France in the ninth century. 

(SS.) MM. 

(4th cent.) Three brothers of Gaza in Pales- 
tine who were set upon as Christians by a Pagan 
mob, frenzied with delight at the news of the 
apostasy of the Emperor Julian (A.D. 362). 
The Martyrs were dragged about the streets of 
the city, maltreated with savage ferocity, 
and at last cast into a lire kindled for the 
purpose on the town refuse-heap. 
EUSEBIUS (St.) M. (Sept, 21) 

(Date unknown.) A Martyr in Phenicia of 
unknown date, who appears to have given 
himself up voluntarily as a Christian and to 
have gone through excruciating torture before 
being executed. The Greek Martyrologies 
which celebrate his fortitude are silent as to 
the place and particulars of his Passion. 
EUSEBIUS (St.) Pope. (Sept. 26) 

(4th cent.) The successor of St. Marcellus 
in the Chair of St. Peter (A.D. 310). He 
strenuously upheld the discipline of the Church 
and opposed any undue laxity in applying 
the so-called Penitential Canons, enforced on 
Christians who had failed in courage during the 
persecutions. He himself was at once called 
upon to suffer for Christ, being banished to 
Sicily, where he died after a short Pontificate 
of less than five months. Fragments of his 
epitaph written by Pope St. Damasus have 
been found in the Roman Catacombs whither 
his remains were brought for interment. 
EUSEBIUS of BOLOGNA (St.) Bp. (Sept. 26) 

(4th cent.) A friend of St. Ambrose of Milan, 
who became Bishop of Bologna about A.D. 370. 

He was a prudent and learned Prelate. He 
assisted at the Council of Aquileia (A.D. 380) 
against the Arians. Warned in a vision, he 
discovered the concealed relics of the Holy 
Martyrs Vitalis and Agricola, and reverently 
enshrined them. At his death (A.D. 400) he 
was succeeded by St. Felix. 
EUSEBIUS (St.) M. (Oct. 4) 

EUSEBIUS (St.) M. (Oct. 22) 

EUSEBIUS (St.) M. (Nov. 5) 



MARTANA and AURELIA (SS.)MM. (Dec. 2) 

(3rd cent.) Christians arrested as such in 
Rome in the time of the Emperor Valerian 
(A.D. 254-259), and after torture put to death. 
Eusebius, a priest, and Marcellus his deacon, 
were beheaded ; Adrias and Hippolytus were 
scourged to death ; Paulina died in the torture- 
chamber ; Neon and Mary were beheaded, and 
Maximus was thrown into the Tiber. 
EUSEBIUS of VERCELLI (St.) Bp., M. (Dec. 16) 

(4th cent.) He was by birth a native of 
Sardinia ; and after passing some years in 
Rome as a priest, he was consecrated Bishop 
of Vercelli in the present Province of Piedmont 
(A.D. 340). A great and active champion of 
the Catholic Faith against the Arians, he was 
banished by their machinations to Syria, where 
he underwent many hardships. Before return- 
ing to Vercelli under Julian he visited St. 
Athanasius at Alexandria. In the words of 
St. Jerome : " On the return of Eusebius, 
Italy put off her mourning." Thenceforth to 
the year of his death (a.d. 370) he devoted 
himself, in concert with St. Hilary of Poitiers, 
to the extirpation of Arianism. By exception, 
on account of the much that he went through 
in the cause of religion, he is honoured liturgi- 
cally as a Martyr. 
EUSIGNIUS (St.) M. (Aug. 5) 

(4th cent.) An old soldier of the army of 
Constantius Chlorus who, surviving to the age 
of one hundred and ten years, refused to sacri- 
fice to idols at the bidding of Julian the Apos- 
tate, and was scourged and beheaded as a Chris- 
tian at Antioch in Syria (a.d. 362). 

Saints of this name will be found described 
under the name EUSTACHIUS, the Latin and 
Ecclesiastical equivalent. 

and THEOPISTUS (SS.) MM. (Sept. 20) 

(2nd cent.) According to traditional ac- 
counts, a Roman family of distinction — 
Eustace, an officer, his wife, Thcopista, and his 
sons Agapius and Theopistus — were put to 
death as Christians under Hadrian (A.D. 118). 
Their Acts, as we have them, are untrustworthy, 
but their cultus is universal in the East as in 
the West. Their relics are asserted to have 
been conveyed to Paris from their church in 
Rome in the twelfth century. They were 
destroyed (A.D. 1567) by the Huguenots. A 
curious theory makes St. Eustachius (otherwise 
Placidus) identical with a personage mentioned 
by Joscphus, and thus a Saint of the Apostolic 
EUSTACHIUS (St.) (Oct. 12) 

(Date unknown.) The authorities are in 
complete disagreement as to who this St. 
Eustachius was. His date is quite unknown. 
Some with the Roman Martyrology describe 
him as a priest and Confessor in Syria ; others 
with the Bollandists make of him an Egyptian 

(SS.) MM. (Nov. 20) 

(3rd cent.) Christians who gained the 
crown of martyrdom at Nieaja in Asia Minor 
in the persecution under the Emperor Maxi- 
mums the Thracian (a.d. 235). 




EUSTACHIUS (St.) Bp., M. (Nov. 28) 


(St.) Abbot. (March 29) 

(7th cent.) The successor of his master 

St. Columbanus as Abbot of Luxeuil in a.d. 611. 

He sanctified himself by continual prayer, 

watchings and fasting. He ruled over about 

six hundred monks, and was the spiritual 

father of many holy Bishops and Saints. He 

died a.d. C26, having been Abbot for fifteen 


EUSTATHIUS (St.) Bp. (July 16) 

(4th cent.) A native of Sida in Pamphylia 

who, as St. Athanasius assures us, had confessed 

the Faith of Christ before the Pagan persecutors, 

and was a man of eloquence, learning and virtue. 

He was made Bishop of Berea in Syria, and 

thence reluctantly translated to the Patriarchal 

See of Antioch. He assisted at the General 

Council of Nice, where he opposed the practice 

of translating Bishops from one See to another. 

He contended against the Arians, being the 

first, according to St. Jerome, to do so with 

the pen. Eusebius of Nicomedia sought to 

have him removed from Antioch and by 

calumnies succeeded in deceiving the Emperor 

Constantine and in procuring his banishment, 

first to Treves then to Illyricum, where his 

virtues shone with the brightest lustre. He 

died at Philippi in Macedonia, about a.d. 337. 

EUSTATHIUS (St.) M. (July 28) 

(Date unknown.) A Martyr in Galatia who 

after torture appears to have been cast into a 

river. The Greek Menology has much amplified 

the little genuine tradition records of him. 

EUSTERIUS (St.) Bp. (Oct. 19) 

(5th cent.) The fourth Bishop of Salerno 

near Naples, who seems to have flourished 

about the middle of the fifth century, but all 

particulars concerning him have been lost. 

EUSTOCHIA (St.) V. (Sept. 28) 

Otherwise St. EUSTOCHIUM, which sec. 
♦EUSTOCHIUM (Bl.) V. (Feb. 13) 

(15th cent.) A Benedictine nun of Padua in 
Italy, wonderful for her patience in the many 
fearful trials and sufferings with which Almighty 
God was pleased to allow the devil to afflict her 
during the whole course of her short life. She 
died at the age of twenty-four (a.d. 1469). 
EUSTOCHIUM (St.) V. (Sept. 28) 

(5th cent.) The third and best-loved daughter 
of St. Paula, the Roman matron who followed 
St. Jerome to Palestine. She joined her mother 
at Bethlehem and lived a saintly life with her in 
the nunnery founded by the latter under the 
guidance of St. Jerome. Eventually she suc- 
ceeded (A.D. 404) to the government of the 
community, and died A.D. 419. One of the 
finest treatises of St. Jerome is addressed to her. 
She spoke Greek and Latin with equal fluency, 
and learned Hebrew so as to be able to chant 
the Psalms in the original tongue. 
EUSTOCHIUM (St.) V.M. (Nov. 2) 

(4th cent.) Julian the Apostate having 
ordered public sacrifices in honour of Venus, 
Eustochium, a fervent Christian of Tarsus in 
Cilicia, refused to comply with the Edict. 
She was in consequence tried and barbarously 
tortured, but afterwards, while engaged in 
prayer, peacefully gave up her soul to God 
(A.D. 362). 
EUSTOCHIUS (St.) Bp. (Sept. 19) 

(5th cent.) The successor of St. Brictius in 
the See of St. Martin of Tours in the fifth 
century, and, according to St. Gregory of 
Tours, " a prelate of resplendent holiness." 
He died a.d. 461, having been seventeen years 
a Bishop. He attended the Council of Angers, 
a.d. 453, and some of his writings are still 

EUSTOCHIUS (St.) M. (Nov. 16) 


EUSTOLIA and SOPATRA (SS.) VV. (Nov. 9) 
(7th cent.) One or both of these holy 

virgins was a daughter of the Emperor Maurice 
of Constantinople (A.D. 582-602). They were 
from the beginning revered as Saints in the 
East, and at a very early date their names were 
inserted in the Roman Martyrology. 
EUSTORGIUS (St.) (April 11) 

(4th cent.) A priest of Nicomedia in Asia 
Minor who suffered for the Faith in one of the 
persecutions, perhaps that of Diocletian, about 
the year 300 ; but it is not proved that he was 
actually put to death. 
EUSTORGIUS (St.) Bp. (June 6) 

(6th cent.) The second Bishop of Milan of 
that name who, after living for a long time 
in Rome, became Bishop of Milan (a.d. 512). 
He converted the Hungarian Laurianus, after- 
wards Bishop of Seville in Spain and Martyr. 
He was conspicuous for his self-sacrificing 
charity to the poor, and ransomed many of his 
flock taken prisoners in the savage wars of his 
time. He died A.D. 518. 
EUSTORGIUS (St.) Bp. (Sept. 18) 

(4th cent.) A Greek, traditionally held to 
have been an official in the service of the 
Emperor Constantine the Great. He was 
elected Bishop of Milan in succession to St. 
Maternus, or possibly St. Mirocles. He appears 
from a letter of St. Athanasius to have suffered 
for the Faith, and to have written in defence 
of orthodoxy against the Arians. To him is 
attributed the acquisition for Milan of the 
relics of the Three Magi, afterwards by Frederic 
Barbarossa transported to Cologne. He held 
the See of Milan from A.D. 315 to A.D. 331. 
EUSTOSIUS (St.) M. (Nov. 10) 

DARIUS and ORESTES (SS.; MM. (Dec. 13) 
(4th cent.) Martyrs under Diocletian (A.D. 
302 about) at Sebaste in Armenia. Eustratius 
was burned to death in a furnace ; Orestes 
roasted on a gridiron ; the others done to death 
in various manners. Their relics are venerated 
in Rome in the Church of St. Apollinaris. 
EUTHALIA (St.) V.M. (Aug. 27) 

(3rd cent.) A Sicilian maiden who, with her 
mother, was converted to Christianity by the 
holy martyr Alpheus and his fellow-sufferers. 
She herself gave her life for Christ, being, as 
tradition has it, done to death by her own 
brother. She was probably one of the victims 
of the Decian persecution in the middle of 
the third century. It is right to mention that 
the Bollandists consider her very existence 
to be hardly proved. 
EUTHYMIUS (St.) Abbot. (Jan. 20) 

(5th cent.) An Armenian nobleman of 
Melitene who becoming a priest was on account 
of his conspicuous virtues and talents entrusted 
with the supervision of all the monasteries of 
the district. From love of solitude he secretly 
fled to Palestine, lived for some time as a hermit 
in a cavern near the Dead Sea, and finally 
gathering disciples, founded a monastery of his 
own. Though he consistently shunned the 
crowds attracted by his repute for sanctity and 
miracles, he was instrumental in securing 
many conversions, notably that of the Empress 
Eudoxia from Eutychianism, and in procuring 
submission in the East to the Decrees of the 
Council of Chalcedon (A.D. 451). He died 
A.D. 473 at the age of ninety-seven, and is 
among the most highly venerated Saints of the 
Eastern Church. 
EUTHYMIUS (St.) Bp., M. (March 11) 

(9th cent.) A fervent monk raised to the 
See of Sardis in Lydia, who courageously 
resisted the Iconoclasts and was prominent in 
the Second Council of Nice (A.D. 787). Banished 
by the Emperor Nicephorus, he remained in 
exile till his death, twenty-nine years later, 
though recalled at intervals and offered per- 
mission to retain his See on condition of his 
tolerating the Iconoclast heresy. In the end 
he was scourged to death, a.d. 840, under the 



Emperor Theophilus, a bigoted Iconoclast, who 
however was happily reconciled to the Church 
before his own death two years afterwards. 

EUTHYMIUS (St.) If. (May 5) 

(Date unknown.) A deacon of the Church 
of Alexandria who gave his life for Clirist, but 
in which persecution is now unknown. 

EUTHYMIUS (St.) (Aug. 29) 

(4th cent.) A Roman Christian who with his 
wife and child, St. Crescentius, fled to Perugia 
during the persecution of Diocletian, and there 
crowned a troubled life by a saintly death, 
early in the fourth century. 

EUTHYMIUS (St.) M. (Dec. 24) 

(4th cent.) One of the sufferers at Nicomedia, 
the Imperial residence, in the great persecution 
under Diocletian (a.d. 303). It is recorded of 
St. Euthymius that he had been foremost in 
encouraging his fellow-believers bravely to lay 
down their lives for Christ. 

EUTROPIA (St.) V.M. (June 15) 


EUTROPIA (St.) Widow. (Sept. 15) 

(5th cent.) Of this Saint mentioned by 
Sidonius Apollinaris there is no notice in the 
more ancient Martyrologies. She is stated to 
have lived in Auvergne (France) some time in 
the fifth century. 

EUTROPIA (St.) M. (Oct. 30) 

(3rd cent.) An African Martyr, probably of 
the persecution under Valerian (A.D. 253). 
No trustworthy account of her is extant. 

EUTROPIA (St.) V.M. (Dec. 14) 


EUTROPIUS (St.) M. (Jan. 12) 

(5th cent.) A Lector or Reader of the 
Church of Constantinople, who was put to 
death with St. Tygrius and many others on 
account of their loyalty to St. John Chrysostom 
after that great Saint had been driven into 
exile. St. Eutropius died in prison from the 
consequences of the torture to which he had 
been subjected (A.D. 405). 

EUTROPIUS (St.) M. (March 3) 


EUTROPIUS (St.) Bp., M. (April 30) 

(Date uncertain.) One of the fellow-workers 
with St. Denis of Paris in the Evangelisation of 
Gaul, and the first Bishop of Saintes. The 
tradition is that he sealed his Apostolate with 
his blood. The date will depend upon that in 
the first or third century at which is fixed the 
Apostolate of St. Denis. 

EUTROPIUS (St.) Bp. (May 27) 

(5th cent.) A citizen of Marseilles ordained 
deacon by St. Eustachius. He succeeded 
St. Justin in the See of Orange and wrought 
many miracles. There is mention of him in 
a.d. 463 and in a.d. 475 ; but other dates are 
wanting. He appears in his lifetime to have 
enjoyed a great reputation in France. Sidonius 
Apollinaris speaks of him in the highest and 
most reverential terms. 

(SS.) MM. 

(3rd cent.) Martyrs at Porto near Rome, 
probably victims of the persecution under 
Aurelian (a.d. 273 about), though some ante- 
date them to the time of Septimius Sevcrus 
(A.D. 193-211). The fifty soldiers commemor- 
ated as Martyrs in the Roman Martyrology 
on July 8 appear to have been converted to the 
Faith while witnessing the fortitude of SS. 
Eutropius, Zosima and Bonosa (a brother and 
his two sisters). For some reason the name 
of St. Bonosa has remained the most prominent 
of the three. 

EUTYCHES (St.) M. (April 15) 


EUTYCHIANUS (St.) M. (July 2) 


EUTYCHIANUS (St.) M. (Aug. 17) 


EUTYCHIANUS (St.) M. (Sept. 2) 


EUTYCHIANUS (T.) M. (Nov. 13) 


EUTYCHIANUS (St.) Pope, M. (Dec. 8) 

(3rd cent.) A native of Etruria or Tuscany, 
who in a.d. 275 succeeded St. Felix I in the 
Chair of St. Peter. He had great veneration 
for the remains of the Martyrs, and is said to 
have interred several hundreds of them with 
his own hands. He appointed or revived the 
now obsolete custom of blessing grapes and 
other fruits at the end of the Canon of the 
Mass. He passed away in the reign of Probus 
or soon after (a.d. 283, perhaps) ; but there 
is some dispute as to precise dates. The marble 
slab covering his tomb in the Catacombs of 
St. Callistus has in modern times been brought 
to light. The Church honours him as a 

EUTYCHIUS (St.) M. (Feb. 4) 

(4th cent.) One of. the victims in Rome, 
it would appear, of the persecution under 
Diocletian at the opening of the fourth century. 
From the inscription composed for his tomb by 
Pope St. Damasus we learn that after torture 
he was left for twelve days in prison without 
food, and in the end thrown down into a well. 
His relics are now venerated in the church of 
San Lorenzo in Damaso. 

EUTYCHIUS and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (March 14) 
(8th cent.) Christians very many in number, 
put to death for the Faith in Mesopotamia by 
the Mohammedans after their conquest of the 
country. The year usually given is A.D. 741. 
The many miracles wrought by invoking the 
intercession of St. Eutychius have made him 
famous in the East. 


(4th cent.) Orthodox Christians and staunch 
supporters of St. Athanasius, who under the 
leadership of St. Eutychius, a sub-deacon of 
the Church of Alexandria, were imprisoned 
and tortured for their Faith in the Trinity 
by the Arian intruded Bishops. From St. 
Athanasius we learn that St. Eutychius, after 
being scourged, was condemned to slavery in 
the mines, but perished from exhaustion on 
the road thither (A.D. 356). 

EUTYCHIUS (St.) M. (April 15) 

(Date unknown.) A Martyr of unknown date 
of Ferentino in the Roman Campagna. A 
vision in which he appeared to St. Redemptus, 
Bishop in the sixth century of that See, is 
recounted by St. Gregory the Great. Assemani 
treats exhaustively of St. Eutychius in his 
work on the local Saints of Ferentinum. 

EUTYCHIUS (St.) M. (May 21) 


(6th cent.) Two Umbrian Saints of the 
sixth century who successively governed a 
monastery near Norcia. St. Gregory the Great 
extols their sanctity and recounts several 
miracles worked by their prayers. 

EUTYCHIUS (St.) (Aug. 24) 

(1st cent.) A Phrygian, disciple of St. Paul, 
and conjectured to have been the young man 
raised from the dead by the Apostle at Troas 
(Acts xx.), who on St. Paul leaving the East, 
attached himself to St. John the Evangelist, 
aiding him in his Apostolate and attending him 
to the Isle of Patmos. He is said to have 
himself been imprisoned and put to the torture 
for the Faith, but to have lived to nearly the 
end of the first century and to have died a 
natural death. 

EUTYCHIUS (St.) M. (Sept. 19) 



(SS). MM. (Sept. 29) 

(Date uncertain.; Martyrs of uncertain date 
and place, though noted by the Martyrologies 
as having suffered in Thrace. There are also 
great discrepancies in the names attributed to 




EUTYCHIUS (St.) M. (Oct. 5) 

EUTYCHIUS (St.) M. (Nov. 21) 

EUTYCHIUS (OYE) (St.) M. (Dec. 11) 

(4th cent.) A Spanish Martyr of the fourth 
century. He suffered either at Merida or 
somewhere in the neighbourhood of Cadiz. 
Nothing is really now known about him. 
(Date unknown.) A priest with his deacon 
registered in the Roman Martyrology as having 
suffered martyrdom at Ancyra in Galatia (Asia 
Minor). We have no other record of them. 
EUVERT (St.) Bp. (Sept. 7) 

Otherwise St. EVORTIUS, which see. 
*EVAL (St.) Bp. (Nov. 20) 

(6th cent.) A British Bishop in Cornwall, 
at the end of the sixth century, who has left 
a place-name in that county. Nothing certain 
is known about him. 

(4th cent.) When (A.D. 370) the See of 

Constantinople had been vacant for twenty 

years, usurped by Arian intruders, the Catholics 

seized a favourable moment and elected Evag- 

rius, a personage otherwise unknown to history. 

A few months later he was driven out by the 

Emperor Valens and died in exile. His merits 

were such as to entitle him in the opinion of his 

contemporaries to the honour of canonisation. 

EVAGRIUS and BENIGNUS (SS.) MM. (April 3) 

(Date unknown.) Martyrs at Tomi on the 

Black Sea. Nothing has come down to us 

concerning them, save the insertion of their 

names in the old Martyrologies. 

EVAGRIUS (St.) M. (Oct. 1) 

(SS.) MM. 

(Date unknown.) Martyrs of uncertain date, 

said by some to have suffered in Rome ; by 

others, with more probability, in Syria. 

*EVAN (INAN) (St.) (Aug. 18) 

(9th cent.) A Scottish hermit in Ayrshire, 

to whom churches are dedicated, but the 

particulars of whose life have been lost. 

EVARISTUS (St.) M. (Oct. 14) 


EVARISTUS (St.) Pope, M. (Oct. 26) 

(2nd cent.) The successor of St. Anacletus, 

or possibly of St. Clement in the Chair of 

St. Peter. There is much dispute as to the 

precise date of his nine years' Pontificate. 

Some put it A.i>. 96 to A.D. 108 ; others A.D. 103 

to A.D. 112 ; others again, A.D. 112 to A.D. 121. 

He appears to have been a Greek of Antioch, 

and on the side of his father, of Jewish descent. 

He divided the City of Rome into parishes and 

appointed seven deacons to attend the Pope, 

thus originating the College of Cardinals. He 

is honoured liturgically as a Martyr. 

EVARISTUS (St.) M. (Dec. 23) 


EVASIUS (St.) Bp., M. (Dec. 1) 

(4th cent.) A Saint of whom at the present 

day we have no trustworthy account. The 

tradition is that Pope St. Sylvester consecrated 

him first Bishop of Asti in Piedmont, that he 

laboured zealously for the good of his fiock, 

that he was driven from his See by the Arian 

Emperor Constantius, and that with many 

others he was put to the sword under Julian 

the Apostate, a.d. 362, at a place later called 

after him Casale Sant' Evasale, now simply 

EVASIUS (St.) Bp. (Dec. 2) 

(Date unknown.) Beyond the mention of 

him in the Roman Martyrology, no record 

remains of this Saint, who is described as a 

Bishop of Brescia in Lombardy. 

EVELLIUS (St.) M. (May 11) 

(1st cent.) A Councillor of the Emperor 

Nero, whose conversion to Christianity was 


brought about by the great patience and 
constancy of the Christians who suffered under 
his eyes, and more particularly by the example 
of the Martyr St. Torpes. St. Evellius was 
beheaded at Pisa A.D. 66 or 67. 
EVENTIUS of SARAGOSSA (St.) M. (April 16) 

EVENTIUS (St.) M. (May 3) 

*EVERARD (St.) Bp. (Jan. 8) 

Otherwise St. ERARD, which see. 
The name EBERHARD is also often written 
♦EVERARD HANSE (Bl.) M. (July 31) 

(16th cent.) A Protestant minister who, 
becoming a convert, resigned his rich prefer- 
ments and received the priesthood at Rheims. 
His Apostolate afterwards in England was 
short ; and he was put to death at Tyburn, 
A.D. 1582. Bystanders report that when the 
executioner had cut him down alive from the 
gallows and, according to the sentence, was 
tearing out his heart, he was heard to exclaim, 
" O Happy Day." 
*EVERILDIS (St.) V. (July 9) 

(7th cent.) A holy maiden, born in the 
South of England, who after the Apostolate of 
St. Birinus, retired, in company with SS. Bega 
and Wulfreda, to the neighbourhood of York, 
where they gathered many other holy virgins 
round them at a place still called after her, 
Everillsham or Everingham. 
Bp. M. 

(5th cent.) A Bishop of Cologne and suc- 
cessor of St. Severinus in the fifth century. 
A Prelate of great zeal and sanctity and dis- 
tinguished by his assiduity and confidence in 
prayer. While visiting the town of Tongres 
he was set upon and killed by robbers. Many 
miracles have been worked at his shrine. — 
Another saintly Bishop of Cologne of the same 
name is put on record by St. Gregory of Tours 
as having been renowned for the working of 
miracles about a century later. 
*EVERMAR (St.) M. (May 1) 

(7th cent.) A Belgian Saint who, while on 
a pilgrimage, was set upon by evildoers and 
murdered in a forest, about A.D. 700. He is 
still in great veneration and is honoured as a 
*EVERMUND (St.) Abbot. (June 16) 

(6th cent.) A French Saint, founder and 
first Abbot of Fontenay in Normandy. 
EVILASIUS (St.) M. (Sept. 20) 


(SS.) MM. (April 25) 

(Date unknown.) Christians of Syracuse in 
Sicily, registered in the old Martyrologies 
(but without date) as having suffered martyr- 
dom. Evodius and Hermogenes are said to 
have been brothers, Callistus (often written 
Callista) is likewise asserted to have been 
brother or sister to them. These three Saints 
also appear in the Martyrologies on Sept. 2. 
EVODIUS (St.) Bp., M. (May 6) 

(1st cent.) The first Bishop of Antioch, 
consecrated, it is said, by St. Peter the Apostle 
on his departure thence for Rome. By some of 
the ancients the fact that at Antioch the 
disciples vere first named Christians (Acts xi. 
26) is attributed to St. Evodius. Tradition 
makes of him a Martyr (a.d. 67 about). He 
was followed in the Sec of Antioch by the 
great St. Ignatius. 
EVODIUS (St.) M. (Aug. 2) 

EVODIUS (St.) Bp. (Oct. 8) 

(5th cent.) Born at Rouen and educated 
among the clergy of the Cathedral, his virtues 
and talents caused him to be raised to the 
Episcopate. He wrought many miracles in his 
lifetime and also after his death, which happened 
some time in the fifth century. Four hundred 



years later his relics were translated to Braine, 
near Soissons. 
EVORTIUS (EUVERT) (St.) Bp. (Sept. 7) 

(4th cent.) A Roman cleric who became 
Bishop of Orleans, apparently during the reign 
of Constantine, and who died about A.D. 340. 
An Abbey, St. Euvert, was founded at the 
place where his relics were enshrined. 
EVROUL (EBRULPHUS) (St.) Abbot. (Dec. 29) 
(6th cent.) Born at Bayeux (Northern 
France) (A.D. 517), he had a brilliant career 
at the Court of King Childebert I ; but moved 
by a Divine impulse obtained leave of the 
following monarch, Clotaire I, to retire to a 
monastery (his wife at the same time taking 
the veil in a convent). He lived henceforth 
a life of prayer and of work for the good of his 
neighbour ; and himself founded many religious 
houses. He passed away A.D. 596. 
(SS.) (Oct. 3) 

(7th cent.) Two of the missionary priest- 
monks, sent by St. Egbert with St. Willibrord 
from England to evangelise Germany. Vener- 
able Bede relates that their field of work was 
" Old Saxony." Their Apostolate appears to 
have been very short. They were done to death 
by the Pagans, probably in the neighbourhood 
of Dortmund about A.D. 695. Ewald the Fair 
was struck down by a sword blow. Ewald the 
Dark, the more prominent of the two, was 
fearfully maltreated, and in the end torn to 
pieces. King Pepin enshrined their relics at 
*EWE (St.) V. (Oct. 27) 

Otherwise St. IVES (IWA), which see. 
EXANTHUS (St.) M. (Aug. 7) 

*EXMEW (WILLIAM) (Bl.) M. (June 18) 

EXPEDITUS of MELITENE (St.) M. (April 19) 


EXUPERANTIA (St.) V. (April 26) 

(Date unknown.) A Saint of the Roman 

Martyrology, concerning whom no particulars 

are extant. Her relics are venerated at Troyes 

in France. 

EXUPERANTIUS (St.) Bp. (Jan. 24) 

(5th cent.) A Bishop of Cingoli near Ancona 

in Italy. He is believed to have been by 

birth a native of North Africa. To his prayers, 

his flock attributed their immunity from the 

plague devastating Italy in his time. They have 

since venerated him as their Patron Saint. 

EXUPERANTIUS (St.) Bp. (May 30) 

(5th cent.) The nineteenth Bishop of 

Ravenna who occupied that See for twenty 

years, dying a.d. 418. It is related of him 

that he cared for his flock not only in regard 

to things spiritual, but for their temporal 

well-being also. He is buried in the church of 

St. Agnes in his own city. 

EXUPERANTIUS (St.) M. (Dec. 30) 


EXUPERIA (St.) M. (July 26) 



and THEODULUS (SS.) MM. (May 2) 

(2nd cent.) A family of Christian slaves 

(husband, wife and two sons), the property of a 

rich Pagan of Attalia in Pamphylia (Asia 

Minor), in the time of the Emperor Hadrian. 

For refusing to take part in idolatrous rites 

they were put to the torture and, remaining 

steadfast, were at last burned to death (A.D. 


EXUPERIUS (St.) M. (Sept. 22) 

EXUPERIUS (St.) Bp. (Sept. 28) 

(5th cent.) A saintly Bishop of Toulouse 
in France at the beginning of the fifth century. 
St. Jerome, who dedicated to him one of his 
works, extols his virtues. We have a letter 
from him to Pope St. Innocent I. He was 
devoted to the poor, and even sent large con- 

tributions to those of Palestine and Egypt. 
He passed awav A.D. 411. 

EXUPERIUS (St.) M. (Nov. 19) 


*EYNON (ONION) (WILLIAM) (Bl.) M. (Nov. 14) 

EZECHIEL (St.) Prophet. (April 10) 

(6th cent. B.C.) One of the Four Greater 
Prophets and the writer of a canonical Book of 
Scripture. The tradition is that he was put to 
death, while in captivity in Babylon with the 
rest of his nation, by one of the Jewish Headmen 
who had turned Pagan (B.C. 525), and was 
buried there in the tomb of the Patriarchs 
Sem and Arphaxad. His grave was for the 
early Christians a place of pilgrimage. 


FABIAN (St.) Pope, M. (Jan. 20) 

(3rd cent.) A Roman who, while yet a lay- 
man, was by a sign from Heaven pointed out 
as the successor of St. Antherus (a.d. 236) in 
St. Peter's Chair. This " incomparable man," 
as St. Cyprian styles him, did much for Ecclesi- 
astical discipline, repressed the rigorism of 
certain heretics of his time, and called to 
account the famous Origcn. He beautified the 
shrines of the Roman Martyrs, and was himself 
one of the victims of the Decian persecution 
(A.D. 250). To St. Fabian is attributed the 
Holy Thursday rite of Consecration of the 
Holy Oils ; also by some the alleged Baptism 
of the Emperor Philip. 
FABIAN (St.) M. (Dec. 31) 

FABIUS (St.) M. (May 11) 

FABIUS (St.) M. (July 31) 

(4th cent.) A Christian soldier who for 
refusing to carry a standard bearing idolatrous 
emblems, and for boldly giving as a reason his 
belief in Christ, was beheaded at Csesarea in 
Mauretanea, under Diocletian about A.D. 300. 

(Date unknown.) Of these holy men, who 
are alleged to have suffered in Spain and who 
are honoured at Toledo, nothing whatever is 
reallv known. 
*FACHANAN (St.) Bp. (Aug. 14) 

(6th cent.) The first Bishop of Ross (Ire- 
land), where he founded the monastery of Ross- 
Altair, which became a centre of pilgrimage and 
a celebrated school of learning. He was remark- 
able for his eloquence and is venerated as 
Patron of the Diocese of Ross. 
(4th cent.) Spanish Martyrs, the sons of 
St. Marcellus the Centurion, also a Martyr, 
said to have been put to death under Diocletian 
about A.D. 300, by order of Atticus or of 
Dacianus, Judge in Galicia. More probably 
however their martyrdom took place as early 
as the middle of the second century in the time 
of Marcus Aurelius. 
*FAGAN (St.) (Jan. 3) 

Otherwise St. FUGATIUS, which see. 
*FAILBHE THE LITTLE (St.) Abbot. (March 10) 
(8th cent.) He was for seven years Abbot of 
Iona. where he died, aged eighty, A.D. 754. 
♦FAILBHE (St.) Abbot. (March 22) 

(7th cent.) The immediate predecessor of 
St. Adamnan (a.d. 679) as Abbot of Iona. He 
was of Irish birth and brother of St. Finan of 
Rath. There are several other Saints of the 
same name commemorated in the Scottish 
FAINA (St.) M. (May 18) 


(AGAPE) VV.MM. (Aug. 1) 

(2nd cent.) Three young girls, daughters of 




St. Sophia, with whom they were baptised. 
Their mother brought them up carefully as 
Christians and encouraged them during the 
horrors of their martyrdom in Rome under 
Hadrian early in the second century. Many 
legends have grown up concerning them, but 
nothing more can be stated with any certainty 
about them and their holy mother. St. Sophia 
and her children have always been in great 
veneration both in the East and in the West. 
SS. Faith, Hope and Charity are said to have 
been put to death at the ages respectively of 
twelve, ten and nine years. 

FAITH (St.) V.M. (Oct. 6) 

(4th cent.) Born at Agen in the South of 
France and arrested in the same city by the 
notorious Prefect Dacian under the Emperor 
Maximian Herculeus. She was burned to 
death a.d. 303. A number of bystanders 
(chief among whom was the Martyr St. Capra- 
sius) inspired by her example, bravely declared 
themselves to be also Christians, and were on 
that account beheaded. The relics of St. 
Faith were enshrined at the Abbey of Conque, 
but a portion of her ashes were taken to Glaston- 
bury. Hence probably her place in the Sarum 
Calendar and the Dedication to her of certain 
English churches. 

FAL (FELE) (St.) (May 1G) 

Otherwise St. FIDOLUS, which see. 

*FANCHEA (GARBH) (St.) V. (Jan. 1) 

(6th cent.) Born in Clogher and sister of 
SS. Endeus, Lochina, Carecha and Dareima. 
She presided as Abbess over a flourishing 
community of holy women and was instrumental 
in converting her brother, Endeus, the celebrated 
Abbot of Arran, whom she led on to great 

FANDILA (FANDILAS) (St.) M. (June 13) 

(9th cent.) Born in the South of Spain, 
he became a monk at Cordova, where he was 
ordained priest. Arrested during the persecu- 
tion of the Caliph Mahomed he was cast into 
prison and beheaded at Cordova, a.d. 853. 

FANTINUS (St.) (Aug. 30) 

(9th cent.) A monk in Calabria (South of 
Italy) who, when over sixty years of age, went 
to Greece to visit the shrines of the Martyrs, 
and died at Thessalonica, probably some time 
in the ninth century. Famous in life for his 
austerities, he was renowned also for the 
miracles he wrought both before and after 

FARA (St.) V. (Dec. 7) 

which see. 

*FARANNAN (St.) (Feb. 15) 

(6th cent.) Born in Ireland, St. Farannan 
became one of St. Columba's disciples at Iona. 
Eventually he settled in the West of Ireland, 
living in a cave and performing most rigorous 
penances. He is the Patron Saint of Alterna 
(All-Faranna) in Sligo, the probable place of his 

♦FARINGDON (HUGH) (Bl.) M. (Nov. 14) 


FARO (PHARO) (St.) Bp. (Oct. 28) 

(7th cent.) Of a noble Burgundian family, 
his father, Ageneric, was one of the principal 
lords at the Court of Theodebert II. His 
brother, St. Cagnoald, a monk at. Luxeuil, and 
his sister, St. Phara, attained like him to the 
honours of the Altar. Separating by mutual 
consent from his wife (Blidechild, afterwards 
a nun), St. Faro received the religious tonsure 
and became Bishop of Meaux, a See which he 
retained for forty-six years, until his holy 
death a.d. 672. His zeal and piety, coupled 
with the gift of miracle-working, drew many 
holy men and women to Meaux, among others 
St. Fiacra. 

FAUSTA and EVILASIUS (SS.) MM. (Sept. 20) 

(4th cent.) St. Fausta, a girl of about 

thirteen, was being cruelly tortured by order 

of Evilasius, a heathen magistrate, when the 


latter, seeing the constancy of the child, believed 
and was also crowned for Christ. They suffered 
at Cyzicum in Pontus under Diocletian, A.D. 
FAUSTA (St.) Widow. (Dec. 19) 

(3rd cent.) Famous both for the nobility 
of her birth and for her piety, St. Fausta, 
mother of St. Anastasia, died in Rome towards 
the end of the third century. In the words of 
her daughter she was " a pattern of goodness 
and piety." Baronius maintains the authenti- 
city of the Letter of St. Anastasia, in which 
these words occur, but doubts have since been 
raised as to its genuineness. 
FAUSTINIAN (St.) Bp. (Feb. 26) 

(4th cent.) St. Faustinian is said to have 
been the second Bishop of Bologna in Italy. 
He comforted the Christians during Diocletian's 
persecution, and later was a zealous champion 
of the Catholic Faith against the Arians. There 
is some doubt as to the precise date of his 
death, which took place early in the fourth 
FAUSTINUS and JOVITA (SS.) MM. (Feb. 15) 

(2nd cent.) Two brothers, nobly born, and 
zealous professors of the Christian Faith, which 
they boldly preached to their fellow-citizens 
of Brescia (Lombardy) at a time of heathen 
fury such that even their Bishop had sought 
concealment. They were at length arrested 
by the authorities, and it is said that the 
Emperor Hadrian himself, after arguing with 
them, ordered them to be beheaded (A.D. 121). 
The City of Brescia possesses their relics and 
venerates them as its chief Patrons. 
FAUSTINUS (St.) Bp. (Feb. 16) 

(4th cent.) The successor of St. Ursicinus 
in the See of Brescia (Lombardy). He is said 
to have compiled the Acts of his collateral 
ancestors SS. Faustinus and Jovita. He 
died after about twenty years of Episcopate, 
a.d. 381, and was succeeded by St. Philastrius. 
FAUSTINUS and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Feb. 17) 

(Date unknown.) All particulars of these 
Saints are lost, though Baronius has inserted 
them in the Martyrology on the authority of 
ancient manuscripts he had before him. They 
are alleged to have suffered in Rome and to 
have been forty- five in number ; but it is 
quaintly added : " The very names of forty- 
four of them are now known to none save 

(SS.) MM. 

(4th cent.) These holy men suffered in 

Rome perhaps as late as the reign of Julian the 

Apostate (a.d. 360-363) ; but no particulars 

are forthcoming. 

FAUSTINUS (St.) M. (June 5) 

FAUSTINUS (St.) M. (July 29) 

FAUSTINUS (St.) (July 29) 

(4th cent.) A disciple of St. Felix, Bishop 
of Martano or Spello, near Spoleto, and his 
faithful attendant in the hour of his Passion. 
St. Faustinus himself suffered much for Christ 
before passing away peacefully early in the 
fourth century at Todi in Umbria. 


(SS.) MM. (Dec. 15) 

(Date unknown.) African Martyrs com- 
memorated in all the old Martyrologies, but 
of whom nothing otherwise is known. 
FAUSTUS and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (June 24) 

(Date unknown.) Twenty-four Roman Mar- 
tyrs whose Acts have been lost and whose date 
is quite uncertain. Some conjecture that this 
St. Faustus is the convert made at the end of 
her life by St. Dafrosa, mother of St. Bibiana. 
Others identify him and his fellow-sufferers 
with the Saints Lucy and Twenty-two others, 
commemorated in the Roman Martyrology on 
June 25 (probably a.d. 280). 



FAUSTUS (St.) M. (July 16) 

(3rd cent.) A Martyr of the Decian persecu- 
tion (A.D. 250), who, crucified and shot at with 
arrows, is said to have lingered in nis agony for 
five days. 
FAUSTUS (St.) M. (Aug. 1) 

FAUSTUS (St.) M. (Aug. 7) 

(2nd cent.) It is a tradition that this 
St. Faustus was a soldier who gave his life for 
Christ after enduring many tortures at Milan 
during the reign of Commodus (a.d. 180-A.d. 
193) ; but neither at Milan nor elsewhere are 
there any particulars extant. 
(SS.) MM. 

(3rd cent.) St. Faustus was a priest, and 
with that of Macarius the Greek Menologies 
give the names of his other ten fellow-sufferers. 
They were victims of the Decian persecution 
(A.d. 250), and were beheaded at Alexandria 
in Egypt. 
FAUSTUS (St.) M. (Sept. 8) 

FAUSTUS (St.) M. (Oct. 3) 

FAUSTUS (St.) M. (Oct. 4) 

FAUSTUS (St.) M. (Oct. 5) 

(SS.) MM. (Oct. 13) 

(4th cent.) Saints styled by the Poet 
Prudentius " the three Crowns of Cordova," 
in which city they, during the great persecution, 
under the Emperors Diocletian and Maximian, 
having bravely confessed their Faith in Christ, 
were put to the torture and beheaded (a.d. 304). 
FAUSTUS (St.) M. (Nov. 19) 

(4th cent.) The deacon of St. Dionysius of 
Alexandria and his companion in exile. He is 
reported to have survived his master for many 
years, and in the end to have laid down his 
life in extreme old age for Christ in the persecu- 
tion under Diocletian at the beginning of the 
fourth century. 
OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Nov. 26) 

(4th cent.) These Martyrs suffered in the 
persecution raised in Egypt by the Emperor 
Maximian Galerius, in which St. Peter, Patriarch 
of Alexandria, perished (a.d. 311 about). St. 
Faustus was a priest of Alexandria ; SS. 
Phileas, Hesychius, Pacomius and Theodore 
were Egyptian country Bishops ; and with 
them six hundred and sixty Christians are said 
to have given their lives for their Faith. 

FEBRONIA (St.) V.M. (June 25) 

(4th cent.) A young nun in her twentieth 
year, victim of the persecution under Diocletian 
(a.d. 304), who bravely sealed her Confession 
of Christ with her blood, at Sybapolis in Syria, 
according to the Martyrologies ; but really at 
Nisibi in Assyria (Mesopotamia) as modern 
research has shown. In their fear the fifty 
sisters in her community had fled to various 
hiding-places, Fcbronia alone remaining with 
her Abbess and one other aged nun, when the 
Imperial officers came to seize them. It 
appears that Febronia only was put to death, 
and it is from the pen of one of the other two 
that we have the particulars of the ghastly 
tortures to which she was subjected before 
being beheaded. 
♦FECHIN (St.) Abbot. (Jan. 20) 

(7th cent.) A disciple of St. Yathy and 
founder of many monasteries in Ireland. He 
led a life of extraordinary penance, spending 
his nights after the manner of St. Patrick, 
in reciting the whole Psalter. He is honoured 
at Fobhare or Foure (West Meath), where he 
governed a monastery. Ecclefechan and St. 

Vigean's, near Arbroath in Scotland, also 
perpetuate his memory. 
*FEDLEMID (St.) Bp. (Aug. 9) 

Otherwise St. PHELIM, which see. 
*FEIGHIN (St.) Abbot. (Jan. 20) 

Otherwise St. FECHIN, which see. 
*FELAN (St.) Abbot. (Jan. 9) 

Otherwise St. FCELAN, which see. 
FELE (FAL) (St.) (May 16) 

Otherwise St. F1DOLUS, which see. 
FELICIAN (St.) Bp. M. (Jan. 24) 

(3rd cent.) Ordained priest by Pope St. 
Eleutherius and consecrated Bishop of Foligno, 
his native city, by Pope St. Victor, he governed 
that See till a.d. 250, when the Decian persecu- 
tion broke out. Though then in his ninetieth 
year, St. Felician was arrested and sent to 
Rome, but died at Monte Rotondo on his way 
thither. His remains, brought back to Foligno, 
were some centuries later translated to Metz, 
where many miracles have been worked at his 
shrine. At Minden in Westphalia, whither 
some of his relics were carried in the tenth 
century, a Feast in his honour is kept on 
Oct. 20, which has given occasion to a second 
insertion of his name in the Roman Martyrology. 
(SS.) MM. (Jan. 30) 

(Date unknown. Of these African Martyrs, 
one hundred and thirty-six in number, com- 
memorated in the ancient Martyrologies, no 
record has come down to our time. 
FELICIAN (St.) M. (Feb. 2) 

FELICIAN (St.) M. (June 9) 

FELICIAN (St.) M. (July 21) 

FELICIAN (St.) Bp. M. (Oct. 20) 

See St. FELICIAN (Jan. 24). 
FELICIAN (St.) M. (Oct. 29) 

FELICIAN (St.) M. (Nov. 11) 

FELICIAN (St.) M. (Nov. 19) 

FELICINUS (St.) Bp. (July 19) 

Otherwise St. FELIX of VERONA, \ohich see. 
FELICISSIMA (St.) V.M. (Aug. 12) 



(SS.) MM. (May 26) 

(3rd cent.) These Martyrs probably suffered 

towards the close of the third century under 

Diocletian, at Todi in Umbria, where their 

relics are still venerated ; but no particulars 

are known concerning them. 

FELICISSIMUS (St.) M. (July 2) 


FELICISSIMUS (St.) M. (Aug. 6) 

FELICISSIMUS (St.) M. (Oct. 26) 

FELICISSIMUS (St.) M. (Nov. 24) 

(4th cent.) A Martyr who suffered at 
Perugia (Central Italy), perhaps under Dio- 
cletian, in the first years of the fourth century. 
Nothing more is known of him. 
FELICITAS (St.) M. (March 7) 

FELICITAS (St.) M. (March 8) 

FELICITTAS (St.) M. (Nov. 23) 

(2nd cent.) This holy widow, distinguished 
above all the Roman Matrons of her time for 
her piety and charity, had seven sons, together 
with whom she was arrested and tried as a 
Christian before the Emperor Antoninus Pius 
in Pome, about a.d. 165. Having encouraged 
her children to sacrifice their lives cheerfully 
for Christ, she, her spirit of Faith overcoming 
the natural tenderness of her mother's heart, 
witnessed the sufferings by which they merited 
their crowns of martyrdom. She followed 
them five months later, being beheaded as a 




Christian, Nov. 23, A.D. 165. She has since 
been commemorated throughout the Catholic 
Church on that day. The Feast of her seven 
martvred sons is kept on July 10. 
FELICULA (St.) M. (Feb. 14) 

FELICULA (St.) V.M. (June 13) 

(1st cent.) A Roman Saint of the Apostolic 
Age and fellow-sufferer with St. Petronilla, 
after whose martyrdom under Domitian she 
was left for a fortnight in her prison without 
food or drink. The charge against her was 
her refusal to marry a Pagan and to sacrifice 
to idols. Utterly wasted though she was, she 
was tortured on the rack and at last thrown 
into a ditch to die. Her body was recovered 
by the priest St. Nicomedes, and by him 
secretly interred outside the walls of Rome 
(A.D. 90 about). 

(3rd cent.) These holy men, soldiers in the 
Imperial army, were martyred at Perugia in 
the persecution under Decius (A.D. 250). Their 
relics were translated to Arona near Milan, 
A.D. 979. 
FELIX and JANUARIUS (SS.) MM. (Jan. 7) 

(Date unknown.) Said to have suffered 

martyrdom at Heraclea, a name common to 

several ancient cities. We have neither dates 

nor particulars concerning them. 

FELIX (St.) M. (Jan. 9) 

FELIX of NOLA (St.) M. (Jan. 14) 

(3rd cent.) A Syrian by birth, who after 
serving in the Imperial army, became a priest 
at Nola in Southern Italy, and was chosen to 
be his chief adviser by the Bishop St. Maximus. 
When in A.D. 250 the persecution under Decius 
broke out, Felix was seized, scourged and 
thrown into prison ; but having been mira- 
culously delivered therefrom, he watched over 
the deathbed of the Bishop, and devoted himself 
to the service of the rest of the persecuted 
group of Christians. Decius having perished 
and the Church being for a time at peace, the 
Bishopric of Nola was offered to Felix, which 
however, he refused, preferring to occupy 
himself as before in assisting the prelate chosen 
in his place. The ancients are loud in praise 
of his holiness of life and of his charity to all. 
He died in peace at an advanced age, A.D. 260, 
but on account of the many sufferings he had 
endured for Christ's sake has always been 
honoured as a Martyr. He is commemorated 
annually on Jan. 14 throughout the Catholic 
Church, and his shrine at Nola, where many 
miracles have been wrought in answer to prayers 
for help from him, is a famous place of pilgrim- 
age. St. Paulinus of Nola and Venerable Bede 
have both written the Life of St. Felix, and 
Pope St. Damasus has composed verses in his 

Another St. Felix, a Roman priest, whose Feast 
is also marked on the 14th of January, is often 
confused with the more famous Saint of Nola. 
FELIX IV (St.) Pope. (Jan. 30) 

(6th cent.) The successor of Pope St. John I 
(A.D. 526). He built the Roman church of 
SS. Cosmas and Damian and consecrated no 
fewer than thirty-nine Bishops, during his short 
Pontificate of four years. He was evidently 
an able statesman, and treated successfully the 
cause of his people with the Barbarians, who in 
his time had overrun Italy. He died A.D. 530. 
FELIX of LYONS (St.) Bp. (Feb. 3) 


OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Feb. 3) 

(Date unknown.) There are various opinions 
as to the place where these Martyrs suffered. 
Though the old Registers describe them as 
Africans, and probably St. Felix was of the 
Roman Province there, it is not at all certain 
that they all suffered in that country. Their 
Acts are no longer extant. 


FELIX of AFRICA (St.) M. (Feb. 11) 

FELIX of ADRUMETUM (St.) M. (Feb. 21) 

FELIX of METZ (St.) Bp. (Feb. 21) 

(2nd cent.) Described as the third Bishop 
of Metz, which See he is alleged to have occupied 
for forty years in the Sub- Apostolic Age. 
FELIX of BRESCIA (St.) Bp. (Feb. 23) 

(7th cent.) The twentieth Bishop of Brescia 
in Lombardy, which Diocese he governed 
during over forty troublous years. He strug- 
eled successfully against the Arian Bishop, 
intruded into his See by Rotharius, King of 
the Lombards, and energetically opposed the 
inroads of the heresy, then making its last great 
effort against the Catholic Faith. He was a 
zealous pastor, and built and endowed several 
churches. The date of his death, about the 
middle of the seventh century, is variously 
FELIX III (St.) Pope. (Feb. 25) 

(5th cent.) An ancestor of St. Gregory the 
Great. St. Felix succeeded Pope St. Simplicius, 
A.D. 483, and fought against Monophytism or 
Eutychianism, which heresy denied that Christ 
had the nature of man besides that of God. 
He deposed Acacius, Bishop of Constantinople, 
for heresy and schism. Before his death 
(A.D. 492) he held a Synod to decide the measures 
to be taken with those who had apostatised 
during the Vandal persecution. He is by many 
reputed the author of the so-called Sacramen- 
tarium Leonianum. 
FELIX (St.) M. (Feb. 26) 


and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (March 3) 

(Date unknown.) Of these, as of so many 
holy Confessors of Christ in the early ages of 
the Church, no record has remained, save the 
registering of their names in the various ancient 
Martyrologies. SS. Felix, <fec. are by several 
authors conjectured to have suffered in Africa ; 
but no date can with any probability be assigned 
to them. 
FELIX (St.) M. (March 8) 

FELIX of DUNWICH (St.) Bp. (March 8) 

(7th cent.) St. Felix, a native of Burgundy, 
when he was consecrated Bishop, was destined 
to the work of the Evangelisation of the Anglo- 
Saxons. St. Honorius of Canterbury, on the 
arrival of St. Felix in England, advised him 
to betake himself to East Anglia (Norfolk and 
Suffolk), where the pious King Sigebert was 
seeking the conversion of his still heathen 
subjects. There he laboured with such success 
that at his death (A.D. 646) practically t lie 
whole country had become Christian. He was 
buried at Dunwich in Suffolk, which town, now 
swallowed up by the sea, he had chosen for his 
See. Several centimes later his relics were 
translated to Ramsey Abbey. 
FELIX of AQUILEIA (St.) M. (March 16) 

FELIX of GERONA (St.) M. (March 18) 

FELIX and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (March 23) 

(5th cent.) Twenty-four of the victims of 
the Arian Hunneric, King of the Vandals, 
towards the close of the fifth century. Of 
these African Saints no particulars are extant, 
though St. Bede and all the old Martyrologies 
register them as above. 
FELIX of TREVES (St.) Bp. (March 2(3) 

(5th cent.) The local records of the Church 
of Treves were destroyed by the Normans, 
who pillaged the city at the end of the ninth 
century. We only know that this St. Felix, 
the second Bishop of Treves of that name, 
and thirty-third in succession from the founda- 
tion of the See, was consecrated by St. Martin • 
of Tours (A.D. 386) under the Emperor or 
usurper Maximus. He was a zealous opponent 



of the strange Priscillianist heresy. He later 
resigned his See and retired to a monastery 
he had built in honour of our Lady and of the 
Martyrs of the Theban Legion, where he died 
after a.d. 400. There is much controversy 
about him, and especially whether or not some 
of the particulars given may not apply to 
another Felix, also of Treves. 

FELIX (St.) M. (March 31) 


FELIX of SARAGOSSA (St.) M. (April 16) 


FELIX of ALEXANDRIA (St.) M. (April 21) 



(SS.) MM. (April 23) 

(3rd cent.) The Apostles of Vienne in 
France, whither they were sent by St. Irenseus 
of Lyons, St. Felix being a priest and SS. For- 
tunatus and Achilleus deacons. From a 
humble lodging wherein they lived a life of 
much penance they evangelised the town, 
converting many to Christianity. In the end 
they were imprisoned, and after cruel torture 
put to death for the Faith, A.D. 212. 

FELIX of SEVILLE (St.) M. (May 2) 

(Date unknown.) A deacon who suffered 
for Christ at a date and under circumstances 
of which we have no longer any record. In 
Seville and its neighbourhood he is held in 
great veneration. 

FELIX of ROME (St.) M. (May 10) 


FELIX and GENNADIUS (SS.) MM. (May 16) 

(Date unknown.) No particulars are extant 
of these two Martyrs venerated from ancient 
times in the city of Uzalis in Pro-consular 
Africa, and formerly a Bishop's See, where 
their relics were enshrined. 

FELIX of SPOLETO (St.) Bp., M. (May 18) 

(4th cent.) There is a dispute as to whether 
this Saint was Bishop of Spoleto or of the 
neighbouring city of Spello (Hispellum) ; but 
all agree that he was one of the victims of the 
great persecution (A.D. 304 about) under 
Diocletian and Maximian Herculeus, by whose 
orders he was beheaded as a Christian teacher. 
At Spoleto he is still in great veneration. 
Baring Gould with others contend that he was 
Bishop not of Spoleto in Umbria, but of Spalato 
in Dalmatia. 

FELIX of CANTALICIO (St.) (May 18) 

(16th cent.) A Saint in great veneration in 
Italy. Born about A.D. 1513, near Rieti, of 
poor parents, he worked in his youth in the 
fields, and at the age of thirty entered among 
the Capuchins as a lay-brother, and as s\ich 
for forty years begged about Rome. His 
intimacy with St. Philip Neri, and how, as the 
greatest of earthly blessings, they used to wish 
one another " sufferings for Christ," is prover- 
bial. St. Felix was also much valued by 
St. Charles Borromeo. His characteristic 
seems to have been throughout a life of austere 
penance, a cheerful piety, whence his nickname 
Deo gratias " (" Thanks be to God "). He 
died in Rome in great joy of spirit, May 18, 
1587. He is often represented carrying a 
beggar's wallet inscribed " Deo Gratias." 

FELIX of ISTRIA (St.) M. (May 24) 


FELIX of SARDINIA (St.) M. (May 28) 


FELIX I (St.) Pope, M. (May 30) 

(3rd cent.) A Roman by birth. He suc- 
ceeded St. Dionysius, A.D. 269, in the Chair of 
St. Peter. He wrote to Maximus of Alexandria 
condemning the heresy of Paul of Samosata. 
A fragment of this letter has been preserved. 
He is further said to have decreed that Mass be 
always celebrated over relics of Martyrs. 
St. Felix received the crown of martyrdom, 
A.D. 274, under Aurelian, and was buried on 
the Aurelian Way. Some historians date his 
Pontificate from a.d. 273 onlv to A.D. 275. 

FELIX and FORTUNATUS (SS.) MM. (June 11) 
(3rd cent.) Two brothers, born at Vicenzp 
in the North of Italy, and done to death aft 
the infliction of fearful torture at Aquileia. 
They suffered under Diocletian about A.D. 296. 
Part of their relics is at Vicenza, part at Chioggia 
near Venice. 
FELIX of CORDOVA (St.) M. (June 14) 

FELIX of APOLLONIA (St.) M. (June 17) 


*FELIX of NANTES (St.) Bp. (July 7) 

(6th cent.) A learned and pious prelate who 

governed ably and successfully in the Diocese of 

Nantes for about thirty-three years. He was 

noted for his zeal for Church discipline, and 

still more for his charity to the poor. He 

assisted at the French Councils of his time and 

built the Cathedral of Nantes. He died Jan. 8, 

A.D. 584. His festival is kept in July, the 

anniversary of the Translation of his relics. 

*FELIX and MAURUS (SS.) Bps. (June 16) 

(6th cent.) Palestinians, father and son, 

who after a pilgrimage to Rome settled at a 

place now called San Felice, near Narni, in 

Central Italy. They are venerated as Saints 

at Spoleto, and in the neighbourhood. 

FELIX (St.) M. (June 23) 

(3rd cent.) A priest of Sutri in Tuscany, 

who under the Emperors Valerian and Gallienus 

was scourged to death (a.d. 257), he having 

been conspicuous for his zeal in preaching the 

Christian Faith and successfxU in making 

converts from heathenism. 

FELIX (St.) M. (July 2) 


FELIX (St.) M. (July 10) 


which see. 

FELIX (St.) M. (July 10) 

FELIX of MILAN (St.) M. (July 12) 


FELIX of COMO (St.) Bp. (July 14) 

(4th cent.) Said to have been the first. 

Bishop of Como. He flourished in the latter 

half of the fourth century, and was a zealous 

pastor of souls, honoured by the intimate 

personal friendship of the great St. Ambrose. 

FELIX of PAVIA (St.) Bp., M. (July 15) 

(Date unknown.) A Martyr of whom nothing 

reliable has come down to us. Some have 

thought him to be one and the same person 

with the St. Felix, Bishop of Spello or Spoleto 

(May 18). 

FELIX (St.) M. (July 17) 

One of the SCILLITAN MARTYRS, which 

FELIX (FELICINUS) of VERONA (St.) (July 19) 

(Date unknown.) A Bishop of Verona 
venerated from ancient times as a Saint, but 
of whom no authentic account is extant. His 
relics are enshrined in one of the churches of 
FELIX of MANFREDONIA (St.) M. (July 25) 


FELIX, JUCUNDA and JULIA (SS.) MM. (July 27) 

(Date unknown.) In regard to these Saints, 

an error appears to have crept into the Roman 

Martyrology, which assigns them to Nola in 

South Italy. As to St. Felix, the reference 

would simply be to the date of the consecration 

of St. Felix, Bishop of Nola (Nov. 15). SS. 

Jucunda and Julia are in the older MSS. 

described as Martyrs of Nicomedia in Asia 

Minor. Nothing more is known about them. 

FELIX of CORDOVA (St.) M. (July 27) 

FELIX II (St.) Pope, M. (July 29) 

(4th cent.) St. Felix, Archdeacon of Rome, 
was elected Pope A.D. 355, when Pope Liberius 
was sent into exile by the Arian Emperor 
Constantius, but on the return of Liberius, 
after two years of exile, he at once resigned the 




Pontificate of which in all probability he had 
been merely the Administrator. The Roman 
Martyrology records his martyrdom at Cervetro 
(Cserae) in Tuscany, probably about A.D. 360 ; 
but it is the opinion of some authors that he 
lived on for several years in retirement and 
died a peaceful death. The Church also 
commemorates the Finding of the Body of 
St. Felix with those of other Martyrs. It is 
especially to be noted that from the outset he 
has always been regarded as a Saint, and there 
are no real grounds for setting him aside as a 
mere Anti-Pope. 

FELIX of GERONA (St.) M. (Aug. 1) 

(4th cent.) A Spanish Christian who suffered 
under Maximian Herculeus and the merciless 
Prefect Dacianus (A.D. 303) at Gerona in the 
North of Spain. He was, while still living, 
literally cut to pieces with butchers' knives. 
The old Christian poet Prudentius has written 
some verses in his honour. 

*FELIX (FEDLIMID) (St.) Bp. (Aug. 9) 

Otherwise St. PHELIM, which see. 

FELIX of PORTO (St.) M. (Aug. 22) 


FELIX of PISTOJA (St.) (Aug. 26) 

(9th cent.) The traditions of Pistoja, a town 
in Tuscany, where he flourished probably in the 
ninth century, present him to us as a hermit, 
remarkable for the austerity of his life, and 
venerated as a Saint immediately after his 
holy death. His cultus was revived on the 
discovery of his shrine, A.D. 1400 ; but his 
history is very uncertain. 

FELIX and ADAUCTUS (SS.) MM. (Aug. 30) 

(4th cent.) Christians who were beheaded 
in Rome (A.D. 304), in the last great persecution, 
and who are liturgically commemorated in the 
Universal Church. St. Felix was a priest. 
St. Adauctus (a Christian of name unknown, 
so styled because he was unexpectedly added 
(adauctus) to St. Felix in the latter's glorious 
death struggle in consequence of his calling 
out that he too was a Christian) is, of course, 
quite other than the St. Adaucus (Oct. 4) of 
Gibbon's gibe (Decl. and Fall, ch. Xvi.). 

FELIX and ANOTHER FELIX (SS.) MM. (Sept. 10) 
One of these St. Felix appears to have been 
a Bishop. 

FELIX and REGULA (SS.) MM. (Sept. 11) 

(3rd cent.) A brother and sister who at the 
time of the famous martyrdom of St. Maurice 
and his companions under Maximian Herculeus, 
took refuge in Switzerland ; but were afterwards 
sought out and cruelly put to death in the 
neighbourhood of Zurich. 

FELIX and CONSTANTIA (SS.) MM. (Sept. 19) 
(1st cent.) Martyrs who suffered in the 
very beginnings of Christianity in the time of 
Nero at Nocera, a town between Naples and 
Salerno, where their relics are venerated ; but 
no particulars are extant. 

FELIX of AUTUN (St.) M. (Sept. 24) 


FELIX and CYPRIAN (SS.) Bps., MM. (Oct. 12) 
(5th cent.) The leaders of a multitude of 
4966 Catholic Christians in Africa, maltreated 
and driven out to starve in the Sahara Desert 
by Hunneric, the persecuting Arian King of 
the Vandals, a.d. 482. Among them were many 
little children. Their contemporary, Victor of 
Utica, has left us a touching account of their 

MUS (SS.) MM. (Oct. 24) 
(4th cent.) African Martyrs who suffered 
under Diocletian, a.d. 303. Every endeavour 
was used to induce St. Felix (a Bishop) to 
deliver up the Sacred Scriptures and other 
Christian books, the destruction of which was 
a paramount object with the crafty Emperor, 
but the Saint remained steadfast to death. 
Dragged to Rome, he with the others was put 


to the sword at Venosa (or perhaps Nola) in 
the South of Italy.- There is, however, much 
controversy among the learned as to the names 
of these Martyrs and the details of their Passion. 
FELIX and EUSEBIUS (SS.) MM. (Nov. 5) 

(1st cent.) Christians of the first century, 
St. Felix being a priest and St. Eusebius 
described as a monk or Solitary. They are 
mentioned in the Acts of St. Csesareus as 
having been concerned in the burial of that 
HolyMartyr. They themselves were afterwards 
beheaded in the first years of the second century 
at Terracina, a city between Rome and Naples. 
FELIX of THYNISSA (St.) M. (Nov. 6) 

(Date uncertain.) An African Christian, 
who in one of the early persecutions, having 
faithfully confessed Christ before the Roman 
Judge and having been sentenced to be be- 
headed, was on the following morning found 
dead in his prison, as was related by St. Augus- 
tine in a sermon to his people of Hippona. 
The Thynissa where St. Felix suffered is an old 
town near Hippona (Bona), not Tunis, as some 
have thought. 
FELIX of FONDI (St.) (Nov. 6) 

(6th cent.) A holy Religious of a monastery 
at Fondi in Southern Italy, characterised by 
St. Gregory the Great as a Saint and contem- 
porary of his own (late in the sixth century). 
Nothing more is known about him. 
FELIX of NOLA (St.) Bp., M. (Nov. 15) 

(3rd cent.) A Saint from his youth upward, 
who became Bishop of Nola, near Naples, and 
is by many asserted to have been the first 
occupant of that See. With thirty others, he 
gave his life for Christ about A.D. 287 in the 
beginning of the last great persecution under 
the Prefect Marcianus. 
FELIX of VALOIS (St.) (Nov. 20) 

(13th cent.) St. Felix of the Royal House of 
Valois, born A.D. 1127, after having for some 
time led a most austere life as a hermit in a 
forest near Meaux, became with St. John of 
Matha the Founder of the Trinitarian Order 
(still existing), of which the scope was the 
great work of charity of that age, the freeing 
of the Christian captives held in slavery by the 
Moors of Spain and North Africa. Pope 
Innocent III confirmed the new Institute, 
and St. Felix li\ T ed to see as many as six hundred 
of its houses begun. He died at Cerf-Froid, 
his old hermitage, Nov. 4, A.D. 1212, having 
shortly before been comforted by a vision 
of Our Lady, wearing the Trinitarian habit. 
FELIX (St.) Bp. (Nov. 28) 


FELIX of BOLOGNA (St.) Bp. (Dec. 4) 

(5th cent.) The fifth Bishop of Bologna 

and previously a deacon of the Church of 

Milan under St. Ambrose. He is mentioned 

by Paulinus in his Life of that Saint. St. Felix 

died a.d. 429, and was succeeded by St. Petro- 

nius, afterwards Patron Saint of Bologna. 

FELIX (St.) M. (Dec. 5) 

FELIX of ROME (St.) M. (Dec. 29) 

*FELTON (JOHN) (Bl.) M. (Aug. 8) 


*FEOCK (St.) V. (Feb. 2) 

(Date uncertain.) An otherwise unknown 

Saint, whose name is perpetuated by a church 

Dedication in Cornwall. Possibly she was an 

immigrant from Ireland. Some have it that 

Feock is only a variant of the name of St. 

Fiacca, a Confessor, friend of St. Patrick. 

But this seems hardly likely. Others identify 

St. Feock with St. Vougas of Brittany. 

FERDINAND (St.) King. (May 30) 

(13th cent.) St. Ferdinand III, King of 

Castile and Leon, resembled in many ways 

his first cousin, St. Louis, King of France. 

A brave soldier, he won back from the Moors 

the great cities of Seville and Cordova, and 

gave its deathblow to their rule in Spam. He 



was dilieent and just in his government, and 
above all heedful to do no wrong to the least 
of his subjects. His saying when refusing to 
burden them with an exorbitant war-tax 
characterises him : " God will not fail me, 
and I fear more the curse of one poor old woman 
than the whole army of the Moors." Austere 
in his piety, the time at his disposal he devoted 
to penance and to religious exercises, frequently 
repeating : " Lord, Thou knowest that I desire 
Thy Glory, not my own." The idol of his 
people, he was setting out on a campaign 
when he closed a glorious reign by a holy death, 
passing from this world May 30, A.D. 1252, in 
the fifty-third year of his age, the thirty-fifth 
of his reign in Castile and twenty-second in 
Leon. He was canonised by Clement X, 
A.D. 1671. 

*FEREDARIUS (St.) Abbot, (May 18) 

(9th cent.) An Irish Saint, one of the 
successors of St. Columba at Iona, where he 
became Abbot, A.D. 863. From fear of the 
Danes, the body of St. Columba was in his time 
removed to Ireland and enshrined side by side 
with that of St. Patrick. 

*FERGNA (St.) Bp. (March 2) 

(7th cent.) Surnamed the White, a kinsman 
and disciple of St. Columba. He died Abbot of 
Iona, A.D. 637. 


Bp. (March 30) 

(6th cent.) A Bishop of Downpatrick and 
greatly venerated. But the traditions con- 
cerning him are vague in the extreme, and he 
may possibly be identical with St. Fergus of 
Scotland, and therefore of date much later than 
that given by Irish tradition. 

♦FERGUS (FERGUSTUS) (St.) Bp. (Nov. 18) 

(8th cent.) A Bishop in Scotland who 
signed the Acts of the Roman Council of A.D. 
721, describing himself as a Pict. He is said 
to have been previously a Bishop in Ireland. 
In the Aberdeen Breviary he is called Fergus- 

(3rd cent.) St. Ferreolus (probably a Bishop) 
and St. Ferrutio, a deacon, are said to have 
been brothers, and were natives of Asia Minor. 
They were sent by St. Irenseus of Lyons to 
evangelise the country round Besan^on at the 
same time as he despatched SS. Felix, Fortuna- 
tus and Aquileius on a similar mission to Vienne. 
Their work was crowned with like success, 
and they too came to the same glorious end — 
a cruel death at the hands of the heathen 
persecutors (a.d. 212, about). 

FERREOLUS (St.) M. (Sept. 18) 

(4th cent.) A celebrated Martyr of Vienne 
in Gaul, an officer in the Imperial army, who 
like many of his rank, on being discovered to 
be a Christian, was brought to trial as such 
in the persecution under Diocletian. He was 
scourged and in the end beheaded, A.D. 304, 
many miraculous circumstances attending his 

FERRUTIO (St.) M. (June 16) 


FERRUTIUS (St.) M. (Oct. 28) 

(Date uncertain.) A Roman soldier stationed 
at Mainz in Germany, who demanded his 
discharge from the army rather than take 
part in idolatrous worship. He was arrested 
and committed to prison, where he died of 
hunger and ill-treatment. The date of his 
death is much contested. Some put it as late 
as the fifth century ; but the beginning of the 
fourth seems more likely. In the eighth 
century St. Lullus placed his body in a suitable 

FESTUS (St.) M. (June 24) 

Other-wise St. FAUSTUS, which sec. 

FESTUS (St.) M. (Sept. 19) 


FESTUS (St.) M. (Dec. 21) 


♦FIACE (FIECH) (St.) Bp. (Oct. 12) 

(5th cent.) An Irish Bishop, friend and 
disciple of St. Patrick, author of the still 
extant Hymn in honour of his master. 

♦FIACHAN (FIANCHNE) (St.) (April 29) 

(7th cent.) A native of Munster, monk at 

Lismore and disciple of St. Carthage the 

Younger, remarkable for his great spirit of 

obedience and sublime scift of prayer. 


(Aug. 30) 
(6th cent.) Claimed by both the Scots and 
Irish as their countryman, he crossed to Gaul 
early in the sixth century, and being kindly 
received by St. Faro, Bishop of Meaux, he 
thenceforth lived the life of an anchoret in a 
neighbouring forest. His cell, to approach 
which, however, was strictly forbidden to 
women, soon became a place of pilgrimage, 
and in life as after death, he worked many 
miracles. He is especially noted for his charity 
and helpfulness to the poor. He passed away 
about A.i). 670. As Patron of gardeners, he is 
often represented carrying a shovel. The 
Paris cabs took the name of " fiacres " from 
having been started from a house with a statue 
of this Saint over the door. 

FIBITIUS (St.) (Nov. 5) 

(6th cent.) This Saint of whom no particulars 

are extant, is by some styled Bishop of Treves, 

by others Abbot of a monastery in that city. 

He flourished about A.D. 500. 

FIDELIS (St.) M. (March 23) 

(Date unknown.) By some placed in the 
same group of African Martyrs as St. Felix and 
his twenty fellow-sufferers (March 23) ; but 
more probably of another date and place in 
Africa. Particulars are altogether wanting. 

FIDELIS of SIGMARINGEN (St.) M. (April 24) 
(17th cent.) Mark Rey, born at Sigmaringen 
(South Germany) in a.d. 1577, practising as a 
lawyer, came to be known as the " Advocate 
of the Poor." In A.D. 1612 he embraced the 
Religious life as a Capuchin, and quickly 
advanced in the way of the Saints. The 
newly-founded Roman Congregation of the 
Propaganda (which honours him as its Proto- 
Martyr) sent him as a missionary to the Swiss 
Protestants in the Grisons. His converts were 
numerous ; but in the end he was stabbed to 
death by the fanatics near Gruch (April 24, 
1622). His shrine is at Feldkirch, but his 
head is venerated in the Cathedral of Chur 

FIDELIS of EDESSA (St.) M. (Aug. 21) 


FIDELIS of COMO (St.) M. (Oct. 28) 

(4th cent.) A Christian soldier who suffered 
martyrdom in Lombardy under Maximian 
Herculeus at the beginning of the fourth century. 
St. Peter Damian has composed a Hymn in his 
honour. His body was translated by St. 
Charles Borromeo to Milan ; but some of his 
relics are venerated at Como. 

FIDELMIA (St.) V. (Jan. 11) 


FIDENTIANUS (St.) M. (Nov. 15) 


(Date unknown.) Their relics were dis- 
covered in the twelfth century and are hon- 
oured at Todi in Central Italy ; but nothing 
is really known concerning them. The legend 
extant is quite untrustworthy. 

FIDENTIUS (St.) Bp. (Nov. 16) 

(2nd cent.) Some make him a simple 
Confessor ; others a Martyr ; others with 
Baronius a Bishop. Beyond his name the 
records of Padua (to which place he is assigned 
by tradition) give no information concerning 
him. Most references point to his having lived 
in the second century of our era. 

♦FIDHARLEUS (St.) Abbot. (Oct. 1) 

(8th cent.) An Irish Saint, the second 
founder of Rathin Abbey. He died A.D. 762. 




♦FIDLEMINUS (St.) Bp. (Aug. 9) 

Othenvise St. PHELIM, which see. 
FIDES (St.) V.M. (Aug. 1) 

Otherwise St. FAITH, which see. 

FIDOLUS (FAL, PHAL). (May 16) 

(6th cent.) The son of a ltotnan official in 

Auvergne (France). Taken prisoner by the 

soldiers of Clovis and sold into slavery, he was 

ransomed by St. Aventinus, an Abbot near 

Troyes, whom eventually he succeeded in the 

government of his monks. He died some time 

about the middle of the sixth century after 

many years of saintly life. 

*FIECH (St.) Bp. (Oct. 12) 

(6th cent.) An Irish Bard baptised by 

St. Patrick and appointed by him Abbot of a 

monastery and Bishop in Leinster. St. Fiech 

is believed to have survived till after a.d. 


*FILLAN (St.). (Jan. 9) 

Otherwise St. FCELAN, which see. 
*FINA (SERAPHINA) (St.) V. (March 12) 

(13th cent.) A Tuscan Saint who died 
a.d. 1253, and is venerated at San Geminiano. 
*FINAN (St.; Bp. (Feb. 17) 

(7th cent.) An Irish monk of Iona, who 
succeeded St. Aidan in the government of the 
Northumbrian Church. He converted Kings 
Peada of Mercia and Sigebert of Essex to 
Christianity, and attended by St. Cedd and 
other worthy fellow-missionaries, evangelised 
far south in England. He died A.D. 661. 
*FINBAR (St.) Abbot. (July 4) 

(6th cent.) An Irish Saint, Abbot of Innis- 
Doimhle (Wexford). Butler describes him as 
an Abbot in the Isle of Crimlen. 
*FINBARR (St.) Bp. (Sept. 25) 

Otherwise St. BARB, which see. 
*FINDBARR (St.) Bp. (Sept. 10) 

Othenvise St. FINNIAN, which see. 
(SS.) MM. (Dec. 14) 

(5th cent.) SS. Fingar and Piala, brother 
and sister, according to tradition, children of 
an Irish king, crossed over to Cornwall, but 
there were put to death at Hayle near Penzance 
by a Pagan chief in hatred of the Faith. Their 
companions and attendants shared their crown. 
*FINIAN (FINDBARR, WINNIN) (St.) (Sept. 10) 

(6th cent.) An Irish Saint who, after a 
sojourn in St. Ninian's monastery in Strath 
Clyde, returned to his own country and became 
Bishop and Abbot of Maghbile. He is reckoned 
one of the Patron Saints of the Province of 
*FINIAN (FINTAN, MUNNIN) (St.) (Oct. 22) 


(7th cent.) A disciple of St. Columba at 

Iona who on that Saint's death returned to 

Ireland and founded a monastery at Teach- 

Munu in Leinster. He died a.d. 634. 


(St.) Abbot. 

(7th cent.) A Saint of the School of St. 
Columba. He is said to have governed as 
Abbot the monastery of Swords ; but it is vain 
to attempt to disentangle the traditions con- 
cerning him. From the circumstance of his 
having suffered from some sort of skin disease 
he acquired his surname, " The Leper." 
*FINLUGH (FINLAG) (St.) Abbot, (Jan. 3) 

(6th cent.) A brother of St. Fintan, who 
crossed to Scotland, where it is thought he 
became one of St. Columba's disciples. Return- 
ing to Ireland, he was made Abbot of a mona- 
stery established by St. Columba in County 
*FINNIAN (St.) Abbot. (April 7) 

(6th cent.) Born in Munster, as a child, 
St. Finnian was gifted with prophecy and 
wonderful miraculous powers. He became a 
disciple of St. Brendan, and at his wish founded 
and governed a monastery at Kinnithy, of 
which place he is Patron. 


*FINNIAN (St.) Bp. (Dec. 12) 

(6th cent.) An austere Cenobite of Irish 
birth who, trained in the School of Menevia in 
Wales, became master of the Irish School of 
Clonard, where St. Columba was numbered 
among his three thousand disciples, and where 
he earned the title of " Master of the Irish 
Saints." He is recognised as the Patron Saint 
of the Diocese of Meath, of which he was 
FINNIAN of LUCCA (St.) Bp. (March 18) 

Otherwise St. FRIGIDIAN, which see. 
*FINTAN (St.) Abbot. (Jan. 3) 

(6th cent.) Doone (Limerick), which honours 
St. Fintan as its Patron, was the scene of most 
of this great Saint's labours and miracles. 
His holy well is still venerated there. He was 
a disciple of St. Comgall at Ben-Chor, and in his 
later life appears to have founded one or more 
FINTAN (St.) Abbot. (Feb. 17) 

(6th cent.) A sixth century Leinster Saint, 
founder of the monastery of Cluainedhech 
(Clonenagh) in Queen's County, famous for the 
gifts of prophecy and miracles, and for the 
strict discipline in which he brought up his 
disciples, among whom is said to have been 
St. Comgall of Ben-Chor. 
*FINTAN (MUNNU) (St.) Abbot. (Oct. 22) 

Otherwise St. FINIAN MUNNU, which see. 
*FINTAN (St.) (Nov. 15) 

(9th cent.) An Irish Saint and missionary 
in Switzerland and Germany, famous for his 
sublime prayer and spirit of penance. He 
passed the last years of his life as a Recluse 
in an island in the River Rhine, and is still in 
great local veneration. He is said to have 
passed away A.D. 827. 
*FIONNCHU (St.) Abbot. (Nov. 28) 

(6th cent.) The successor of St. Comgall in 
the Abbey of Ben-Chor, remarkable for his 
extraordinary spirit of penance. 
FIRMATUS (St.) M. (Oct. 5) 


(Date unknown.) St. Firmatus. a deacon, 
and St. Flaviana, a virgin, are venerated on 
Oct. 5 at Auxerre in France ; but nothing 
whatever is known of them, and they may even 
be two of the companions of St. Placidus, 
Martyr, honoured on the same day, and some 
of whose relics appear to have been brought to 
FIRMINA (St.) V.M. (Nov. 24) 

(4th cent.) A Christian maiden tortured to 

death at Amelia (Amerise) in Umbria (Italy) 

during the great persecution under Diocletian 

(A.D. 303 about). 

FIRMINUS (St.) Abbot. (March 11) 

(Date unknown.) The two Saints of this 
name venerated at Amiens in the North of 
France, to which place Baronius attributes 
the memory of this holy Abbot, were both 
Bishops honoured respectively on Sept. 1 and 
Sept. 25. There are traces however of an 
Italian St. Firminus, Abbot in the Marches of 
Ancona in the eleventh century. 
FIRMINUS of ARMENIA (St.) M. (June 24) 

FIRMINUS of METZ (St.) Bp. (Aug. 18) 

(5th cent.) The statements given in the 
usual authorities about this St. Firminus are 
very contradictory. He seems to have been 
the twentieth Bishop of Metz (probably an 
Italian, though some say a Greek), and to have 
zealously governed his Diocese for about eight 
vears, dying in concept of high sanctity, A.D. 
FIRMINUS of AMIENS (St.) Bp., M. (Sept. 25) 

(3rd cent.) Described as a native of Navarre, 
baptised by St. Saturninus, Bishop of Toulouse, 
and consecrated Bishop in the same city. He 
preached the Faith on his journey northwards 
through Gaul, finally fixing his abode at Amiens, 
where he was martyred towards the end of the 



third century, under Rictius Varus, Prefect of 
the Gauls. He was succeeded by one of his 
disciples, St. Eulogius, and the latter by a 
second St. Firminus, likewise held in great 
veneration in the district. 

FIRMINUS of UZES (St.) Bp. (Oct. 11) 

(6th cent.) Born at Narbonne in the South 
of France and educated by his uncle the Bishop 
of Uzes, he succeeded the latter at the early 
age of twenty-two. His great virtues, as was 
said, supplied for his want of years. He 
assisted at several Synods and occupied a 
prominent place among the distinguished 
prelates of his time, until his early death at 
the age of thirty-seven (a.d. 553). 

FIRMUS of ROME (St.) M. (Feb. 2) 


FIRMUS (St.) M. (March 11) 


FIRMUS (St.) M. (June 1) 

(3rd cent.) An Eastern Christian who 

suffered in the persecution of Maximian, having 

been scourged, stoned and beheaded towards 

the close of the third century. 

FIRMUS (St.) M. (June 24) 


FIRMUS of TAGASTE (St.) Bp. (July 31) 

(Date uncertain.) Of him St. Augustine 
writes that he was Firm by name but Firmer 
yet by Faith. Put to the torture (probably in 
the third century) he endured the most fright- 
ful agonies of pain rather than betray the 
hiding-place of a fellow- Christian. Baronius in 
the sixteenth century inserted his name in the 
Roman Martyrology. 

FIRMUS and RUSTICUS (SS.) MM. (Aug. 9) 

(3rd cent.) Two relatives, prominent citizens 
of Bergamo in Lombardy, who were scourged 
and beheaded for the Christian Faith under the 
Emperor Maximinian at Verona at the end 
of the third century. Their relics at one time 
transported to Africa, were brought back later 
to Italy, part being now at Bergamo, part at 

♦FISHER (JOHN) Bp., M. (June 22) 


*FLANNAN (St.) Bp. (Dec. 18) 

(7th cent.) First Bishop and Patron of the 
Diocese of Killaloe. An Irish monk, graced 
with the gift of working miracles, consecrated 
Bishop by Pope John IV. Besides missionary 
work in the Hebrides and elsewhere and the 
care of his Diocese, he was so given to prayer 
that he succeeded in reciting daily the entire 


THEODORA (SS.) VV.MM. (May 7) 

(First cent.) Flavia Domitilla, a great niece 
of the Emperors Domitian and Titus, and also 
of the famous Christian Senator Flavius Cle- 
mens, was baptised by Pope St. Clement. For 
refusing to marry a Pagan, Domitian banished 
her to the Island of Pontia (Ponza), where she 
succeeded in converting her foster sisters, 
Theodora and Euphrosyna. All three were 
burned to death at Terracina in the reign of 
Trajan (a.d. 98-a.d. 117). Their relics were 
brought to Rome and enshrined in the Basilica, 
built in honour of St. Domitilla's martyred 
servants, Nereus and Achilleus. 
FLAVIA (St.) V.M. (Oct. 5) 

See SS. PLAC1DUS, &c. 
FLAVIAN (St.) M. (Jan. 28) 

(4th cent.) A Prefect (or perhaps Deputy- 
Prefect) of Rome under the Emperor Dio- 
cletian. He was converted to Christianity by 
beholding a miraculous apparition of Angels 
hovering over the heads of the Martyr St. 
Secunda (Jan. 29). All of his household soon 
followed his example, and all suffered death 
together for their Faith, at Civita Vecchia, 
about a.d. 300. 
Bp. M. 
(5th cent.) The brave Prelate who suc- 


ceeded St. Proclus at Constantinople. In 
a.d. 447 he enraged Chrysaphius, favourite of 
the Emperor Theodosius, by refusing him the 
customary bribe on his accession to the See, 
and much more by strenuously denouncing the 
heresy of Eutyches, the favourite's kinsman. 
St. Flavian was by the intrigues and violence 
of the followers of the latter maltreated and 
banished at the false Council of Ephesus 
(A.D. 449), dying a short time later of the 
ill-usage he had received. The Emperor 
Martian with the Empress St. Pulcheria caused 
his relics to be brought back solemnly to 
Constantinople, and the Fathers of Chalcedon 
formally proclaimed his sanctitv (a.d. 451). 
FLAVIAN (St.) M. (Feb. 24) 

FLAVIAN and ELIAS (SS.) Bps. (July 4) 

(6th cent.) St. Flavian, Patriarch of An- 
tioch, and St. Elias, Patriarch of Jerusalem, 
were exiled by the Emperor Anastasius (a.d. 
491 to A.d. 518) for strenuously upholding the 
Decrees of the Council of Chalcedon, affirming 
the existence of the Two Natures in Jesus 
Christ, that is, the Nature of God and the 
Nature of Man. St. Flavian died at Petra in 
Arabia (a.d. 512), and St. Elias at Aila on the 
shores of the Red Sea (a.d. 513). 

(St.) Bp. (Aug. 23) 

(7th cent.) The authors of the Gallia 
Christiana place him twenty-first in the number 
of Bishops who ruled over the illustrious See 
of Autun in France. He lived, it is generally 
believed, in the first half of the seventh century. 
FLAVIAN (St.) M. (Dec. 22) 

(4th cent.) Alleged to have been an Ex- 
Prefect of Rome, branded as a slave on account 
of his being a Christian, by order of Julian the 
Apostate, and banished to an obscure village 
in Tuscany, where he died while engaged in 
prayer, a.d. 362. St. Flavian is mentioned in 
some versions of the Acts of St. Bibiana, on 
which, however, little reliance can be placed. 
FLAVIANA of AUXERRE (St.) V.M. (Oct. 5) 


(SS.) MM. (May 7) 

(4th cent.) St. Flavius, a Bishop of Nico- 
media, suffered martyrdom there with his two 
brothers, Augustine and Augustus, under the 
tyrant Diocletian, early in the fourth century ; 
but in what precise year is unknown. 
FLAVIUS CLEMENS (St.) M. (June 22) 

(1st century.) He was a brother of the 
Emperor Vespasian and uncle of Titus and 
Domitian, whose niece Flavia Domitilla the 
Elder he married. In the year 95 he held the 
consular dignity. Domitian had him arrested 
and condemned him to be beheaded on the 
charge and crime of being a follower of Chris- 
tianity (A.D. 96). 
FLAVIUS of AUTON (St.) Bp. (Aug. 23) 

Otherwise St. FLAVIAN, which see. 
FLOCELLUS (St.) M. (Sept. 17) 

(2nd cent.) A youth put to death as a Chris- 
tian at Autun (France) some time in the reign 
of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius (a.d. 161- 
a.d. 180). After having been put to the 
torture, he was flung half-dead to the wild 
beasts in the Amphitheatre. 
*FLORA (St.) V. (Jan. 29) 

Otherwise St. BLATH, which see. 
FLORA (St.) V.M. (July 29) 

FLORA and MARIA (SS.) VV.MM. (Nov. 24) 

(9th cent.) Two Christian maidens who 
suffered at Cordova in Spain in the persecution 
under the Moorish Caliphs. A long imprison- 
ment preceded their execution, a.d. 856. 
FLORENCE (St.) V. (June 20) 

Otherwise St. FLORENTINA, which see. 
FLORENCE and FELIX (SS.) MM. (July 25) 

(3rd cent.) Two soldiers of the Roman 
Imperial army put to death as Christians under 




the Emperor Maximinian the Thracian (A.D. 
235) at Furcona, an ancient town near Aquila 
in Southern Italy. They appear to have 
belonged to the troop or regiment of which the 
martyrdom of eighty-three Christians is com- 
memorated on July 24 ; but why these two are 
registered separately is not known. 

FLORENCE (St.) (Sept, 22) 

(5th cent.) A priest who lived in Poitou 
(France) in the fifth century, or perhaps much 
later. History is silent concerning him. 
Legend leads him to Lyons, thence to Tours, 
and on to the Glonna Mountain in Aquitaine, 
where he built a monastery and died at the age 
(it is said) of one hundred and twenty-three 

FLORENCE (St.) M. (Oct. 10) 


FLORENCE (St.) M. (Oct. 13) 

(4th cent.) A Martyr at Thessalonica, where, 

after enduring terrible tortures, he died at the 

stake, under the Emperor Maximin Daza 

(A.D. 312). 

FLORENCE of ORANGE (St.) Bp. (Oct. 17) 

(6th cent.) The eighth Bishop of Orange, 
a town in Southern France, famous for the 
Ecclesiastical Councils held there in early 
times. Coming between SS. Verus and Vin- 
demialis, he died about A.D. 526, illustrious for 
his manifold graces and miracles. 

FLORENCE (St.) M. (Oct. 27) 

(3rd cent.) All that is known of this Martyr 

is that he died for our Holy Faith in the third 

century, at a place now called Trois-Chateaux 

in Burgundy. 

FLORENCE of STRASSBURG (St.) Bp. (Nov. 7) 
(7th cent.) An Irishman by birth, he left 
his country for Alsace and settled in the wilds 
of Haselac, where he built a monastery. On 
his being made Bishop of Strassburg, he founded 
another (St. Thomas's), chiefly for his own 
countrymen. After an Episcopate of eight 
years, he passed away A.D. 687, and was buried 
in his monastery church of St. Thomas. 

FLORENCE (St.) M. (Nov. 10) 


FLORENTIAN (St.) Bp. (Nov. 28) 


(7th cent.) The scion of an illustrious, 
possibly Gothic, family, and the only sister of 
the holy Bishops, Leander, Fulgentius and 
Isidore of Seville. St. Florence was born at 
Carthagena in Spain, and losing her parents at 
an early age was placed under the guardianship 
of St. Leander. She retired into a convent, 
for which, on her being elected Abbess, St. 
Leander wrote a Rule. She probably out- 
lived her brothers, the last of whom, St. 
Isidore, died A.D. 636. 

FLORENTINUS and HILARY (SS.) MM. (Sept. 27) 
(Date uncertain.) The learned are not agreed 
as to who these Saints were. Semont, near 
Autun in France, seems the more likely con- 
jecture as to their place of martyrdom, rather 
than Sion in the Valais. Some date it A.D. 406, 
at the time of the Vandal invasion of Gaul ; 
others A.D. 265 in the raid of the Alamanni 
under Chrocus. There is a consent that their 
tongues were torn out previous to their being 


(St.) Bp. (Oct. 16) 

(4th cent.) The successor of St. Severinus 
in the See of Treves early in the fourth century. 
By some he is said to have been put to death 
for the Faith. But there is much controversy 
both as to him and as to his reputed predecessor 
St. Severinus. 

FLORENTIUS of VIENNE (St.) Bp., M. (Jan. 3) 
(3rd cent.) An early Bishop of Vienne in 
Gaul, eminent for holiness of life and for 
learning. He was banished, and later put to 
death on account of his being a Christian, 
about A.D. 253. 

FLORENTIUS (St.) (Feb. 23) 

(5th cent.) A Saint much venerated in Seville 

and its neighbourhood. Some have described 

him as a Martyr, which however is unlikely. 

He died A.D. 485. 

FLORENTIUS of OSIMO (St.) M. (May 11) 

FLORENTIUS of NURSIA (St.) (May 23) 

LINUS and FAUSTINUS (SS.) MM. (June 5) 
(3rd cent.) Sufferers under Decius, beheaded 
at Perugia in Central Italv, A.D. 250. 
FLORENTIUS of CARTHAGE (St.) M. (June 15) 

♦FLORENTIUS (FLANN) (St.) Abbot. (Dec. 15) 
(7th cent.) An Abbot of Ben-Chor in Ireland, 
distinguished by his zeal and piety. 
FLORIAN (St.) M. (May 4) 

(4th cent.) A Christian who held an im- 
portant position (Princeps officiorum) in 
Noricum, and for refusing to sacrifice to the 
gods was drowned in the River Anisus (Enns), 
near Lorch in Austria, during the persecution 
under Diocletian, in the first years of the 
fourth century. 
FLORIAN, CALAOICUS, &c. (SS.) MM. (Dec. 17) 
(7th cent.) Sixty Christians slain by the 
Mahometan invaders for the Faith of Christ 
at Eleutheropolis (Beit Jibrin) in Palestine. 
Heraclius being Emperor of the East, Jerusalem 
was taken by the followers of Mahomet, A.D. 
637 ; and it was about that time that St. 
Florian and his fellow-sufferers perished. 
FLORIUS of NICOMEDIA (St.) M. (Oct. 26) 

(SS.) MM. (Aug. 18) 

(Date uncertain.) Proculus or Prochus and 
Maximus, two Christian sculptors in Illyria or 
in some other Eastern European Province, 
employed the twin brothers Florus and Laurus, 
likewise Christians, as stone-cutters. All four 
were put to death (drowned in a well) for the 
Faith ; but the date of their Passion is dis- 
puted, most authors assigning it to the second 
century, but others to as late as the fourth. 
*FLORUS of LODEVE (St.) Bp. (Nov. 3) 

Otherwise St. FLOUR, which see. 
FLORUS (St.) M. (Dec. 22) 

FLOS (St.) M. (Dec. 31) 


FLOSCULUS (St.) Bp. (Feb. 2) 

(5th cent.) The thirteenth Bishop of Orleans 

in France. A letter written to him by Sidonius 

Apollinaris would seem to show that he was 

living in A.D. 480 ; but other dates are lost, 

and nothing beyond the fact of the cultus 

rendered to him is known. 

*FLOUR (FLORUS) (St.) Bp. (Nov. 3) 

(4th cent.) First Bishop of Lodeve in 

Languedoc. He has given his name to a 

Bishopric founded in the town where his relics 

are enshrined. He died A.D. 389. 

*FCELAN (FOILAN, FILLAN) (St.) (Jan. 9) 

(8th cent.) Born in Ireland, St. Foilan 

accompanied his mother, St. Kentigerna, and 

his kinsman, St. Comgan, to Scotland, where 

he embraced the monastic life and laboured 

as a missionary to extreme old age. The 

locality where he gave up his holy soul to God 

came to be called Strathfillan, after him. 

*FOILA (FAILE) (St.) V. (March 3) 

(6th cent.) Said to have been the sister of 

St. Colgan. They are Patrons of the parishes 

of Kil-Faile (Kileely) and Kil-Colgan, in the 

County of Galway. Kilfaile has been a noted 

place of pilgrimage. The Acts of St. Foila 

(otherwise Follenna or Fallena) are lost. 

*FOILAN (St.) Bp., M. (Oct. 31) 

(7th cent.) An Irish Saint, brother of SS. 

Fursev and Alban, who after governing in 

England for some years the Monastery of 

Burghcastle, was consecrated Bishop by Pope 



St. Martin I and sent as a missionary to the 
countries now called Holland and Belgium, 
where he eventually won a Martyr's crown, 
ahout A.D. 656. 
♦FORANNAN (St.) Bp. (April 30) 

(10th cent.) An Irish Saint who, after 
spending many years in the practice of great 
virtue, as is said, ruled for some time the 
Diocese of Armagh. Later, St. Forannan, 
with some companions, migrated to Wasor in 
Belgium, and there became Abbot of a mona- 
stery which received many privileges from the 
Holy See. 
*FORDE (THOMAS) (Bl.) M. (May 28) 

♦FOREST (JOHN) (Bl.) M. (May 22) 


*FORT (St.) Bp., M. (May 16) 

(Possibly 1st cent.) The first Bishop of 

Bordeaux, who according to tradition suffered 

martyrdom for the Faith, together with other 

Christians, among whom several children. 

♦FORTCHERN (St.) (Feb. 14) 

(5th cent.) One of the early converts made 

by St. Patrick in Ireland, the son of a chieftain 

of Trim. He devoted himself to the service 

of the Apostle and is said from feelings of 

humility to have refused to be consecrated 

Bishop. His story is mixed up with that of 

St. Loman, and modern critics are inclined 

to post-date the two Saints to a later century. 

FORTESCUE (ADRIAN) (Bl.) M. (July 10) 


FORTUNATA (St.) V.M. (Oct. 14) 

(4th cent.) A Christian maiden who bravely 

endured torture and death at Caesarea in 

Palestine (A.D- 303) in the persecution under 

Diocletian. Her relics are venerated at Naples, 

whither they were translated in the eighth 

century. Her three brothers, SS. Evaristus, 

Carponius and Priscian, suffered with her. 

FORTUNATUS of SMYRNA (St.) M. (Jan. 9) 


CANDIDUS (SS.) MM. (Feb. 2) 

(Date unknown.) Roman Martyrs of un- 
certain date with whom it is alleged many 
other Christians suffered. 
FORTUNATUS (St.) M. (Feb. 21) 


MM. (Feb. 26) 

(Date unknown.) SS. Fortunatus and Felix 
are the chief among twenty-nine Martyrs com- 
memorated on Feb. 26 ; but date and place 
are alike unknown. 
FORTUNATUS (St.) M. (Feb. 27) 

FORTUNATUS (St.) M. (March 3) 

FORTUNATUS and MARCIAN (SS.) (April 17) 

(Date unknown.) Martyrs of uncertain date 
and place, perhaps of Antioch in Syria, but more 
likelv of some town in Africa. 

FORTUNATUS of VALENCE (St.) M. (April 23) 


FORTUNATUS (St.) (June 1) 

(4th cent.) A saintly Parish Priest in charge 

of a church not far from Spoleto (Central Italy), 

who became conspicuous especially for his 

charity to the poor, and on whom God bestowed 

the gift of miracle-working during his life, 

as well as after his holy death (A. p. 400, 


FORTUNATUS of AQUILEIA (St.) M. (June 11) 


FORTUNATUS and LUCIAN (SS.) MM. (June 13) 

(Date unknown.) African Martyrs whose 

Acts have long since been lost. Most of the 

Martyrologies register six or more other names 

of Christians, fellow-sufferers with them. 


(St.) (June 18) 

(6th cent.) An Italian Bishop driven from 
his See in North Italy by the Lombards. He 
settled in France at Chelles, near Paris. He 
was much esteemed both for his holiness and 
for his learning by St. Germanus of Paris. 
St. Fortunatus died about A.D. 569. He was 
one of the most accomplished prelates of his 
age ; but must not be confused with the better- 
known St. Venantius Fortunatus, his contem- 
porary in France. 

FORTUNATUS of AQUILEIA (St.) M. (July 12) 

(SS.) MM. 

(4th cent.) Martyred near Salerno in the 
South of Italy under Diocletian (a.d. 303). 
Their relics were enshrined in the city of 
Saleryo, a.d. 940, since which time they have 
been in much popular veneration. 

FORTUNATUS of TODI (St.) Bp. (Oct. 14) 

(6th cent.) A holy man whose sanctity is 
extolled by St. Gregory the Great, and whom 
he describes as having had great power for the 
casting out of devils. He governed the Diocese 
of Todi in Central Italy for nine years, dying 
a.d. 537. The times were troublous, and only 
through him was Todi saved from being sacked 
by the hordes of Totila the Goth. 

FORTUNATUS (St.) M. (Oct 15) 

(Date unknown.) A Roman Martyr of, un- 
certain date and place. 

FORTUNATUS (St.) M. (Oct. 24) 


♦FORTUNATUS (VENANTIUS) (St.) Bp. (Nov. 14) 

FORTUNATUS (St.) M. (Dec. 15) 


(4th cent.) Forty Christian soldiers put to 
death by the Emperor Licinius at Sebaste in 
Armenia, a.d. 320, at the close of the great 
persecution. They were exposed naked on the 
ice of a frozen lake, a warm bath being placed 
on the bank as a temptation to apostatise. 
One fell, but his place was taken by one of the 
guards, converted to Christianity by witnessing 
the courage of the rest. On the morrow all 
were dead, save the youngest among them. 
His brave mother carried her child after the 
corpses of the rest until he too expired in her 
arms, and then laid his body by their side. 

FOSTER (St.) Bp. (Feb. 6) 

The old English form of the name VEDASTUS 


(4th cent.) Four Christians (whose names at 
first unknown, were later discovered to be 
Severus, Severianus, Carpophorus and Vic- 
torinus), scourged to death in Rome under 
Diocletian (a.d. 303). With their relics were 
enshrined those of five other Martyrs who 
appear to have suffered in the same persecution, 
probably in Pannonia (Hungary). These, 
Claudius, Nicostratus, Castor and Simplician, 
by name, were sculptors, or perhaps metal- 
workers. They had laid down their lives 
rather than work at the making of idols intended 
to be placed in a Pagan temple. 

•FRAGAN and GWEN (BLANCHE) (SS.) (July 5) 
(5th cent.) Refugees from Britain in the 
troubles consequent upon the departure of the 
Romans and parents of SS. Wenwaloe, Jacut 
and Guithern. Churches in Brittany are 
dedicated to each of them. 

FRANCES (FRANCISCA) (St.) Widow. (March 9) 
(15th cent.) The Foundress of the Oblates 
of Tor dei Specchi in Rome. St. Frances was 
born A.D. 1384, and married Lorenzo Ponziani, 
A.d. 1396. Favoured by God with a high gift 
of absorbing prayer, she nevertheless acted on 
her own axiom : "A wife is bound to leave her 
devotions at the Altar and to find God in 
her household work." A model to the Roman 




matrons of her time, she did much to correct 
their luxurious and idle manner of life. She 
faithfully stood by her husband in bis troubles 
and exile ; but after his death (a.d. 1436), 
joined as a humble member of the community, 
the Institute of the Oblates, which she herself 
had founded. The remaining four years of 
her life she passed among the Sisters in severe 
penance and fervent exercises of piety. She 
was favoured with continual visions of Angels, 
and only intermitted her prayer to work for the 
poor of Rome. Veneration of her became 
general from the date of her death (March 9, 
a.d. 1440), but she was not formally canonised 
till A.D. 1608. Her shrine in the Olivetan 
Church of St. Maria Novella is one of the most 
frequented in Rome. 

FRANCIS of SALES (St.) Bp., (Jan. 29) 

Doctor of the Church. 
(17th cent.) A Saint who, in the words of 
St. Paul, made himself " all things to all men," 
and whose characteristic virtues were unflagging 
zeal tempered by unconquerable gentleness. 
He is best studied in his own writings, especially 
in his " Introduction to a Devout Life," and in 
his " Treatise on the Love of God." Born 
a.d. 1546 of noble parents near Annecy in 
Savoy, he studied at Paris and at Padua, and 
having entered the Ecclesiastical state, was 
made coadjutor to the Bishop of Geneva. 
In Savoy he distinguished himself by his 
wonderful Apostolate of the Calvinists of the 
Chablais, in which district he made within 
two years over eight thousand converts. On 
the death of the Bishop he succeeded to the 
See of Geneva, and was consecrated A.d. 1602 ; 
but repeatedly refused a Cardinalate. He 
preached constantly in his own Diocese and 
elsewhere, and always with great gain of souls 
to God. Together with St. Jane Frances he 
founded the Order of the Visitation. Having 
put his Diocese thoroughly in order, he, at the 
request of the Duke of Savoy (a.d. 1612), 
repaired to the Court of Louis XIII of France, 
intent on bringing about a good understanding 
between the Sovereigns, and on Dec. 28 of the 
same year calmly expired at Lyons. His 
remains were taken to Annecy and laid in the 
Church of the Visitation. He was canonised 
A.D. 1665, and declared Doctor of the Church 
nearly two hundred years later by Pope Pius IX. 

*FRANCIS CLET (Bl.) M. (Feb. 17) 

(19th cent.) A French missionary priest of 
the Congregation of the Mission (Vincentians 
or Lazarists), who after thirty years of labouring 
in China, was cruelly put to death when quite 
an old man by the Pagan Chinese, a.d. 1820. 

FRANCIS of PAULA (St.) (April 2) 

(16th cent.) St. Francis, born in Calabria of 
poor parents (a.d. 1416), retired at the age of 
fourteen to a solitary cave on the seashore, 
and was joined by two other pious youths. 
Seventeen years later his followers had become 
so numerous that it was found necessary to 
build for them a large church and convent. 
They fasted all the year round, and led a life 
of continual prayer. In its beginnings the 
Rule (approved A.D. 1474) allowed for only 
one priest in each convent. The Brethren 
styled themselves " Minims " (Least), looking 
upon theirs as the lowest of Religious Orders. 
It quickly developed, spreading over Italy and 
France. To the latter country St. Francis 
himself was sent at the request of King Louis 
XI, at whose penitent deathbed he assisted. 
Kings Charles VIII and Louis XII insisted on 
the Saint's remaining near them, and he died 
in France (a.d. 1508), at the age of ninety-two. 
He was canonised eleven years later. His 
relics were destroyed by the Huguenots later 
in the same century. 

FRANCIS of JEROME (St.) (May 11) 

(18th cent.) Born near Taranto in Southern 

Italy, A.D. 1642, he led from childhood a 

blameless and useful life. Ordained priest 


a.d. 1666, he entered the Society of Jesus. 
He was one of the most eloquent preachers of 
his time, and by word and example converted 
innumerable sinners. The City of Naples was 
the chief scene of his labours for God. He had 
a great devotion to St. Cyrus the Martyr, with 
whose relics he performed many miracles. 
He died on the day he had predicted, A.D. 1716. 
His relics are in the Jesuit church at Naples. 
He was canonised A.D. 1839. 

(17th cent.) St. Francis (Ascanius) of the 
illustrious Caracciolo family, was born near 
Naples A.D. 1563. When at the age of twenty- 
two thought to be dying of a terrible skin- 
disease, he vowed, should he recover, to devote 
his life to God and his neighbour, in the Ecclesi- 
astical state. Ordained priest, he set about 
his work in company with two other devout 
clerics. After an unsuccessful attempt to begin 
it in Spain, he founded his Order (that of the 
Lesser Regular Clerks) in Italy, where, favoured 
by the Holy See, it speedily prospered. St. 
Francis's own life was one of uninterrupted 
prayer and penance. He died while engaged 
in Mission work in a town of the Abruzzi, A.D. 
1608, whence his body was brought back to 
Naples, where it is now venerated. He was 
canonised two hundred years later by Pope 
Pius VII. St. Francis is represented holding 
in his hand a Monstrance, the Perpetual Adora- 
tion of the Blessed Sacrament being a special 
devotion in his Institute. 

(Bl.) MM. 

(17th cent.) Jesuit Martyrs at Nangagski 

in Japan, among whom were six native cate- 

chists. Five other Japanese Christians (one 

of them a child) suffered with them, A.D. 1626. 

FRANCIS SOLANO (St.) (July 24) 

(17th cent.) Born in Andalusia in Spain, 
A.D. 1549, and professed (a.d. 1569) in the 
Order of St. Francis, this holy friar practised 
assiduously every virtue, and by his zealous 
preaching converted many from a life of sin. 
A pestilence having broken out at Granada, 
he braved all dangers and gave overwhelming 
proof of the unbounded charity which animated 
him. In the year 1589 he was sent to Peru. 
There and elsewhere in South America he 
worked assiduously during the last twenty 
years of his life, dying at Lima, a.d. 1610. 
He had the spirit of prophecy and wrought 
many miracles. He was canonised A.D. 1726, 
and is much venerated in both North and 
South America. 
FRANCIS of ASSISI (St.) (Oct. 4) 

(13th cent.) St. Francis, Founder of the 
great Order of Friars Minor, styled " the poor 
man of Assisi," was born in that town (Central 
Italy) a.d. 1182. In consequence of his 
lavishing his substance on the starving poor 
of the neighbourhood, his father, a rich mer- 
chant, insisted on his renouncing all right to 
his inheritance. This with great joy of spirit 
he solemnly and publicly did, in presence of 
the Bishop of Assisi. Thenceforth he gave 
himself up utterly to the service of the poor, 
living a life poorer even than theirs. Disciples 
flocked to him at his little chapel called the 
Portiuncula, so that when the new Order 
celebrated its General Chapter in A.D. 1219, 
five thousand Friars attended it. The practice 
of poverty was the great characteristic of the 
Begging Friars, for not only individually, but 
collectively, they refused to own anything at 
all. Their Rule was approved by Pope Inno- 
cent III. and again by his successor, Honorius 
III. The Saint himself to the day of his death 
went about doing good, journeying even into 
Palestine and Egypt. It was in the year 1224, 
on the desolate Mount Alvernia, that St. Francis 
received the Stigmata, or Impression on his 
flesh of Our Lord's Five Sacred Wounds, in 
memory of which event the Church has instituted 



a special festival. St. Francis died at Assisi 
a.d. 1226, and was canonised two years later. 
His relics were officially examined and re- 
enshrined in the nineteenth century. The 
famous annual Portiuncula Indulgence and the 
widespread Third Order of St. Francis are 
proofs of the enthusiastic following the " poor 
man of Assisi " has to this day among both 
clergy and laity. 

FRANCIS BORGIA (St.) (Oct. 10) 

(16th cent.) Born A.d. 1510, a son of the 
Duke of Gandia and a Grandee of Spain, at the 
age of eighteen, he was placed at the Court of 
the Emperor Charles V ; and soon after married 
the virtuous Eleonora de Castro, by whom he 
had five children. In A.D. 1539, his having 
to escort the disfigured corpse of the Empress 
Isabel to its last resting-place so impressed him 
that he vowed to become a Religions, and four 
years later resigned his Vice-Royalty of Cata- 
lonia to enter the Society of Jesus (a.d. 1551). 
After years given to study and prayer, chiefly 
spent in Rome, he steadily refused the 
Cardinalate pressed upon him by the Pope 
and by the Emperor, devoting himself to 
preaching. He was made the third General 
of his Order, which he did much to consolidate 
and propagate. He died at Ferrara, while 
travelling on an Embassy from Pope St. Pius V 
to the Kings of France and Spain (a.d. 1572) ; 
and his remains were enshrined at Madrid. 
He was canonised a.d. 1671. 

FRANCIS XAVIER (St.) (Dec. 3) 

(16th cent.) St. Francis Xavier, born a.d. 
1506 at Pamplona in Navarre, studied with 
distinction at Paris, where he met St. Ignatius, 
and joining him was one of those who with the 
holy Founder of the Society of Jesus offered 
their lives to God at Montmartre (a.d. 1534). 
In obedience to his Superior he undertook the 
Apostolate of the Indies, landing at Goa, 
a.d. 1542. His first work was the bringing 
back to the leading of a Christian life of the 
European population of that city. Thence- 
forward, he gave himself up to the heathen. 
He journeyed through India, reaching Malacca, 
preaching and working miracles, and even 
raising the dead to life. Innumerable conver- 
sions followed. In Japan, whither he next 
repaired, so marvellous was his Apostolate that 
it is reckoned that forty years afterwards there 
were no less than four hundred thousand 
Christians in the islands. He died A.D. 1552, 
when attempting to penetrate into China, on 
the Island of Sancian, near Macao. His body, 
brought back to Goa was, a century later, 
found to be incorrupt. Many miracles were 
wrought at his tomb, and he was canonised 
a.d. 1662. He has since been declared Patron 
of Catholic Missions. 

FRATERNUS (St.) Bp., M. (Sept. 29) 

(5th cent.) A Bishop of Auxerre in France, 
who succeeded (possibly after some interval) 
the famous St. Germanus in the latter half of 
the fifth century. The tradition is that he was 
martyred by the Barbarians, then overrunning 
Gaul, on the very day of his consecration. But 
there are grave doubts as to the proof of this 
alleged coincidence. 

♦FREDERICK (St.) Bp. (May 27) 

(12th cent.) A Bishop of Liege, distinguished 
for his zeal in repressing simony, and for the 
support he gave to the Church in her resistance 
to the usurpations of the German Emperors. 
After many sufferings in the Cause of God he 
passed away, A.d. 1172. 

(9th cent.) The grandson of Radbod, King 
of the Frisians and from his youth trained up 
in piety. In the year 820, chosen Bishop of 
Utrecht, he worked zealously to extirpate 
idolatry from Friesland. He reproved with 
Apostolic freedom Judith, the second wife of 
Louis the Debonnaire, and also the incestuous 
inhabitants of Walcheren, thereby d; rawing 

upon himself their enmity. After saying Mass 
he was stabbed to death in the Chanel of St. 
John the Baptist (July 18, a.d. 838), some 
say by the order of Judith, others by assassins 
hired "by the inhabitants of Walcheren. 

*FREMUND (St.) M. (May 11) 

(9th cent.) An Anglo-Saxon Hermit, pos- 
sibly of the Royal Family of Mercia, who seems 
to have been done to death by the Danish 
invaders of England, and to have thenceforward 
been honoured as a Martyr. His remains were 
enshrined at Dunstable. 

*FRICOR (ADRIAN) (St.) (April 1) 


(8th cent.) The daughter of Didan, Prince 
(Subregulus) of Oxford. From her childhood 
she took for her maxim : " Whatsoever is not 
God is nothing." On the death of her mother, 
Saprida, she assumed the Religious habit, and 
afterwards received the charge of the monastery 
of St. Mary at Oxford, built by her father. 
It is related of her that she was delivered by 
prayer from the criminal importunities of Algar, 
a Mercian Prince. St. Frideswide died before 
the end of the eighth century, and came to be 
honoured as the Patroness of the city and 
Universitv of Oxford. 

*FRIDIGAND (St.) Abbot. (July 17) 

(7th cent.) A fellow-missionary with St. 
Fcelan in the Netherlands, and Abbot of a 
monasterv founded by St. Willibrord. 

FRIDOLIN (St.) Abbot. (March 6) 

(7th cent.) An Irish Saint of noble descent 
who, protected by powerful rulers in France, 
founded monasteries in the East of that country, 
settling at last at Seckingen, near Basle in 
Switzerland, where he closed a long and useful 
life, and where many miracles were wrought 
at his tomb. It is reported that while at 
Poitiers he pointed out the till then unknown 
tomb of St. Hilary. He probably flourished 
in the seventh century, but there is much 
controversy on the subject. 

(St.) Bp. 

(6th cent.) Said to have been the son of 
a King of Ulster in Ireland. Travelling in 
Italy to improve himself in Ecclesiastical 
learning, on the death of Geminian, Bishop of 
Lucca, he was chosen to succeed him. He 
worked many miracles, and St. Gregory the 
Great said that by his prayers the impetuous 
flood of the River Anser (Serchio) was stopped. 
He died A.D. 578 (or, as some say, A.D. 589) ; 
and was buried near Lucca, where a church 
now stands bearing his name, and where his 
festival is kept on Nov. 18, the anniversary 
of one of the translations of his relics (either 
that of a.d. 782 or that of A.D. 1152). 

*FRITHBERT (St.) Bp. (Dec. 23) 

(8th cent.) The successor of St. Acca in the 

Bishopric of Hexham, which Church he ruled 

wisely and holily for thirty-four years until 

his death A.D. 766. 

*FRITHESTAN (St.) Bp. (Sept. 10) 

(10th cent.) A disciple of St. Grimbald, 
who, consecrated Bishop of Winchester by 
St. Plegmund, ruled that See with great profit 
to souls for twenty-three years and, as the 
time of his holy death (A.D. 933) drew near, 
designated St. Bristan as his successor. 

*FRODOBERT (St.) Abbot. (Jan. 8) 

(7th cent.) A humble monk of Luxeuil, 
distinguished for his simple-mindedness, who 
at length coming to be appreciated by his 
contemporaries, succeeded in founding a 
monastery of his own near Troyes, to which his 
fame of sanctity attracted numerous disciples. 

FROILAN (St.) Bp. (Oct. 5) 

(11th cent.) A Spanish monk of Lugo in 
Galicia, who was elected Bishop of Leon, 
A.D. 990, a Diocese which he ruled over with 
great profit to souls till his holy death (a.d. 
1006). The Roman Martyrology especially 




extols his zeal for the propagation of monastic 
life and his loving-kindness to the poor. His 
relics are venerated in the Cathedral at Leon. 

FRONTO (St.) Abbot. (April 14) 

(2nd cent.) A Solitary who with his disciples 
retired into the Desert of Nitria in Egypt. 
He died, it is said, towards the close of the 
second century of our era, a notable fact, as 
showing the Sub-Apostolic origin of the Ceno- 
bitic life. 

FRONTO (St.) M. (April 16) 


FRONTO and GEORGE (SS.) (Oct. 25) 

(1st cent.) The tradition is that Fronto, a 
Bishop, born in Lycaonia (Asia Minor) and 
baptised by St. Peter, was by the Apostles sent 
as a missionary into Gaul, with a priest, George. 
St. Fronto converted many of the inhabitants 
of Perigueux, of which city he became the 
first Bishop. He died before A.D. 100. 

FRUCTULUS (St.) M. (Feb. 18) 


FRUCTUOSA (St.) M. (Aug. 23) 



(SS.) MM. (Jan. 21) 

(3rd cent.) St. Fructuosus, Bishop of 
Tarragona, then the capital of Spain, was, 
during the persecution of Valerian and Gal- 
lienus, called upon to worship the gods. He 
replied that he worshipped none save the 
One True God, which same profession of Faith 
was made by his deacons, Augurius and Eulo- 
gius. The Martyrs were then fastened to 
wooden stakes and burned alive. When the 
fire had burned through their bonds they 
extended their arms in the form of a cross 
and thus expired (A.D. 259). St. Augustine 
has left us a Panegyric on St. Fructuosus. 

FRUCTUOSUS (St.) Bp. (April 16) 

(7th cent.) This renowned Spanish Saint 
was a prince of the Royal blood of the Visigoth 
kings, who on the death of his parents left the 
world which it had been long his desire to do, 
and, after first seeking instruction from the 
Bishop of Palentia, sold his patrimony and 
gave the greater part of the proceeds to the 
poor. With the remainder he built several 
monasteries, one especially at Complutum or 
Alcala, which grew into the great Abbey of 
Complutum. He was chosen Abbot, but after 
a time resigned his charge and sought the 
wilderness. At length he was recalled to be 
Bishop of Dunium, and A.D. 656 was appointed 
Archbishop of Braga. He died A.D. 665, having 
according to his own request been laid upon 
ashes before the Altar. 

FRUMENTIUS and ANOTHER (SS.) (March 23) 

*FULCRAN (St.) Bp. (Feb. 13) 

(11th cent.) A zealous Bishop of Lodeve, 
who ruled his Church for over half a century. 
He was remarkable for the severity of the 
penitential austerities he imposed upon himself. 
He died A.D. 1006. 

FRUMENTIUS (St.) Bp. (Oct. 27) 

(4th cent.) A Christian youth of the fourth 
century who making a voyage with his uncle, 
Meropeus of Tyre, was cast on the shore of 
Abyssinia. All on board were massacred by 
the savage inhabitants with the exception of 
himself and his brother. The King having 
taken a fancy to him, he was educated at the 
Court, and in time became the Treasurer of 
the kingdom. On the death of the monarch 
he was entrusted with the education of the 
Royal Princes, Aizan and Sazan. Wishing for 
the conversion of the kingdom, Frumentius 
asked the assistance of St. Athanasius, who 
gave him Holy Orders and Episcopal Con- 
secration and sent him back to Abyssinia, which 
he converted to Christianity with its King Aizan, 
thus meriting the title of Apostle of Ethiopia. 
The precise year of his death is unknown. 


*FUGATIUS and DAMIAN (SS.) (Jan. 3) 

(2nd cent.) These, otherwise written Pha- 
ganus and Derivianus, are the names given in 
the Roman Breviary to the missionaries sent 
to Britain at the request of King Lucius by 
Pope St. Eleutherius. They must have exer- 
cised their Apostolate chiefly in South Wales, 
where churches are dedicated in their honour. 
Glastonbury Abbey laid claim to the possession 
of their Sacred Relics. 

FULGENTIUS (St.) Bp. (Jan. 1) 

(6th cent.) A descendant of a noble sena- 
torial family of Carthage. Though already 
appointed Procurator of that Province, at an 
early age he left the world and entered a 
monastery, from which six years later he was 
driven out by the Arian heretics. He then 
repaired to Egypt, but finding that country 
in schism, set out for Rome. Thence, during 
the first lull in the persecution, he sought again 
his cell in Africa. Elected Bishop of Ruspa 
(A.D. 50S) he, with fifty-nine others, was 
banished by the Arian King Tlirasimund 
to Sardinia. Though the youngest of the 
exiles, he was their mouthpiece ; and by books 
and letters still extant confounded the Pelagian 
and Arian teachers and confirmed the Catholics 
of Africa and Gaul in their Faith. On Thrasi- 
mund's death the exiled Bishops returned to 
Africa and Fulgentius, after re-establishing 
discipline in his Diocese, retired to a monastery 
in the Island of Arcinia to prepare himself for 
death, passing away a year later, A.D. 533. 
He has left us several valuable Theological 

FULK (St.) (May 22) 

(7th cent.) One of the band of saintly 
English or British pilgrims who, under the 
leadership of St. Ardwine, probably about 
A.D. 600, journeyed to Italy. St. Fulk gave his 
life in the service of the plague-stricken at 
Santopadre or Castrofurli near Arpino in the 
South of Italy, and is venerated as the Patron 
Saint of the district. But the traditions con- 
cerning these holy men are very obscure. 

FULK (FOULQUES) (St.) Bp. (Oct, 26) 

(13th cent.) Born at Piacenza of Scottish 
parents (a.d. 1164), he was given a Canonry. 
Then, having studied at Paris, he became 
Archpriest and Bishop of Piacenza. Six years 
later he was by Honorius III translated to 
Pavia, which Diocese he governed for thirteen 
years, dying a.d. 1229, in odour of high sanctity. 

FURSEY (FURS^EUS) (St.) Abbot. (Jan. 16) 

(7th cent.) An Abbot of a monastery in the 
Diocese of Tuam, now Kill-Fursa (says Colgan), 
who afterwards travelled through England, 
and by the help of King Sigebert founded an 
Abbey, now called Burghcastle in Suffolk. 
Driven out of England by King Pen da of 
Mercia, he repaired to France, and through the 
generosity of Clovis II built the great mona- 
stery of Lagny, six leagues from Paris. At 
one period St. Fursey was deputed by the 
Bishop of Paris to govern his Diocese in quality 
of Vicar. He died a.d. 650, at Froheins in the 
Diocese of Amiens, and was buried at Peronne. 

FUSCA and MAURA (SS.) MM. (Feb. 13) 

(3rd cent.) The Christian virgin Fusca 
converted her nurse Maura, and they were both 
baptised by St. Ermolaus. As Fusca courage- 
ously resisted the entreaties of her parents to 
induce her to apostatise, her father resolved to 
put her to death ; but his design was frustrated. 
Later, during the Decian persecution (a.d. 250), 
the Judge Quintillianus had her and St. Maura 
tortured and executed at Ravenna, her birth- 
place. Her Relics were taken to Africa, but 
have since been brought back to Italy and are 
venerated in one of the islets near Venire. 

(SS.) MM. 

(3rd cent.) Fuscian and Victorious were two 
Apostolic men who according to one account 
preached the Gospel in Gaul with St. Denis of 



Paris. However that may be, they made 
Terouanne (St. Omer) the seat of their mission. 
At Amiens, where Bictius Varus was persecuting 
the Christians, they lodged with one Gentian, 
who was desirous of embracing the Faith of 
Christ. Soon after, they were arrested with 
their charitable host, and all three died for 
Christ about a.d. 287. Their bodies now lie 
in the Cathedral of Amiens, whither they were 
translated by St. Honoratus. 

FUSCULUS (St.) Bp., M. (Sept. 6) 


*FYLBY (WILLIAM) (Bl.) M. (May 30) 


*FYMBERT (St.) Bp. (Sept. 25) 

(7th cent.) A Bishop in the West of Scotland, 
said to have been consecrated by St. Gregory 
the Great, and who was remarkable for his 
courage and zeal in defending the poor and 

*FYNCANA and FYNDOCA (SS.) VV.MM. (Oct. 13) 
(Uncertain date.) Two holy Martyrs com- 
memorated on Oct. 13 in the Aberdeen Breviary, 
but of whom no trustworthy particulars have 
been handed down to us. 


(Sept. 29) 


GABINUS (St.) M. (Feb. 19) 

(3rd cent.) A Roman Christian, related to 
the Emperor Diocletian, brother of Pope St. 
Caius and father of the Martyr St. Susanna. 
Late in life he was ordained priest, and died 
in prison or by the sword a.d. 295 or a.d. 296, 
about the same time as his brother the Pope. 
(2nd cent.) These Christians, who perhaps 
were priests, were martyred under Hadrian 
A.D. 130 about, at Torres in Sardinia, where 
they had preached the Faith. The body of 
St. Gabinus is under one of the Altars at St. 
Peter's in Borne, transferred thither by Pope 
St. Gregorv III (A.D. 731-741). 
One of the three Angels (Michael, Gabriel, 
Baphael) in honour of whom Holy Church 
sets apart a festival day. St. Gabriel is men- 
tioned in the Book of Daniel (viii. 16 ; ix. 21), 
and was the Angel sent to Zachary to announce 
the birth of St. John the Baptist (Luke i. 11-19) ; 
but his chief ministry to mankind was his 
appearing to the Blessed Virgin to tell her that 
she was chosen Mother of the Messias (Luke i. 
26). His festival is not as yet universal in the 
Latin Church, though it is so among the Greeks. 

(St.) (May 31) 

(19th cent.) A Passionist Brother who, 

though only in his twenty-fourth year when 

called to his reward, had attained by heroic 

self-denial and humility and by a consuming 

devotion to Our Lord's Passion, to a high degree 

of sanctity. He died a.d. 1862, and was 

canonised by Pope Benedict XV. (A.D. 1920). 

*GABRIEL PERBOYRE (Bl.) M. (Nov. 7) 

(19th cent.) A Lazarist missionary to China, 

where, after three years of patient and zealous 

work for God, be was seized and put to death 

as a Christian, a.d. 1840, being then in the 

thirty-fourth year of his age. 

GAIUS (St.) 

Otherwise St. CAIUS, which see. 
GAL (GALLUS) (St.) Bp. (July 1) 

(6th cent.) Born of noble parents in Auver- 
gne (France) about a.d. 489, he entered a 
monastery ; but, ordained deacon by St. 
Quinctian, Bishop of Clermont, was sent to 
represent him at the Court of King Thierry. 
In the year 527 he succeeded St. Quinctian, 
and died at Clermont about a.d. 554. He was 
remarkable for his meekiu'ss and for his gift 

of working miracles. He was uncle to the 
famous historian St. Gregory of Tours, whom he 
brought up. 
GALATAS (St.) M. (April 19) 


(SS.) MM. (Nov. 5) 

(3rd cent.) Galation already a Christian, 
a native of Phenicia, converted his wife Epis- 
temis and baptised her during a persecution, 
after which each retired to a monastery ; but 
before long were called upon to confess the 
Faith at Emessa, their native town, some time 
in the third century. 
GALDINUS (St.) Bp. (April 18) 

(12th cent.) Born at Milan of a very noble 
family, St. Galdinus was well-educated, and 
after ordination made Chancellor and Arch- 
deacon of Milan. In a.d. 1162 the Emperor 
Frederic Barbarossa took that city, and all but 
razed it to the ground. Soon after this event 
Galdinus, though absent, was made Archbishop. 
He encouraged the Milanese to rebuild their 
city, and had the consolation of ministering 
successfully to the wants of the people both 
spiritually and temporally. On the last day 
of his life, although unable to say Mass, he 
mounted the pulpit and having preached a 
memorable sermon, calmly expired (a.d. 1176). 
GALGANUS (St.) (Dec. 3) 

(12th cent.) A hermit of simple and saintly 
life, who lived and died at Siena in Tuscany, 
passing from this world A.D. 1181 at the early 
age of thirtv. 
GALL (GALLUS) (St.) Abbot. (Oct. 16) 

(7th cent.) Born in Ireland about the 
middle of the sixth century and educated in 
the great monastery of Ben-Chor under the 
Abbots SS. Comgall and Columban, St. Gall 
was well versed in the Holy Scriptures. He 
accompanied St. Columban to England and 
France (a.d. 585), and assisted in the foundation 
of the Abbey of Luxeuil. Both St. Columban 
and St. Gall were banished by King Theodoric, 
and St. Gall, settling near Lake Constance in 
Switzerland, converted to Christianity the 
people of that territory. He was chosen Abbot 
of Luxeuil, A.D. 625, but would not accept the 
dignity, preferring his poor cell in Switzerland. 
He died A.D. 646. His Abbey, famous through 
the Middle Ages, has given its name to one of 
the Swiss Cantons. 
GALLA (St.) Widow. (Oct. 5) 

(6th cent.) Daughter of Symmachus the 
Younger, a learned Roman. From her child- 
hood she served God, and having lost her 
husband in early life, she, out of devotion to 
the Apostles, chose a small cottage on the 
Vatican Hill for her dwelling. She reduced 
her body by her austerities to a mere skeleton. 
Struck by her sanctity, St. Fulgentius of Spain 
wrote again and again to her. Afflicted with 
cancer in the breast, she bore her sufferings 
with incredible patience and resignation, and 
died in a.d. 550 or thereabouts. She is com- 
memorated by St. Gregory the Great, almost her 
contemporary, in his Dialogues. Devotion to 
her is still very popular in Rome. 
*GALLGO (St.) (Nov. 27) 

(6th cent.) A Welsh Saint, founder of 
Llanallgo in Anglesey. 
GALLICANUS (St.) M. (June 25) 

(4th cent.) A General in the army of Con- 
stantine who, having promised to become a 
Christian, should he be victorious, defeated the 
Scythians in the East. He attained to the 
Consulate at Rome, but, renouncing the world, 
soon retired to Ostia, where he founded a 
Hospital and ministered to the sick. Under 
Julian the Apostate he was banished to Egypt, 
and there suffered martyrdom a.d. 362. A 
church was erected at Alexandria over his 
tomb, and his Feast is still solemnly kept at 
Rome, where his memory is associated with 
that of the Martyrs SS. John and Paul. 




GALLUS (St.) Bp. (July 1) 

Othenvise St. GAL, which see. 
GALMIER (St.) (Feb. 27) 

Otherwise St. BALDOMERUS, which see. 
GAMALIEL (St.) (Aug. 3) 

(1st cent.) The famous Jewish Doctor of the 
Law (Rabban, Rabboni) at whose feet St. Paul 
was brought up (Acts xxii. 3), and whose wise 
counsel to the Sanhedrin (Acts v. 34-39) led 
to the Apostles being dismissed when the 
High Priest and Council " thought to put them 
to death." The tradition is that Gamaliel was 
converted to Christianity even before St. Paul, 
and that he buried St. Stephen in his own 
estate, he himself with St. Nicodemus sharing 
afterwards the tomb with the Proto-Martyr. 
Their remains were miraculously recovered in 
a.d. 415 ; and the Church commemorates 
liturgically the event on August 3. 
GANGULPHUS (St.) M. (May 11) 

(8th cent.) A holy layman of a rich and 
noble Burgundian family, distinguished by his 
gift of prayer and by his charitable zeal in the 
cause of the poor and oppressed. He was 
murdered a.d. 760, at the instigation of his 
wife's paramour. The circumstances of his 
death and the miracles wrought at his tomb 
appear to have led to his being honoured as a 
*GARBH (St.) V. (Jan. 1) 

Otherwise St. FANCHEA, which see. 

♦GARBHAN (St.) Abbot. (March 26) 

(7th cent.) The Irish Saint who appears to 

have left his name to Dungarvan. Nothing 

certain is known about him. 

♦GARDINER (GERMAN) (Bl.) M. (March 7) 

GARMIER (GERMIER) (St.) (Feb. 27) 

Otherwise St. BALDOMERUS, which see. 
GARMON (St.) Bp. (July 26) 

Otherwise St. GERMANTJS of AUXERRE, 
- which see. 
*GARNAT (St.) (Nov. 8) 

Otherwise St. GERVADIUS, which see. 

*GASPAR (CASPAR) (St.) (Jan. 6) 

(1st cent.) The name traditionally given 

to one of the Three Kings or " Wise Men from 

the East," who brought their offerings of gold, 

frankincense and myrrh to the Infant Saviour. 

Their shrine, formerly at Constantinople, and 

later at Milan, is now at Cologne. 

GASTON (St.) Bp. (Feb. 6) 

Otherwise St. VEDASTUS, which see. 
GATIEN (St.) Bp. (Dec. 18 

Otherwise St. GRATIAN, which see. 
(St.) Abbot. 

(12th cent.) An Abbot in the Limousin 
(France), fellow-worker with St. Stephen of 
Grandmount. He died a.d. 1130, and was 
the author of a reformed Rule for Canons 
GAUDENTIA and OTHERS (SS.) (Aug. 30) 


(Date unknown.) St. Gaudentia, a Roman 
maiden, is said to have suffered with three 
other Christians in one of the early persecutions ; 
but the more ancient Martyrologies do not rank 
her among the Martyrs. All dates and parti- 
culars concerning her have been lost. 
GAUDENTIUS of NOVARA (St.) Bp. (Jan. 22) 
(5th cent.) A priest of Ivrea near Turin, 
who, driven from that city, took refuge with 
St. Laurence, Bishop of Novara. Having 
attended St. Eusebius of Vercelli dining the 
latter's banishment, brought about by the 
Arians, St. Gaudentius became the successor 
of St. Laurence. In his twenty years of 
Episcopate, he converted many sinners, built 
several churches and reformed his clergy. He 
passed away about a.d. 418. 
GAUDENTIUS of VERONA (St.) Bp. (Feb. 12) 
(5th cent.) A holy Bishop of Verona in 
North Italy, who flourished in the middle of 
the fifth century, and who appears to have 

attended Pope St. Hilary's Council of Rome 
(a.d. 465), but about whom no particulars are 
extant. His relics are venerated at Verona 
in the ancient Basilica of St. Stephen. 


(4th cent.) St. Gaudentius, a Bishop, and 
St. Culmatius, his deacon, are stated by the 
Roman Martyrology to have been murdered 
by Pagans at Arezzo in Tuscany in the time 
of the Emperor Valentinian I (a.d. 364). 
With them suffered Andrew, a layman with 
his wife and children, and other Cliristians 
to the number of fifty-three. 

GAUDENTIUS of RIMINI (St.) Bp., M. (Oct. 14) 
(4th cent.) An Asiatic born at Ephesus, who 
came to Rome about A.D. 308, and embraced 
the Ecclesiastical state. He was ordained 
priest a.d. 332. Fourteen years later he 
became Bishop of Rimini, and suffered with 
the other Catholic prelates from the Arians, 
who dominated the famous Council of a.d. 357. 
In fine, he was done to death by these enemies 
of the Faith (a.d. 359 or A.D. 360). 

GAUDENTIUS of BRESCIA (St.) Bp. (Oct. 25) 
(5th cent.) Educated by St. Philastrius, 
Bishop of Brescia, whom he styles his father, 
St. Gaudentius entered a monastery in Csesarea 
of Cappadocia, in order to shun the honours 
and applause of the world. He early distin- 
guished himself for piety and learning. On 
the death of Philastrius, as the people of 
Brescia sought Gaudentius for their Bishop 
and would have no other, he was forced to 
return home under pain of excommunication, 
and was consecrated Bishop of Brescia, a.d. 387. 
His people showed themselves devoted to him, 
and he obtained great gain of souls by his 
sermons, some of which are still extant. In 
A.d. 405, sent to the East to defend the cause 
of St. Chrysostom, he was imprisoned in 
Thrace. He died a.d. 420 or shortly after. 

GAUDIOSUS of BRESCIA (St.) Bp. (March 7) 
(5th cent.) The thirteenth or fifteenth 
Bishop of Brescia in Lombardy, where his 
relics are venerated. The particulars of his 
life are lost, and even the century in which he 
flourished is uncertain. But a.d. 445 is often 
given as the year of his holy death. 

GAUDIOSUS of SALERNO (St.) Bp. (Oct. 26) 

(7th cent.) A holy Bishop who appears to 
have occupied the See of Salerno near Naples 
in the middle of the seventh century, and 
whose relics are now venerated at Naples. 
The particulars of his life are lost. 

(5th cent.) A Bishop of Abitina, one among 
those banished by the Arian Vandal, King 
Genseric, a.d. 440. He took refuge at Naples, 
where he built a monastery and crowned a 
zealous life by a holy death soon after the 
middle of the century. The ancient mosaic 
inscription on his tomb lauding his virtues, 
was still legible in the time of Baronius (end of 
sixteenth century). 

GAUGERICUS (GAU, GERY) (St.) Bp. (Aug. 11) 
(7th cent.) Born in the Diocese of Treves, he 
was ordained priest by the Bishop of that city, 
and later made fourth Bishop of Cambrai, 
which See he ruled with great gain of souls 
for thirty-nine years, dying A.D. 622. 

GEDEON (GIDEON) (St.) (Sept. 1) 

(14th cent. B.C.) The Judge of Israel 
(Judges vi.-viii.), commemorated with Josue 
in the Catholic Church on Sept. 1, on which 
day he is also venerated by the Greeks. The 
Copts keep his Feast on Dec. 16 ; and the 
Armenians on the second Saturday of August. 

*GELASINUS (St.) M. (Aug. 26) 

(3rd cent.) A comedian at Heliopolis in 
Phenicia, who, having to mimic the ceremony of 
Christian Baptism as an incident in a play on 
the public stage, was miraculously converted 
to Christianity, declared aloud his belief, and 
was thereupon stoned to death by the mob 



(A.D. 297). There are other examples (the 
best known being those of St. Genesius and 
St. Telemachus of Rome) of the same strange 
way of coming to Christ. Butler quotes the 
historian Theodoret on the matter. 
GELASIUS (St.) M. (Feb. 4) 


(St.; Bp. 

(12th cent.) An Abbot of the Columbian 
monastery of Derry. He was consecrated 
Archbishop of Armagh, A.D. 1137. With St. 
Malachy O'Morghair, he held a Synod in the 
church of Holin Patrick, at which fifteen 
Bishops and two hundred priests were present. 
He was the first Irish Bishop privileged to 
wear the Pallium. In A.d. 1162 he consecrated 
St. Laurence O'Toole, Archbishop of Dublin. 
He died March 27, A.D. 1174. 
GELASIUS (St.) Pope. (Nov. 21) 

(5th cent.) Roman-born but of African de- 
scent, St. Gelasius succeeded St. Felix III in 
the Chair of St. Peter (A.D. 492). He corrected 
and in the end converted Euphemius, Bishop of 
Constantinople, a favourer of the Eutychian 
heretics and vigorously asserted the rights 
of the Holy See. He abolished the heathen 
festival of the Lupercalia, and otherwise 
repressed evil living. He was a very learned 
man, and the Roman Liturgy owes much 
to him. The famous Sacramentary which 
goes under his name contains much that is 
really due to his talent and research ; and 
he may be said to have finally fixed the Canon 
or Order of Books of Holy Scripture. He 
repressed the Manichaeans by compelling the 
laity to receive Holy Communion under both 
kinds, made other useful disciplinary laws, 
and has left us valuable writings. He died 
Nov. 21, A.D. 496. 
GELASIUS (St.) M. (Dec. 23) 

GEMELLUS (St.) M. (Dec. 10) 

(4th cent.) A Christian put to the torture 
and crucified at Ancyra in Galatia (Asia Minor) 
under Julian the Apostate, a.d. 362. 
*GEMMA (St). V.M. (June 20) 

(Date unknown.) The Christian daughter 
of a Pagan nobleman in Saintonge (France), 
who was so severely beaten by her own father 
for refusing to marry a Pagan that she died 
of the injuries received in the prison to which 
she had been consigned. 
GEMINIAN of MODENA (St.) Bp. (Jan. 31) 

(4th cent.) A Bishop of Modena, friend of 
St. Ambrose of Milan and of St. Severus 
of Ravenna, who took part in the Council of 
Milan, a.d. 390. — Another St. Geminian, a 
Bishop (probably also of Modena), about sixty 
years later, worked with St. Leo the Great to 
bring about the Council of Chalcedon, and is 
said to have saved his people from the fury of 
Attila the Hun. 
GEMINIANUS (St.) M. (Sept. 16) 

GEMINUS (St.) M. (Jan. 4) 


SIUS, Ac. 
♦GENEBALD of LAON (St.) Bp. (Sept. 5) 

(6th cent.) A Bishop of Laon related to 
St. Remigius. For a fp.ult committed he is 
said by his biographers to have performed 
a seven years' continuous penance. He died 
about A.D. 555. 
*GENEBRARD (St.) M. (Mav 15) 

Otherwise St. GEREBERN, which see. 
GENERALIS (St.) M. (Sept. 14) 

GENEROSA (St.) M. (July 17) 

One of the SCILLITAN MART YES, which 
GENEROSUS (St.) M. (July 17) 

(Date unknown.) His Relics are enshrined 

under the High Altar of Tivoli Cathedral ; but 
nothing whatever is known of his life or of the 
date and circumstances of his martyrdom. 

*GENESIUS (St.) Bp. (June 3) 

(7th cent.) A Bishop of Clermont in Auver- 
gne, the master and predecessor of St. Prix. 
St. Genesius (locally known as St. Genes) was 
a prelate of austere piety and wholly devoted 
to his flock. He died about a.d. 662 in the 
seventh year of his Episcopate. 

GENESIUS of ARLES St.) M. (Aug. 25) 

(4th cent.) A Notary of Aries in Southern 
Gaul, who, having refused to put on record 
the Imperial Edicts of persecution, and declared 
that he himself believed in Christ, was seized 
and beheaded under Maximian Herculeus in the 
beginning of the fourth century, thus receiving 
the Baptism, not of water, but of blood. 

GENESIUS of ROME (St.) M. (Aug. 25) 

(3rd cent.) A comedian at Rome who, 
while mimicking the Christian ceremony of 
Baptism, was miraculously converted and 
thereupon put to the torture and beheaded, 
some time in Diocletian's reign (a.d. 284- 
A.D. 305). 

GENESIUS (St.) M. (Oct. 11) 



(5th cent.) Born at Nanterre near Paris 
(A.d. 422), and, when only seven years old, 
blessed in a special manner by St. Germanus 
of Auxerre, who foretold her sanctity and the 
vow of virginity by which she would bind 
herself. At fifteen she received the veil of the 
Spouses of Christ, and thenceforth led a life 
of penance, bearing with heroic patience the 
calumnies and persecutions which became her 
lot. She greatly helped the Parisians during 
the siege of their city by the Franks. Later, 
she again saved it from destruction, as, through 
her prayers, Attila the Hun suddenly changed 
his devastating course through Gaul and 
turned aside his army, while still south of Paris. 
St. Genevieve died a.d. 512. Her relics were 
at once venerated ; and to a church in which 
she was buried her name was given. She is 
honoured as Patron Saint of Paris. Her relics 
were burned during the great Revolution at 
the end of the eighteenth century, and her 
stately church has now been turned into the 
so-called Pantheon. 

GENGULPHUS (St.) M. (May 11) 

Otherwise St. GANGULPHUS, which see. 

GENNADIUS (St.) M. (May 16) 


*GENNADIUS (St.) Bp. (May 25) 

(11th cent.) A Benedictine Bishop of Astorga 
in Spain, which See he resigned to return and 
prepare for death in his monastery. 

GENNARO (St.) M. (Sept. 19) 

Otherwise St. JANUARIUS, which see. 

GENNYS (GENEWYS) (St.) Bp. (July 26) 

Otherwise St. GERM ANUS of AUXERRE, 
which see. 

*GENOCHUS (St.) (April 18) 


GENOVEFA (St.) V. (Jan. 3) 

Otherwise St. GENEVIEVE, which see. 

GENTIAN (St.) M. (Dec. 11) 


GENUINUS (St.) Bp. (Feb. 5) 

(7th cent.) A Bishop of the small town of 
Sabion (which has since disappeared) near 
Brixen in the Tyrol. He had been some time 
a partisan of the heresy known as that of the 
Three Chapters ; but after his conversion, 
atoned by the sanctity of his life for his former 
errors. His shrine is at Brixen, whither his 
relics were translated about a.d. 1000. With 
him is commemorated on Feb. 5 St. Albinus, 
a holy successor of his in the See of Brixen, 
who flourished in the eleventh century. 

GENULPH (St.) Bp. (June 17) 

Otherwise St. GUNDULPH, which see. 




♦GEOFFREY (GODFREY) (St.) Abbot. (Aug. 24) 

Otherwise St. AGOFRIDUS, which see. 
♦GEOFFREY (St.) Abbot. (Sept. 25) 

The Norman form of the Saxon name, CEOL- 
FRID, which see. 
GEOFFRY (St.) Bp. (Nov. 8) 

Otherwise St. GODFREY, which see. 
GEORGE of ANTIOCH (St.) Bp., M. (April 19) 

(9th cent.) A zealous Bishop of Antioch in 
Pisidia (Asia Minor), previously a monk, one 
of the Fathers of the Second Council of Nicaea 
(a.d. 787), and a strenuous champion of the 
Faith against the Iconoclasts. Banished by 
the Emperor Leo V the Armenian, he died in 
exile a.d. 814, and is honoured as a Saint by 
Greeks and Latins alike. 
GEORGE THE MARTYR (St.) (April 23) 

(4th cent.) St. George, whom the Greeks 
style " the great Martyr," though honoured 
alike in the East and in the West, is one of 
those Saints of whom we know least. He was 
an officer in the army of Diocletian, the persecu- 
ting Emperor, and for refusing to sacrifice was 
tortured and beheaded at Nicomedia, a town 
of Asia Minor on an inlet of the Sea of Marmora 
(a.d. 303). Some say that St. George was the 
young Christian who, as Eusebius relates, tore 
down the Imperial edict of persecution. But 
of this there is no proof. St. George is usually 
represented on horseback vanquishing a dragon. 
This is merely symbolic of the Martyr's victory 
over the devil ; and in the East is not an 
unusual emblem of Christian sanctity. The 
popular legend of St. George and the Dragon 
is of course fabulous. Equally baseless are the 
now discredited assertions once common among 
Non-Catholics, that St. George is a myth ; that 
he is the heretic George of Cappadocia, 
murdered at Alexandria, &c, &c. The 
Crusaders gave great impetus to Western 
devotion to St. George, though venerated 
in the West long before. From about the 
thirteenth century, he came to be regarded 
as Patron of England, partially displacing St. 
Edward the Confessor. 

LILIOSA (SS.) MM. (July 27) 

(9th cent.) Martyrs who suffered at Cordova 
in Spain under the Caliph Abderrahman II 
(a.d. 852 about). Felix and Aurelius, with 
their wives, Natalia and Liliosa, were Spaniards ; 
but the deacon, George, was a monk from 
Palestine, who, though offered acquittal as a 
foreigner, preferred to throw in his lot with the 
others. Surius and other authors put the 
Feast of these Martyrs a month later (Aug. 27). 
The bodies of SS. George and Aurelius were 
later translated to the Abbey church of St. 
Germain at Paris. 
GEORGE LIMNIOTES (St.) M. (Aug. 24) 

(8th cent.) A holy hermit of Mount Olympus 
in Asia Minor, who had reached the age (it is 
said) of ninety-five, when, on account of his 
zealous opposition to the Iconoclasts, he 
suffered death, or, as others have it, was only 
maimed by the orders of the Emperor, Leo the 
Isaurian (a.d. 730 about). 
GEORGE and AURELIUS (SS.) MM. (Oct. 20) 


The Translation of two among these Martyrs 
is celebrated on Oct. 20. 
GEORGE of PERIGUEUX (St.) (Oct. 25) 

GEORGE of VIENNE (St.) Bp. (Nov. 2) 

(8th cent.) A Bishop of Vienne In France, 
who flourished probably at the beginning of 
the eighth century, though some put Nov. 2, 
a.d. G99 as the date of his death. He was 
canonised a.d. 1251. 
GEORGIA (St.) V. (Feb. 15) 

(5th cent.) A holy virgin who led a retired 
and austere life near Clermont in Auvergne 
(France) towards a.d. 500. Her sanctity was 
attested by many miracles. It is said that a 
flight of white doves coming no one knew 


whence, attended her body to its tomb, and 
long hovered over her resting-place. 

♦GERALD (St.) Abbot. (March 10) 

(8th cent.) One of the English monks who 
accompanied St. Colman on his retirement 
(A.D. 664) from Northumbria to Ireland, on 
occasion of the dispute about the date of 
Easter. In Mayo, St. Colman placed St. 
Gerald at the head of the English House founded 
by him, which is said to have been the nursery 
of over one hundred Saints, a.d. 732 is given 
as the year of St. Gerald's death, at a very 
advanced age. 

♦GERALD (St.) Abbot. (April 5) 

(11th cent.) An Abbot of Seauve near 
Bordeaux, who died a.d. 1095, and was canon- 
ised in the following century. 

♦GERALD of AURILLAC (St.) (Oct. 13) 

(10th cent.) A Count of Aurillac, who led a 
life of great virtue and practised in the world 
the penitential exercises of the cloister. He 
denied himself every comfort in order to relieve 
the distress of the poor. He was scrupulously 
just and at the same time most considerate in 
his dealings with his numerous vassals. He 
died a.d. 909, and many miracles attested his 

♦GERALD of BEZIERS (St.) Bp. (Nov. 5) 

(12th cent.) This Saint (called by the 
French St. Guiraud) was a Canon Regular, who 
became Bishop of Beziers in the South of 
France. He spent all his revenues in relieving 
the distress of the poor of his Diocese. He died 
A.d. 1123. 

GERARD of TOUL (St.) Bp. (April 23) 

(10th cent.) A native of Cologne who, in 
his youth, having seen his own mother struck 
dead by lightning, embraced a life of penance. 
Made Bishop of Toul (a.d. 963), he rebuilt his 
Cathedral and otherwise benefited his Diocese. 
A learned man himself, he gathered Greek and 
other scholars around him. He died a.d. 994, 
in the odour of sanctity, and was canonised 
by Pope St. Leo IX, who had been one of his 
successors in the See of Toul. 

♦GERARD (St.) (April 28) 

(Probably 7th cent.) An English pilgrim, a 
companion of St. Ardwine. He died at Galli- 
naro in the South of Italy while on the pilgrim- 
age to Palestine, and is there liturgically hon- 
oured as a Saint and Patron of the district. 
The century in which he flourished is a matter 
of controversy. 

GERARD of HUNGARY (St.) Bp., M. (Sept. 24) 
(11th cent.) A Benedictine monk of Venice, 
invited to Hungary by St. Stephen, First 
Christian King of that country. St. Gerard 
became one of its Apostles. Made Bishop of 
Chunad, he converted two-thirds of the popula- 
tion to Christianity. In the disorders which 
followed on the death of St. Stephen, he was 
set upon by the Pagans and cruelly done to 
death (a.d. 1046). His relics were afterwards 
translated to Venice, where they are now 

GERARD (St.) Abbot. (Oct. 3) 

(10th cent.) An Official of noble birth at 
the Court of the Prince-Counts of Namur, who 
relinquished prospects of high advancement 
in the world to become a simple monk at 
St. Denis near Paris. Sent back after five years 
to Namur, he spent the rest of his life in reform- 
ing the discipline of the Flemish monasteries, 
eighteen of which received his Rule. Having 
obtained the Papal approbation of his Reform, 
he passed to his reward A.D. 959. 

GERARD MAJELLA (St.) (Oct. 16) 

(18th cent.) A Redemptorist Saint, born 
A.D. 1725, in the South of Italy, who to the 
customary vows of the Religious life added that 
of ever doing that which was most perfect. 
His life of prayer and humble obedience drew 
down to him marvellous supernatural graces. 
He worked many miracles in his life, and they 
have been multiplied since his holy death 



(a.d. 1755). He is now the object of much 
popular devotion throughout the world. 
GERARD of POTENZA (St.) Bp. (Oct. 30) 

(12th cent.) Born at Piacenza, he was 
enrolled among the clergy of Potenza in the 
South of Italy, and, on account of his virtues, 
elected Bishop of that city, although already 
advanced in age. He died in the ninth year 
of his Episcopate (a.d. 1119). Several miracles 
having borne witness to his sanctity, Pope 
Callistus II canonised him a few years later. 
♦GERARD (Bl.) (June 13) 

(12th cent.) A Cistercian monk, the brother 
of St. Bernard of Clairvaux. The sermon of 
the latter on the occasion of Gerard's holy death 
is one of the most touchingly beautiful pieces 
of Mediaeval Prose literature we possess 
(a.d. 1138). 
GERASIMUS (St.) (March 5) 

(5th cent.) A monk at first in Lycia (Asia 
Minor) and afterwards in Palestine, where, in a 
monastery which he had founded on the banks 
of the Jordan, in the neighbourhood of Jericho, 
he trained numerous disciples. He died a.d. 
475. In his youth, for some time a follower of 
the heretic Eutychcs, he for all the rest of his 
life did severe penance for his fault. 
♦GEREBERN (GEREBRAND) (St.) M. (May 15) 

(7th cent.) St. Gerebern or Gerebrand was 
the Irish priest who accompanied St. Dympna 
in her flight to Belgium, and who was privileged 
to share with her her crown of Martyrdom at 
Gheel in that country. They suffered some 
time in the seventh century, but the records are 
very imperfect. St. Gerebern is Patron Saint 
of a village in Rhenish Prussia, where his relics 
are enshrined. 
GEREMARUS (St.) Abbot. (Sept. 24) 

(7th cent.) Born A.D. 608, of rich and noble 
parents, the Merovingian King Dagobert I 
made him (with his friends Eloi and Ouen) 
Royal Councillors. By his saintly wife, Domana, 
he had three children, of whom the youngest, 
Amalberga, is honoured as a Saint. When free 
to do so, he entered a monastery, and later 
became its Abbot ; but, after an attempt on 
his life, he retired for five years to a hermit's 
cell. Finally, he founded another monastery 
near Beauvais, and a few years afterwards died 
a holy death as Abbot of the same (a.d. 658). 
GEREON and OTHERS (SS.) MM. (Oct. 10) 

(3rd cent.) These heroic Christians, three 
hundred and nineteen in number, appear to 
have formed part of the famous Theban Legion, 
massacred by order of the Emperor Maximian 
(a.d. 286). St. Gereon would therefore be the 
officer in command of the detachment. St. 
Hanno of Cologne discovered and enshrined 
their remains in the eleventh century. 
GERINUS (St.) M. (Oct. 2) 

(7th cent.) The brother of St. Leger (Leo- 
degarius) and, like him, persecuted by Ebroin, 
Mayor of the Palace to the Merovingian " roi 
faineant," Thierry III. Stoned to death near 
Arras (a.d. 676), he was honoured by the 
people as a Saint and a Martyr. 
♦GERLACH (St.) (Jan. 5) 

(12th cent.) A holy hermit in great venera- 
tion at Liege and Aix-la-Chapelle. He lived a 
life of singular austerity and seclusion, but did 
wonders for the winning of souls to God and 
was much esteemed and honoured by the 
Popes of his time. He died a.d. 1170. 
♦GERMAN GARDINER (Bl.) M. (March 7) 

(16th cent.) Of German (Jermyn) Gardiner, 
Secretary of the Bishops of Winchester, it is 
not known whether he was a priest or a layman. 
He won the Crown of Martyrdom about a.d. 
GERM ANA (St.) M. (Jan. 19) 


(St.) V. 

(17th cent.) A poor girl, daughter of a 
farm labourer in the neighbourhood of Toulouse 

(South of France), who passed her short and 
innocent life in minding sheep and other out-of- 
door rural work. Both from ill-health and from 
ill-treatment at the hands of a stepmother, her 
days passed in suffering patiently borne, com- 
forted only by Almighty God, who privileged 
her by close union with Himself in high prayer, 
until He called her to a better life, a.d. 1601, 
when she had entered on the twenty-second 
year of her age. Forty years after her death 
her body was found incorrupt. Many miracles 
witnessed to her sanctity, and she was canonised 
by Pope Pius IX (A.D. 1862). 
GERMANICUS (St.) M. (jan. 19) 

(2nd cent.) A Christian of Smyrna in Asia 
Minor who suffered a.d. 168, at the same time 
as St. Polycarp under the Emperor Marcus 
Aurelius. The celebrated Letter of the con- 
temporary Christians of Smyrna to those of 
Philadelphia makes special mention of Ger- 
manicus, who was thrown to the wild beasts 
in the Amphitheatre at the Public Games. 
GERMANUS (St.) M. (May 2) 

♦GERMANUS (St.) Bp. M. (May 2) 

(5th cent.) Described in his ancient Life 
as " Scotus." It is not unlikely therefore that 
he was of Irish origin. His conversion to 
Christianity is attributed to St. Germanus of 
Auxerre, who visited Britain in the fifth century, 
and whose name he took. Passing into Gaul, 
he did much Apostolic work, and in the end 
was put to death for the Faith in Normandy, 
about A.D. 460. 

(St.) Bp. 

(8th cent.) The son of a famous Senator, 
from being Bishop of Cyzicus he was raised to 
the Patriarchate of Constantinople (a.d. 715). 
With undaunted courage he resisted the 
Monothelites and the Iconoclasts, even refusing 
to publish the Imperial Edict (a.d. 725), by 
which the honouring of Holy Pictures was 
interdicted. In consequence, he was banished, 
and died in exile (a.d. 733). 
GERMANUS of PARIS (St.) Bp. (May 28) 

(6th cent.) Born near Autun (a.d. 496), he 
was there ordained priest, and became Abbot of 
a monastery. Happening to be in Paris when 
the See was vacant, he was elected (a.d. 554) 
Bishop of that city. On account of his charity 
styled the " Father of the Poor," he by his 
zeal and example wrought a wonderful change 
in the morals of the people, converting even the 
careless King Childebert to the living of a 
Christian life. The latter founded the mona- 
stery of St. Vincent (now known as S. Germain 
des Prte), in which he was buried (a.d. 561), 
and after him (a.d. 576) the holy Bishop, his 
truest friend, to whose sanctity many miracles 
have borne witness. St. Germanus' account 
of the Gallican Rite is liturgically of great value. 
GERMANUS (St.) M. (Julv 7) 

♦GERMANUS and RANDOALD (SS.) MM. (Feb. 21) 

(7th cent.) St. Germanus was a citizen of 
Treves and disciple of St. Arnulph of Metz. 
He became a monk of Luxeuil under the Irish 
Rule of St. Columbanus ; and later was ap- 
pointed Abbot of a monastery in Switzerland. 
In his struggles with the neighbouring Barons, 
undertaken in order to save the villagers of the 
district from spoliation and murder, he was 
put to death by the marauding soldiery about 
a.d. 666. A fellow-monk, by name Randaut 
or Randoald, shared with him the crown of 
GERMANUS of AUXERRE (St.) Bp. (July 31) 

(5th cent.) Born at Auxerre, about A.D. 378, 
of noble parents, he studied Civil Law in Rome, 
married a lady of rank equal to his own, and by 
the Emperor Honorius, was made Governor 
{Dux) of his native Province. From a.d. 418, 
his manner of life, up to then far from edifying, 
underwent a complete change. He received 




priest's orders, and very soon became "Rishop 
of Auxerre, which Diocese he governed with 
wonderful gain to souls for thirty years. His 
successful mission with St. Lupus of Troyes, 
to Britain against the Pelagians, has made him 
famous there, where several churches have 
been dedicated to him. It was then that he 
led the islanders to their famous Alleluia victory 
over the Saxons. Later, he again visited 
Britain, and is said to have ordained the great 
Welsh Saints, Dubritius and Illtyd. Engaged 
in an errand of mercy to the Court of the Era- 
perer Valentinian III, he died at Ravenna in 
Italy (July 31, a.d. 448). His body at his 
dying request was brought back to Auxerre. 
His remains were destroyed during the French 
Revolution. Among the striking miracles he 
wrought, his raising up from the dead the son 
of Volusian, Secretary to Sigisvult the Patrician, 
is the most famous. 
GERMANUS (St.) Bp. M. (Sept. 6) 

GERMANUS of BESANCON (St.) Bp., M. (Oct. 11) 

(4th cent.) The successor of St. Desideratus 
in the See of Besancjon. Particulars of his life 
have been lost, but it appears certain that he 
met his death at the hands of heretics (probably 
Allans) about the end of the fourth century. 
GERMANUS (St.) M. (Oct. 23) 

GERMANUS of CAPUA (St.) Bp. (Oct. 30) 

(6th cent.) The Legate to Constantinople 
(a.d. 519) of Pope St. Hormisdas, charged to 
deal with one of the Schisms, the outcome 
of the Eutychian heresy. A man of saintly 
life, he governed for more than twenty years 
the important See of Capua and died Oct. 30, 
a.d. 540 about, St. Benedict at Monte Cassino, 
being at the instant it occurred favoured by a 
vision of the glorious passing of the Saint to a 
better world. 

VITALIS (SS.) MM. (Nov. 3) 

(3rd cent.) Martyrs of Csesarea in Cappa- 
docia (Asia Minor) during the Decian persecu- 
tion (A.D. 250). 
GERMANUS (St.) M. (Nov. 13) 


(4th cent.) Under the title of the " Innu- 
merable Martyrs," Holy Church commemorates 
a multitude of Christians, done to death at 
Treves in Germany, in the persecution under 
Diocletian and Maximian Herculeus, towards 
the close of the third century, Rictius Varus 
being at the time Prefect of the Gauls. 

(4th cent.) Three hundred and sixty Chris- 
tian soldiers, put to death as Christians, outside 
the walls of Cologne, in the persecution under 
Diocletian and Maximian, about A.D. 303. 
*GERMOC (St.) (June 24) 

(6th cent.) An Irish chieftain, brother of St. 

Breaca, who settled in Cornwall, near Mount's 

Bay. Outside St. Germoc's church, a stone 

called St. Germoc's Chair may still be seen. 

*GEROLD (St.) Hermit. (April 19) 

(10th cent.) A member of the Ducal House 
of Saxony who embraced the life of a Solitary 
in the Tyrol and attained to high sanctity. 
His grave is still a place of pilgrimage, and his 
memory is especially honoured in the Abbey 
Church of Einsiedeln in Switzerland. 
GERONTIUS (St.) M. (Jan. 19) 

GERONTIUS (St.) Bp., M. (May 9) 

(6th cent.) A Bishop of Cervia, near Ravenna, 
who attended a Synod held in Rome by Pope 
Symmachus (a.d. 501) and who was attacked 
and murdered on his return journey, at Cagli 
on the Flaminian Way, under circumstances 
which led to his being honoured as a Martyr. 

King, M. (Aug. 10) 

(6th cent.) Son of Erbin, and King of 


Damnonia (Devon). He fell in battle against 
the Saxons (a.d. 508). Much romantic legend 
has been woven about his life and that of his 
wife, Enid. Another St. Gerontius, King of 
Cornwall, died A.D. 596. St. Gerrans in Corn- 
wall and St. Geran in Brittany have the one 
or the other for Patron Saint. 

♦GERTRUDE of HAMAGE (St.) Widow. (Dec. 6) 
(7th cent.) The widow of a nobleman in the 
present Belgium, who retired into a solitary 
place in order to live the life of an Anchoress ; 
but soon found herself at the head of a numerous 
community of nuns who had gathered round 
her. She died about A.D. 655. 

GERTRUDE of NIVELLES (St.) V. (March 17) 
(7th cent.) The daughter of Pepin of 
Landen, Mayor of the Palace to King Clotaire II 
and to two of his successors. When only 
twenty-one years old, Gertrude was placed at 
the head of the Abbey of Nivelles, in which her 
own mother, Itta, its foundress thenceforth 
lived as her daughter's subject. St. Gertrude 
was distinguished for her care of the poor and 
for culture of mind remarkable in that age, 
though far from uncommon in the monasteries 
of the time. She is said to have known nearly 
the whole Bible by heart. In art, she is usually 
depicted so absorbed in contemplation that a 
mouse quietly climbs up the Pastoral Staff at 
her side. She passed the three last years of her 
life almost entirely in exercises of devotion and 
penance, falling asleep in Christ some time 
between a.d. 659 and a.d. 664, at the early age 
of thirty-three. 

GERTRUDE (St.) V. (Nov. 17) 

(14th cent.) The holy nun of singular learn- 
ing and endued with high gifts of mystic prayer, 
who has left us the " Insinuationes Divinse Pieta- 
tis," a work comparable to the writings of 
St. Teresa, and enriched with sublime imagery. 
Tradition assigns Eisleben in Saxony as her 
birthplace, and makes her Abbess successively 
of Rudersdorff and of Heldelfs. But modern 
research distinguishes the Abbess St. Gertrude 
from her contemporary the mystic Saint of the 
same name, a nun in the monastery of the 
former. They flourished in the latter half of 
the thirteenth century, and Nov. 17, A.D. 1334, 
is assigned as the date of the death of the sur- 
vivor. That St. Mechtildis, another celebrated 
mystic writer, was sister of either St. Gertrude 
is also now controverted. The Church keeps 
the Feast of St. Gertrude on Nov. 15, though 
in certain Kalendars it is found noted on 
April 12 or Nov. 12. The confusing together 
of two or more Saints of the same name has 
evidently led to this discrepancy. The works 
of SS. Gertrude and Mechtelde, edited by the 
Benedictines of Solesmes, may be usefully 

*GERULPH (St.) M. (Sept. 21) 

(8th cent.) A youth in Flanders, heir to a 
great estate and distinguished for the holiness 
of his life, who on his way back from the church 
where he had received the Sacrament of Con- 
firmation was treacherously murdered by a 
relative in hopes of succeeding to his inheritance. 
St. Gerulph died (about a.d. 746) pardoning his 
murderer, and is venerated as a Martyr at 

GERUNTIUS of MILAN (St.) Bp. (May 5) 

(5th cent.) The successor at Milan in the 
fifth century of St. Eusebius. He appears to 
have governed the Diocese for about five years, 
dying a.d. 470, though no reliable account 
of his Episcopate has reached us. St. Charles 
Borromeo enshrined his Relics in the church 
of St. Svmphorian in the city of Milan. 

GERUNTIUS (St.) Bp., M. (Aug. 25) 

(1st cent.) A Missionary in Spain in the 

Apostolic Age, reckoned as Bishop of Talco 

(Seville). A special Hymn in the old Mozarabic 

Breviary commemorates him. 

(10th cent.) An Irish Saint, who crossed over 



to Moray and afterwards retired as a recluse to 
near Elgin. 

GERVASE and PROTASE (SS.) MM. (June 19) 
(1st cent.) Two brothers, sons of the 
Martyr, St. Vitalis, were Christian heroes who 
have ever been held in high honour in the 
Western Church. St. Ambrose styled them the 
Proto-Martyrs of Milan, where they suffered 
in the first century of our era, either under 
Nero or under Domitian. Many miracles 
illustrated the discovery and Translation of 
their relics by St. Ambrose, towards the close 
of the fourth century. They now repose at 
Milan in the Ambrosian Basilica. 

GERY (St.) Bp. (Aug. 11) 

Otherwise St. GAUGERICUS, which see. 


PRIMITIVUS (SS.) MM. (June 10) 

(2nd cent.) Roman Martyrs who suffered 
under Hadrian (a.d. 117-138). They were 
scourged and tied to the stake to be burned 
alive. But miraculously spared by the flames, 
they were in fine clubbed to death. St. Getulius 
is said to have been a man distinguished both by 
birth and by learning. 

♦GIBRIAN (St.) (May 8) 

(5th and 6th cent.) An Irish Saint who, with 
his five brothers and three sisters, crossed over 
to France and led a life of penance and con- 
templation near Chfilons-sur-Marne. His relics 
were enshrined in Rheims Cathedral, many 
miracles worked both during his life and after 
his death attesting his great sanctity. 

GILBERT (St.) (Feb. 4) 

(12th cent.) Born at Sempringham in 
Lincolnshire and ordained priest by the Bishop 
of Lincoln, he became Parish Priest of his 
native village, distributing yearly to the poor 
the revenues of his benefice. He founded a 
convent of nuns and afterwards an Order of 
men, which he himself joined, the Rule having 
been approved by Pope Eugene III. He lived 
the life of penance and zeal he had thus professed 
till his holy death (Feb. 3, 1190), having, it is 
said, reached the age of one hundred and six 
years. He was canonised a.d. 1202. His 
Order, once widespread in England, has been 
long extinct. 

♦GILBERT (St.) Bp. (April 1) 

(13th cent.) For twenty years Bishop of 
Caithness, of which Diocese he built the Cathe- 
dral. He was a zealous Pastor of souls, and 
also a valued servant of the Scottish Kings of 
his time. He died a.d. 1240. Many miracles 
are recorded of him. 

♦GILBERT of HEXHAM (St.) Bp. (Sept. 7) 


♦GILBERT (St.) Bp. (Oct. 2) 

Otherwise St. TILBERT, which see. 

GILDARD (GODARD) (St.) Bp. (June 18) 

(6th cent.) A Bishop of Rouen, once errone- 
ously supposed to have been the brother of 
St. Medard of Soissons. He assisted at the 
Council of Orleans (a.d. 511), and governed his 
own Church with great zeal for about fifteen 
years, dying probably early in the same century. 
Buried at Rouen, his remains were afterwards 
removed to Soissons. 

♦GILDAS THE ELDER (St.) (Jan. 29) 

(6th cent.) He appears to have been associ- 
ated with St. Cadoc at Llancarvan and to have 
afterwards lived as a hermit in an island off 
the South coast of Wales. Glastonbury Abbey 
claimed to have been the scene of his death, 
and to have possessed his relics. He is often 
confused with his namesake, the more famous 
Gildas the Wise. 

♦GILBERT of AUVERGNE (St.) (June 6) 

(12th cent.) A Saint of the Order of Prae- 
monstratensians or Norbertine Canons. He 
founded the Abbey of Neuffontaines, where he 
died a.d. 1152. In his early life he had fought 
as a Crusader in Palestine. 

GILDAS THE WISE (St.) (Jan. 29) 

(6th cent.) Often called BADONICUS, 

because born in the year the Britons defeated 
the Saxons at Bath. He was brought up with 
SS. Samson, Paul de Leon, and other holy men, 
by the famous St. Illtyd. He crossed over 
into Brittany and there wrote the works on The 
Ruin of his Fatherland, which have perpetuated 
his memory in the British Isles. He established 
in Brittany the monastery of Rhuys, but appears 
to have passed the last years of his life (which 
ended about a.d. 570) in a hermitage. He is 
liturgicallv honoured throughout Brittany. 

GILES (/EGIDIUS) (St.) (Sept. 1) 

(7th cent.) Said to have been by birth a 
Greek. He passed his life as a hermit in the 
South of France. The many miracles he 
wrought made him famous in the West of 
Europe, as is evidenced by popular devotion 
and by the many churches which bear his name. 
He died early in the eighth century. Butler 
notes the very common confusing of this 
St. Giles with another Saint of the same name 
who was Abbot near Aries about two hundred 
vears earlier. 

(7th cent.) A Bishop (or possibly only an 
Abbot) in Hannonia (Belgium), who flourished 
in the seventh century, and, being himself by 
birth a Greek, introduced into the monastery 
he founded the Oriental Rule of St. Basil. 
He died a.d. 681, leaving his name to the town 
which rose up round his monastery. 

♦GISLAIN (St.) (Aug. 6) 

(12th cent.) A holy hermit in Luxemburg, 
much venerated in Belgium. 

♦GISTILIAN (St.) (March 4) 

(6th cent.) The uncle of St. David and a 
monk of the present Menevia or St. David's, 
to which place the monastery was transferred 
from its old site in the Roman Settlement now 
obliterated in the sands of Whitsand Bay. 

♦GLADYS (St.) Widow. (March 29) 

(5th cent.) A Welsh Saint, daughter of the 
famous Brychan of Brecknock, wife of St. 
Gundleus, and mother of St. Cadoc. 

GLAPHYRA (St.) V. (Jan. 13) 

(4th cent.) A Christian maiden in the 
service of Constantia, wife of the Emperor 
Licinius, who, to escape the unlawful attentions 
of her master, fled to the Bishop of the place 
(St. Basil of Amasea in Pontus), was pursued, 
captured and sentenced to death. Some say 
that the sentence was executed, others that she 
again escaped and passed away in peace, about 
A.D. 324. 

♦GLASTIANUS (St.) Bp. (Jan. 28) 

(9th cent.) The Patron Saint of Kinglassie 
in Fife. As mediator between the Picts and 
Scots, he did much to. alleviate the lot of the 
former when subjugated by their enemies. 
He died A.D. 830. 

♦GLEB (St.) (July 24) 


♦GLODESIND (St.) V. (July 25) 

(7th cent.) A French Saint of Merovingian 
times. Betrothed to a young noble, her 
promised husband was arrested on their wedding 
day and afterwards condemned and executed. 
Glodesind took refuge in the cloister, and died 
Abbess of a convent at Metz (a.d. 608) in great 
fame of sanctity. 

♦GLUNSHALAICH (St.) (June 3) 

(7th cent.) A famous Irish penitent, con- 
verted by St. Kevin and buried in the same 
grave with him at Glendalough. 

♦GLUVIAS (GLYWYS) (St.) (May 2) 

(6th cent.) A brother of St. Cadoc of 

Llancarvan, and possibly sent by him into 

Cornwall, where he made a monastic foundation. 

A parish in Cornwall perpetuates his name. 

GLYCERIA (St.) V.M. (May 13) 

(2nd cent.) A Roman by birth, this Christian 
maiden, who was living with her father at 
Trajanopolis in Greece, suffered there for the 
Faith, being thrown to the wild beasts in the 
Amphitheatre, after enduring many cruel 




torments. The date of her martyrdom, under 
one of the Antonines, probably Marcus Aurelius, 
in the last half of the second century, cannot 
precisely be fixed. A magnificent church was 
dedicated to her at Heraclea of Thessaly, 

GLYCERIUS (St.) M. (Dec. 21) 

(4th cent.) A priest of Nicomedia in Asia 

Minor, who in the persecution under Diocletian, 

after bravely enduring the torture, bore witness 

to the Faith at the stake, A.D. 303. 

*GLYWYS (St.) (May 2) 

Otherwise St. GLUVIAS, which see. 

GOAR (St.) (July 6) 

(6th cent.) Born in Aquitaine in France and 
there ordained priest, St. Goar embraced the 
life of a hermit, at a spot on the banks of the 
Rhine, which still bears his name. His life 
was austere, and he was accustomed after his 
Mass to recite daily the whole Psalter. His 
cell became during his lifetime the resort of 
numberless pilgrims. Many wonderful things 
are related of him. One among them is to the 
effect that the tongue of a baby of three days 
old bore witness to his innocence when falsely 
accused before his Bishop. He died a.d. 575, 
and in memory of him Charlemagne built a 
stately church over his humble grave. 

♦GOBAN (St.) M. (June 30) 

(7th cent.) A fellow-missionary with St. 
Fursey, whom he accompanied to England and 
afterwards to France. He in the end retired 
to a hermitage on the River Oise, and there 
met his death at the hands of heathen 

TT1 JIT* A.11 (\ PT*S 

*GOBAN (GOBHNENA) (St.) (May 23) 

(6th and 7th cent.) Supposed to be the 
Goban mentioned in the Life of St. Laserian 
as governing the monastery of Old-Leighlin, 
from which seeking greater retirement, he 
betook himself to Tascafnn, a solitude in the 
present countv of Limerick. 

*GOBNATA (GOBNET) (St.) V. (Feb. 11) 

(6th cent, probably.) St. Abban is said to 

have founded a convent in Ballyvourney 

(Cork), and to have placed St. Gobnet over it 

as Abbess. A well still exists there called* 

*GOBRIAN (St.) Bp. (Nov. 16) 

(8th cent.) A Breton monk who became 

Bishop of Vannes, and at the age of eighty-seven 

resigned his See to retire to a hermit's cell, 

where he died a.d. 725. 

GODARD (St.) Bp. (June 8) 

Otherwise St. GILDARDTJS, which see. 

Bp. (May 4) 

(11th cent.) Born in Bavaria and highly 
cultured, he forsook the world to become a 
monk in the Abbey of Altaich. Successively 
Prior and Abbot, he was finally compelled, in 
spite of his reluctance, to accept the Bishopric 
of Hildesheim (Hanover). He was zealous in 
promoting Ecclesiastical discipline, and in the 
cause of the education of the young. In the 
interests of the poor he built a hospital, and 
otherwise lavished care on them. He died a 
holy death (A.D. 1038) in the nineteenth year 
of his Episcopate, and was canonised by Pope 
Innocent II (a.d. 1131). 
GODFREY (GEOFFREY) (St.) Bp. (Nov. 8) 

(12th cent.) Born A.D. 1066, he was offered 
by his parents, when yet only five years old, 
to the monastery of St. Quentin. He became a 
model monk, and as such was elected Abbot of 
Nogent, and later, much against his will, 
Bishop of Amiens. Comforter and helper of 
all in distress, he was distinguished throughout 
his life for his meekness and patience. His 
wish to retire among the Carthusians was 
frustrated by the entreaties of his Archbishop, 
clergy and people. He fell asleep in Christ at 
Soissons, a.d. 1115, in the fiftieth year of his 
age and the thirteenth of his Episcopate. 
*GODLIVA (St.) M. (July 6) 

(11th cent.) A holy woman in Flanders who, 

after enduring much cruel treatment at the 
hands of her inhuman husband, was at length 
(a.d. 1070) murdered by him. She has ever 
since been venerated in Belgium, and especially 
at Ghent, as a Martyr. 

*GODRIC (St.) Hermit. (May 21) 

(12th cent.) A native of Norfolk, who, 
after having passed some years in trade, resolved 
upon embracing a higher life. He made several 
pilgrimages, and finally settled in a hermitage 
in the neighbourhood of Durham. Almighty 
God favoured him with the power of working 
miracles and with other supernatural gifts. 
He died a.d. 1170, and is the Title Saint of 
many churches. 

*GOEZNOVEUS (St.) Bp. (Oct. 25) 

(7th cent.) A Cornish Saint, brother of 

St. Maughan, who passing over into Brittany, 

became Bishop of Leon. A.D. 675 is given 

as the date of his death. 

*GOFOR (St.) (May 9) 

(Date unknown.) A Welsh Saint, Patron of 
Llano ver in Monmouthshire. 

*GOLLEN (COLAN, COLLEN) (St.) (May 21) 

(7th cent, probably). The Saint who has 
given his name to Llangollen in Denbighshire. 
There are legendary Lives connecting him with 
Wales, Rome and Glastonbury ; but nothing 
is known for certain about him, though from 
the Dedication of a church to him in Brittany 
it may be conjectured that he resided for some 
time in that country. 

*GOLVINUS (GOLWEN) (St.) Bp. (July 9) 

(7th cent, probably.) A Breton Saint but of 
British origin, whose fame for sanctity led to his 
appointment as Bishop of St. Paul de Leon. 
After a useful pastorate he passed away at 
Rennes where his relics were enslirined. 

*GOMER (St.) (Oct. 11) 

Otherwise St. GUMMARUS, which see. 

*GONERI (St.) (July 18) 

(6th cent.) An exile from Great Britain to 
Brittany, where he led a holy life as a hermit 
near Treguier. 

♦GONSALVO (St.) (Jan. 10) 

(13th cent.) A Portuguese priest of eminent 
sanctity, who, after suffering much for justice's 
sake, entered the Dominican Order, and of 
whom many miracles are related. He died 
about A.D. 1259. 

GONTRAM (GUNTRAMNUS) King. (March 28) 
(6th cent.) A grandson of Clovis and of 
St. Clotilde. He became King of Orleans 
in the partition of the Frankish monarchy and 
governed his people in justice and mercy, going 
so far as to pardon two of his would-be assassins. 
His sin in divorcing his wife and over-hastily 
ordering the execution of his physician, like 
David, he wept over till the day of his death, 
which happened A.D. 593, when he was in his 
sixty-ninth year. Beloved by his subjects, he 
was at once by them acclaimed as a Saint. 
Miracles as well in life as after death are attri- 
buted to him. 

GOOD THIEF (THE) (March 25) 

(1st cent.) Our Lord's words on the 
Cross promising him Paradise have entitled 
the Good Thief to be registered among the 
Saints honoured by the Catholic Church. 
Apochryphal Gospels and other ancient writings 
assign to him the name of DISMAS, and give 
various details concerning him. But we have 
nothing in any way historical to allege. His 
Feast, though kept on various days, is put in 
the Roman Martyrology. as by the Greeks, on 
March 25, from an old belief that Our Lord's 
Crucifixion, and therefore the Good Thief's 
confession, fell on that day in the year of the 

*GORAN (WORANUS) (St.) (April 7) 

(6th cent.) Several Cornish churches are 
dedicated in honour of this Saint, a contem- 
porary and friend of St. Petrock. 

(16th cent.) Nineteen Catholics of holy life 



cruelly put to death (A.d. 1572) by the Pro- 
testants at Gorcum, near Dordrecht in Holland. 
Ten of them were Franciscan Friars, two 
Pre-monstratensiaDS, one a Dominican, one a 
Canon Regular, four Secular priests, and one 
a layman. The savagery of the Dutch Cal- 
vinists is notorious ; but one is appalled in 
reading the tortures, physical and moral, to 
which these nineteen Martyrs were subjected, 
before being hanged, the one charge against 
them being that they were faithful Catholics. 
They were canonised by Pope Pius IX (a.d. 

GORDIAN (St.) M. (May 10) 

(4th cent.) A Roman judge, who being still 
a Pagan, undertook to carry out the persecuting 
Edict of the Emperor Julian the Apostate. 
Converted at length himself to Christianity by 
witnessing the fortitude of the Martyrs, he was 
baptised with his wife, Maxima, and fifty-two 
of his household retainers. Arrested and tried 
in his turn, he was beheaded, after torture, in 
Rome, A.D. 362. His relics, with those of 
St. Epimachus of Alexandria (who suffered 
under Decius a.d. 250), are now venerated at 
Kempten in Bavaria. St. Epimachus is again 
honoured with a St. Alexander on Dec. 12. 

GORDIAN (St.) M. (Sept. 17) 


GORDIUS (St.) M. (Jan. 3) 

(4th cent.) A Christian soldier of Csesarea 
in Cappadocia, who in the time of the Emperor 
Licinius, with other Christians, was dismissed 
from the army and thereupon retired into a 
solitude. Later, returning to the city, he, 
moved by his zeal in the cause of Christ, 
addressed the crowd, seeking to make converts. 
He was seized and, after trial, beheaded in 
some year between a.d. 314 and a.d. 320. An 
eloquent Panegyric preached by St. Basil, in 
which he reminds his hearers that some among 
them had seen St. Gordius die, has perpetuated 
his memory. 

GORGONIA (St.) (Dec. 9) 

(4th cent.) A holy woman, sister of St. 
Gregory N azianzen who has left us a Panegyric 
dwelling upon the eminence in virtue and holi- 
ness of his dead sister. Before her death 
(A.D. 375, about), she saw her husband, children 
and grandchildren, received into the Church 
by the Sacrament of Baptism. Her own aged 
parents seem to have survived her. 


(SS.) MM. (March 11) 

(3rd cent.) Some say that these holy 
Confessors suffered at Nicaea in Bithynia ; 
others at Antioch in Syria ; but nothing precise 
is known about them, save that they were 
victims of one of the third century persecutions. 

GORGONIUS (St.) M. (Sept. 9) 


*GORMGALL (St.) Abbot. (Aug. 5) 

(11th cent.) An Irish Saint, head of the 
monastery of Ardoilen and famous as a spiritual 
guide. He died A.d. 1016. 

*GOTHARD (St.) (Feb. 25) 

(Date uncertain.) A holy hermit, whose cell 

was situated high up in the Alps, and who has 

left his name to the neighbouring Mons Adulas, 

now the St. Gothard. 

GOTHARD (St.) Bp. (May 4) 

Otherwise St. GODARD, which see. 

♦GOTTESCHALK (St.) M. (June 7) 

(11th cent.) The son of the chief of one of 
the Sclavonic tribes who distinguished himself 
greatly in battle, and becoming a Christian 
. devoted himself to the spreading of the Faith 
among the heathens on the shores of the Baltic. 
He was murdered in a church by the Pagans, 
A.D. 1066. 

♦GOTTFRIED (GODFREY) (Bl.) (Jan. 15) 

(12th cent.) A Premonstratensian Canon, 

disciple and trusted friend of St. Norbert, 

Founder of the Order. He was remarkable for 

the austere sanctity of his life, and his devoted 

service of all in suffering or distress. He died 
A.D. 1127 ; and his relics were enshrined at 
*GOWAN (GOV AN, GOVEN, COFEN) (St.) (Dec. 28) 

(5th cent.) The wife of King Tewdrig of 

Glamorgan. The parish of Llangoven takes its 

name from her ; and a chapel in Pembrokeshire 

is likewise dedicated in her honour. 

*GRACE and PROBUS (SS.) (July 5) 

(Date unknown.) Two Cornish Saints, it is 

said, husband and wife ; but nothing is now 

known about them. They are Patron Saints of 

the Parish of Tresilian. 


(SS.) MM. 

(4th cent.) Gracilianus, a Christian of 
Faleria, an old Tuscan town, since destroyed, 
suffered in the great persecution in the first 
years of the fourth century. It is related how, 
whilst in prison, a widow brought to him her 
blind daughter, Felicissima, to whom he 
miraculously restored her sight and gave Holy 
Baptism. Gracilianus and his convert were 
beheaded on the same day. 
GRATA (St.) Widow. (May 1) 

(4th cent.) A holy woman of Bergamo in the 
North of Italy who, having had the consolation 
of bringing to the true Faith her husband and 
her parents, after the death of the former, 
devoted herself to the doing of good works. 
She was especially zealous in securing Christian 
burial for the bodies of the Martyrs. She passed 
away Aug. 27, a.d. 305. 

GRATIAN (GATIEN) (St.) Bp. (Dec. 18) 

(Date uncertain.) The first Bishop of Tours 
in France. The tradition was that he was a 
disciple of the Apostles, sent by them to France 
in the first century of our era. But Baronius 
and the moderns post-date his mission to the 
time of Pope St. Fabian, in the middle of the 
third century. In one of the troubled years of 
his Episcopate he is said for a time to have lain 
concealed in a cave on the banks of the Loire, 
&t a spot where later rose the great Abbey of 
Marmoutier. His relics were destroyed in 
1793, during the French Revolution. 
GRATUS (St.) M. (Dec.5) 

*GREDIFAEL (St.) (Nov. 13) 

(7th cent.) A Breton or Welsh Saint who 
accompanied St. Padarn from Brittany to 
Wales. He is said to have been Abbot of 
Whitland in Pembrokeshire. 

*GREEN (THOMAS) (Bl.) M. (May 4) 

♦GREENWOOD (WILLIAM) (Bl.) M. (May 4) 

GREGORY of LANGRES (St.) Bp. (Jan. 4) 

(6th cent.) A principal citizen of Autun, 
who, having lost his wife, became a priest, and 
ultimately Bishop of Langres (North-East of 
France). He converted many of the inhabitants 
of the surrounding villages who were as yet 
heathens, and drew a still greater number of 
lax Christians to the leading of a better life. 
He died a.d. 541, in the thirty-third year 
of his Episcopate, and was succeeded by his 
own son, Tetricus. 
GREGORY X (St.) Pope. (Jan. 10) 

(13th cent.) One of the Visconti, an illus- 
trious Italian family, and born at Piacenza. 
Theobald, the future Pope Gregory X, had 
given himself up to a life of study when he was 
appointed Archdeacon of Liege (Belgium), 
and charged with the preaching of the last 
Crusade. In the Holy Land, whither he had 
betaken himself, he received (a.d. 1271) the 
news of his election to the Papacy. The five 
years of his Pontificate were made memorable 
by the celebration of the great Oecumenical 
Council of Lyons, attended by over five hundred 
Bishops. A solemn, though unhappily not 
lasting, Union of the Greek and Latin Churches 




was there effected. The holy Pontiff died 
Feb. 16, A.D. 1276, at Arezzo in Tuscany, on 
his way back to Rome. 

GREGORY II (St.) Pope. (Feb. 13) 

(8th cent.) Roman-born and educated at 
the Papal Court, St. Gregory II became a 
Benedictine monk, and was made Librarian or 
Archivist of the Roman Church. He succeeded 
Pope Constantine (a.d. 715) and, during his 
Pontificate of sixteen years, initiated the 
conversion of Germany, by despatching thither 
as missionaries SS. Boniface and Corbinian. 
He boldly opposed the outbreak of Iconoclasm 
under Leo the Isaurian, and successfully 
resisted the aggression of King Luitprand and 
his Lombards, restoring likewise many churches 
and monasteries (among them the Abbey of 
Monte Cassino) destroyed by these Barbarians. 
St. Gregory frustrated several attempts of the 
Eastern Emperor to seize or even murder him, 
and passed away in peace, Feb. 10, a.d. 731. 
He was (writes Anastasius Bibliothecarius) 
" a man, pure in life, learned in Holy Scripture, 
eloquent of speech, and of resolute will." 

GREGORY of NYSSA (St.) Bp. (March 9) 

(4th cent.) The brother of St. Basil the 
Great. Having received a good education and 
married a virtuous lady, he afterwards renounced 
the world and went to assist his holy brother 
and to be later consecrated Bishop of Nyssa 
in Cappadocia (A.D. 372). Banished by the 
intrigues of the Arian faction, he was restored 
to his See in 378, and died at Nyssa some time 
between A.D. 395 and a.d. 400. St. Gregory 
was one of the most prominent of the Fathers 
who attended the Second General Council, 
that of Constantinople (a.d. 381). His copious 
writings are remarkable for eloquence of diction, 
and are most valuable on account of the powerful 
and accurate exposition of Orthodox doctrine 
they embodv. 


Doctor of the Church. (March 12) 

(7th cent.) The most commanding figure 
in the world history of his age. Born in Rome 
(a.d. 540) of patrician parents (the Senator 
Gordian and St. Sylvia), and a collateral 
descendant of Pope St. Felix (whether II, III, 
or IV, is uncertain), he was early in life made 
Praetor or Governor of Rome by the Emperor 
Justin II. Relinquishing, however, his pros- 
pects of a brilliant future in the world, he 
retired to the monastery into which he had 
converted his family mansion on the Ccelian 
Hill (San Gregorio). But Pope Benedict I soon 
appointed him his Apocrisiarius or Legate to 
Constantinople, where he remained for seven 
years. At the death of Pope Pelagius (a.d. 
590), Gregory, after vainly trying by flight to 
avoid the dignity, was elected his successor. 
During his thirteen years of Pontificate, his 
untiring energy (despite continuous ill-health) 
enabled him to accomplish a very thorough 
Reform of Church discipline, both among the 
Secular clergy and in Religious Houses. His 
work in Liturgy and Church music has proved 
lasting. He dealt successfully with the yet 
existing debris of the old heresies, as is proved 
by his voluminous correspondence with Spain, 
Gaul, Ireland, and with the Eastern Patri- 
archates. He strenuously upheld the rights of 
the Roman See against the pretens